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Archive for the ‘2009 Unique Sarawak Postal’ Category

THE RARE MALAYA COINS FOUND IN POSNTIANAK WEST BORNEO
TUC-travelling Uniwue Collections
KISAH PERJALANAN Dr IWAN S DI PONTIANAK KALBAR
@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

A. Dr Iwan S Travelling Pontianak Rare Malaya coins.
1.In January 1990, I was graduate Master Hospital Administration, and I went back to West Sumatra to report the Education graduated, and waiting for the new job from the Headquaters, but not long in May I have the Radiogram of my new job as the chief of West Borneo Medical and Healt Department of WEst Borneo National Police.
I am starting to collect the information about that area , but very difficult , because not many information about that area, and in two weeks the former chief of Medical and Healt WEst Borno have phoned me, he asked me to came more fast because the cheif of West Borneo National Police will changed soon, if I donnot fast came , I must waiting log until the new chief came. I know the former chief didnot like his Job because he didnot bring the family there because no good school there for his children and his wife have an Aphothecry, she didnot want to leave, I have will the same ,my wife and my two son still in their education in Java, I will work alone in west Borneo, but I like there because my uniquecollections will foun there.
2.In August 1990 I went to Pontinak by flight without any informrmations, but in the flight a young man who stayed in Pontionsk help me because he know many Pontinak Police Medical Docter, he help me to Pontiank from the airport about one hours, because too late in the night, I stayed in a Hotel near my office, I cannot contck the former chiel of Police Medical Department there because that time difficult comunnication and no HP that time.
Tomorrow I phone the West Borneo Police headquaters, and after new the phone of the Police Policlinic at Pontianak, the former chief bring me to stayed at Hotel because no Official House he stayed at tje Official guest house and I will used the same after he back to Java for his new job as the chief of Police Kediri Hospital.
I sayed in my job at POntianak for four years, I will write the interesting story and info during my job at west Borneo.

II. Ineterstin Info from West Borneo

III. Rare Malaya Coins Found In WEst Borneo
1. North Borneo near mint Coins


2. East India Compay Coins


3. India Straits coins



3. Strrait Settlement coins
4.North Borneo
5. Sarawak

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Dayaks Mandau original or fake

East Borneo Mandau 1888

Fig h-l Handles Type

Fig e-g Pamor Mata type

Fig a-d Blades type

Dayaks Mandau Book

THE VINTAGE DAYAKS MANDAU BOOK ILLSUTRATION 1888
(Tromp SW,Assisten Resident of Koetei, Schmeltz JDE,Band I ,Ethanographie,Leiden,1888,ex Libris J.Jonge Jan)
UCM-uniquecollection.wordpress.com CyberMuseum collection.@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.
(this info dedicated to Dr Sugeng,Pontianak, ex my officer during my duty at West Borneo 1990-1994, he now have finish Medical Specialization Orthopaedy, and the chief of West Borneo National police Medical Hospital. During my last visit at Borneo in 2008, Dr Sugeng and his chief Dr Priok were helping me to seeking the uniquecollections, and made My Adventure from Pontianak-Kuching-Miri-Brunei Bandar Sri benagwan-Labuan-Kotatkinibalu were succeess ,also with the helping of Mr Chan kee Text-Sarawak, and many other friend along the very happy adventure,all about that I have written in Sarawak and related countries Collections
Dr Sugeng , Dr Priok and mr Chan Kee text thank you very much for friendly helping during my last visit Borneo, and Do you have the original Mandau collections? please show us via comment-Dr iwan suwandy.)
1.The information about Mandau,the special Dayaks waepons, from the West and south Borne have been written, that is why I (Mr Tromp) must written the mandau in my area Koetai.
The mandau of Koetai were from the nothern area ,Berouw. In Koetai , there were two types of Mandau,:
(1). The light and small mandau from Dayaks at Toendjoeng, Bentia, and Benoewa( Southern Dayaks)
(2).The bigger mandau from Dayaks at Modang , Bahau, kenja,Penhing and Poenan (central Dajaks in the Koetai Aboveland-Benedenlanden van Koetai).

2.The original Mandau was used by the Dayaks commander of Chief-Si Ramboet Kawat . The best mandau in Koetei were made at the native Kenja-fabric by Poh-Kedjin, locatated at vthe mountain at central Borneo near Kajan-river, the price was fbetween 10-12 Guldens, for the best quality was 50 Guldens.

3. The Illustration of Koetai -Mandau

(1) The type of Mandau Blade
(fig a) Monong
(Fig b) Logna
(Fig.c) Lidjip
(Fig d) Li-po-tong

(No information of the sarung mandau, please compare with my two original Mandau were found at Pontianak, and the other one at Jakarta,may be from East Borneo, pleae the mandau collectors send more info via comment. Be careful and compare with this original information of the Dayaks Mandau, because many fake and new repro Mandau exist now-Dr Iwan S.)

(2) The Type of Mandau Pamor(mata)
(fig e)Mata djoh
(fig f)Mata kalong
(fig g) Tap-set-sien

(3) The Type of handle(So-op)
(fig h) So-op Kenhong
(fig i ) So-op kombeh
(fig J) unknown named
(fig k) So-op goanliklik
(fig l) So-op njong pendjoh.

(I hope the Mandau Collectors send us new information about the original Mandau illustration, and My West Borneo Mandau original or fake ,please send your info via comment,thanks very much )
Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

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4.1 HISTORIC BACGROUND
Anthony Brooke , the son of Betram Brooke, with tittle Raja Muda Sarawak, have knowed that The Brithis Empire will asked to have more power in Sarawak after the war.
Due to that situation he have prepared to handle the problem , he prepare the new law to serve the Rajah and Colonial Office.
When he announce by the king as the chief of Sarawak state dele-gations in the conference with the British Colonial Office in 1945.
The Colonial office officer want the foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 have been done, transfere the sarawak state to British Crown colony and change the Brooke power to be same as the Malaya State King and join the Mac Michael agreement “ Malaya Union”.
In January 1944, British Empire to occupied North Borneo and asked Sarawak to made a new agreement to give the British empire the power to make new laws and system like in Malaya state.
In July 1945 the change of power from Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke to “yang Dipertua Negeri” like Malaya state.
On 11th Septemr 1945, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formalsurrender of the japanese soldiers.
Military rule did not come to end end until April 15th 1946, when civil government was oncemore restored to the country.
The administration was then handed back to the Rajah , who had arrived a few days before with his wife.
The scene in Kuching was one of enthusiastic rejoicing and many thought it strange that a man, who had already decided to abandon his country ,could still command so much devotion.
The British Empire want the Borneo army under British Army, and after the Japanese Army surender there were the meeting between Brithis Empire Official with sarawak state official.
IN 28th February 1945, Anthony Brooke write a letter to the secretary of British Colonial that he and his friend was announce by the Rajah as the vice of Sarawak’s people in the meeting with them.
The British Colonial Office didn’t accepted the Anthony proposal, and they write a letter to Rajah the Anthony delegation cann’t had the responbility .
Rajah Vyner Brooke at least take the responbility of Sarawak State in nhis own hand, and fire Anthony Brooke.
In 1945 Rajah Vyner Brooke told the British Colonial secretary that he will give Sarawak to the King of Britain.
In 6th February 1946, GTM Mac Bryan as the secretary of British Colonial have came to Sarawak and have a meeting with the Sarawak’s People Council about The Sarawak treasure in England one million Poundsterning.
As the Father’s Will, Vyner Brooke must consultation with Tuan Muda about the Sarawak Kingdom after heard from Radio BCC about the Brithish Colonial proposal about Sarawak.
In 27th March 1946, two delegation from England Capt. Gammans and Lt.Colonel Rees-Williams came to sarawak to research the sarawak people actions to the law of Rajah give the power to British Empire as Colony State.
MacBryant report that the Malayu and Chinese people of Sarawak agree to the Rajah proposal to give Sarawak to the King of Britain, many Malayu adn Chinese leader didn’t agree.
The secret was opened that Datuk Patinggi of Madjlis Mesyuarat Tertinggi have recieved 12.000 poundsterling from Mac Bryan as the “Hadiah” , and Datuk Menteri, Datuk Hakim and datuk Amat also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , and Datuk Pahlawan also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , Mac Bryan also give 2000 poundsterning to Tuan Haji Nawawi who be “Saksi” the sign of Letter “”Wang yang saya terima dari Mac Bryan telah saya serahkan kepada pihak Pasukan Pentadbir Hal Ehwal Awam British Borneo kerana saya pondang wang itu sebagai Suap”
Datuk Patinggi also give 12.000 Poundsterling to “Pihak Pentadbiran British “ with “Surat Keterangan”.
The People of Sarawak think that the step of “Penyerahan” Sarawak was excellent and Tuan Muda have agreed .
The Poeple think that the situation didn’t have change, they still have the Raja , but this only the title without the power. The Vyner Brooke Stamps still used but with BMA and crown overprint, at least in 1949 all Brooke Stamps were punch hole and used as Revenue.
The King Face were punch hole, the people didn’t understand they think they still have the Rajah Brooke.
In 1948 the first sarawak colonial stamps were printed due to commemoration of Royal Silver Wedding, and the last colonial stamps issued in 1961.
The last day of British colonial Internal Administration in Sarawak 39th August 1963 and is conjuction to comm, the United nation team visited Limbang on the same day to Asseses the people view on joining malaysia.
In September 1963 , Sarawak joint the Malaysia, and have confrontation with Indonesia and North Borneo United State.
Brunei held its first election in 1962, which was won by Party Rakyat Brunei (Brunei People’s party) . Unfortunetly , the Party was manipulated by leaders who formed the illegal North Kalimantan National army (PARAKU= Pasukan Rakyat Kalimantan Utara), and staged a rebellion to overthrown the Govern-ment , The revolt was speedily crush-ed at the cost of many lives.
Sabah Chinesebhave bmuch closer linkwith China than the Chinese of Sarawak, who look more toward Singapore.
Politrical development in the Borneo territories is only a few years old, and when it began ,spurred by Indonesia, more recently by malaya’s independence and Singapore’s self goverment, more recently still by the idea of Great Malaysia, it was organized along multiu-racial lines, but this dinot last, and parties today largely represent racial group.
Sarawak is the most politically advanced of the three territories. The largest party, formed in 1959, is the Sarawak United People’s party, took control, and S.U.P.P and modelednon Singapore’s people’s Action party. It began as a mildly socialist,multi-racial party and continued that way untilmits Chinese-educated Chinese members,led by leaders of the illegal Communist party, took control, and SUPP rapidly became a Communist-front organization. Its executive officers, including chairman Ong kee Hui, a wealthy banker and grandson of the femous kapitan China General under the last White rajah, are anti –Communist but were unable to prevent Communist domination of the rank and file, adn SUPP seriously splintered.
This split was widened in 1962 when two Chinese executives of the party had their residence restricted in Sarawak and left for China, and the wife of one , and another executive , were deported to China.
The Communist behind SUPP have tried hard , by organizing among the Chinese population and other groups, to stir up opposition to Greater Malaysia.
They even used Chinese school children –a popular method in Singapore- to take part in demonstrations against malaysia when Tunku Abdulrahman visited Sarawak in November,1962. But since then first moves have been made by Liberal groups to purge the party of its Communist control and to bring it into political line wit all other parties in Sarawak who support the formation of Malaysia- and these groups seem to be succeeding.
Azhari , who is not yet forty, has worked for years among the Brunei malays and has played on their backwardness and political inferiority to the Malays of Malaya. Although he calls himself a brunei Malay and was born in Brunei, and looks more Arab than Malay. He was in Indonesian Sumatra under the Japanese in World War II and has advocated a union between Brunei and Indonesia.
He returned to Brunei in 1952 and helped from Party Ra’yat in 1956 . In 1957 he went to london to demand independence of Brunei.
He is a dynamic speaker with dreams of a “Greater brunei” and bitterly opposes Malaysia, which would prevent his real ambition is to become Political dictator of all North Borneo , including Sarawak and claim that , even if he is not a member of the Communst party, he has strong personal links with Indonesian and Singapore Communist . Other say he is a fanatical nationatlist. Whatever is true, he is a man to watch is this fermenting little Sultanate , where political reform is urgently needed.
Presiden Soekarno announced “Ganyang Malaysia” in 27th July 1963, PARAKU-PGRS became heroes in Indonesia, they gurella in the Border Sarawak and West kalimantan. When Suharto as the new Indonesian leader , he made a freandly with Malaysia, and PARAKU_PGRS were attacked and in 1967 there were “Kerusuhan” anti- Chinese know as the Red Cup affairs. PGRS means Pasukan Gerilya Rakyat Sarawak were the Black Goat “Kambing Hitam” Confrontation.

4.2. STAMPS and REVENUE
Read in chapter three

4.3 Postal History
!) Seadah Covers,Postally Used cover from Colony North Borneo to Limbang Sarawak during Colonial state CDS Limbang 19 th Sept 1953, sandakan State of North Borneo 17th September, combination King George and elisabeth coronation stamps , rare combinations.
2)Richard Covers, Cds Kuching 17 yl 1963 to Djakarta, the last letter from Sarawaki, because at this day the Confrontation “Ganyang Malaysia” announced by President Soekarno and in Sept 1963 Sarawak under Malaysia. Rare and historic letter.
3)Sambas Covers, Azhari’s North Borneo United state Embassy Jakarta postally used, extreme rare covers.

4.4 PAPER MONEY
1)ONE THOUSAND DOLLARS KING GEORGE
2)TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS KING GEORGE
3)50 DOLLARS QUEEN ELISABETH
4)100 DOLLARS QUEEN ELISABETH

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3.1. THE LAST RAJAH CHARLES VYNER BROOKE

3.1.1 Historic Background

a.Before World War II
Of the Three Rajahs, it’s interesting to note that Vyner Brooke (as he was more commonly known) was the only one groomed to inherit what the first Rajah gained through tortuitous circumstances and the second Rajah inherited as a result of a family squabble.
Upon his birth on the 26th September 1874, Vyner was proclaimed Rajah Muda and on the 24th May 1917, just one week after the death of Charles Brooke and in accordance with his wishes, he was publicly declared Rajah of Sarawak.
His formal installation took place the following years 22nd of July, by which time his brother Bertram, the Tuan Muda, and the new Ranee had arrived to witness the event. With dubiuous vacillation Sarawak and its people embarked on what transpired to be the last twnety-nine years of Brooke rule in the country.
Vyner Brooke was already a familiar figure in the Sarawak having first arrived in the country at the age of two. After some years spent with a private tutor he returned to finish his schooling in England, and his next visit was when he was tweleve years old, followed by another when he was seventeen.
In August 1897, at the age of twenty- three, he joined the Rajah,s staff permanently. He then spent several years serving his time as resident of different state until on May 12th 1904 he was proclaimed the Rajah’s heir before the Council Negri.
Charles then decreed that his son Vyner would reside in Kuching and share his duties.
His new position empowered him with the control of outstation affairs, to desputize on behalf of his father in the supreme court and the supreme and General councls and to used the Rajah’s flag and the Royal umbrella. From 1904 onwards, Charles had sufficient trust in his son Vyner to leave him in charge of the affairs of the country whenever he
returned to England.
Vyner was the opposite of his father in every respect. Handsome ,char-ming and sociable with a genteel manner, he bore a strong resemble-nce to the first rajah.
The generally held opinion among many was that because of his easy-going and unconventinal ways he did not possess the qualities necessary for alife of devotion to Sarawak and that, once the noveltry of his position of Rajah faded, he would lose interest in the country.
He love of adventurous innovations such as cars and motorcycles, and his liking for smoking and other unaccaptablenescapades added to his unreliability.
As Rajah, he seldom took others into his confidence preferring to keep his own council, projecting him as somewhat of an egigme to his officer.
During his early years of services hisbrealtionship with his father, who was not an easy man to please, was a satisfactory, if a time strained one.
But as time passed even Charles began to have doubts about the reliability of his heir. His feeling were to become even more obvious with Vyner’s marriage to Sylvia Brett. Charles never made any secret of how he felt about his daughter-in-law nor did she never hide her feeling towards him.
In reference to the second time she met him,which was on her first visit to sarawak, she wrote :”I had only seen him for a moment at my wedding and i had forgotten how starky supreme he was, how gaunt and unapproachable ; a stern figure with a hwak-like nose,one glass eye from which a constant tricle of water dripped on to his snow-white moustache and a heart of stone”
A description perhaps tinged with a touch of malice. Altough not averse to the charms and beauty of Wmen, Charles never really cultivated a relationship of much woth with Sylvia.
His dislike of her probably stemmed from his feelings toward her father, Lord Esher. From the moment they met Charles disliked and mistrusted the man; he was the type of person that stood for everything Charles loathed.
Lord Esher was a very influential person with friends in the right places. He was a model citizen, very wealthy , circulated amongst the rigfht business and political figures and was said to be a close confident of the King of England.
Charles became convinced that once Vyner gained power in Sarawk, Lord Esher would use his inmfluence to persuade him to abdicate, ar to allow him a firm footing in the commercial development of the country
That the Rajah would have preferred to be succeeded by the Tuan Muda was no secret to Vyner, having lived all his life with th4e knowledge that His parent had a greater preference for his second son.
Being quite and reserved Bertram, although not a formidalbe as it father, bore more of his character-istic traits. Whenever he was in Sarawk he spent his time in the oustations enjoying, as his father had before him, the peace and traquility of the country and the simple life he led amongst the natives.
When Bertram married Gladys Palmer, the only daughter of Sir Walter Palmer M.P. in joly 1904, the Rajah was extremely happy with the union . In comparison to his relationship with Sylvia,he was on excellent terms with Gladys who wrote :”I become devoted to trhe Rajah , and some of the happiest bdays of my life were spent talking and walking with himin his grounds”
With Vyner marriage in Fabruary 1911, the breach between father and son widened.
In 1912, shortly after the arrival of Vyner and his wife in Sarawak, the Rajah issued the follwing proclamation:” I charles Broke, Rajah of Sarawak,d hereby decree that my secnd son Betram Brooke , heir presumptive t the Raj of Sarawak, in the event my eldest son , Charles Vyner Brooke , Rajah muda of Sarawak , failing to have male issued , shall be recieved on his arrival in the State of Sarawak with a Royal salute and honours equivalent to his rank . I further decree that he shall be recognised in the future by all inhibitants of Sarawak as being part of the Government of the State and such recognition shall be duly registered in the records of the Supreme council of the Raj of Sarawak”
While the Rajah had no real reason to disinherit Vyner, he had contrive this subtle plan so that although Vyner would still be the future Rajah, a certain amout of control would be given to his brother.
Perhaps if the Rajah had confided his intentions to the Rajah Muda before making the proclamation the trouble that ensued could have been avoided.
As it was , the Rajah was tactless in the letest move of his , Vyner was upset and deeply resentful. With his hurt, his sense of duty so openly insulted and the slight on his and his’s wife ability to prduce a son and heir ( they already had one daughter) , he reacted spontaneuosly with little thought to the consequences.
He wrote to his father and in the reply he recieved the Rajah said that the only word could explain Vyner’s feelings was “Jealousy”. With that ,Vyner wrote again stating that if Rajah persited with his proposal of the new Bill “I shall be reluctantly obliged to make a public protest against your actions, and to leave the country until things are more satisfactory arranged”
The letter also pointed out that :” The position you propose to put me into must inevitably degrade me in the eyes of population , and amount to admitting that you do not consider me fit to govern this country without the sanctions and apprval of my younger brother .”
He then expressed a hope that Rajah ‘s reply would bring the news that the proposal for Betram’s elevation in status in Sarawak were being reconsidered .
Such a declaration of oposition and defiance stunned the Rajah, whose word had always been law.
His official reply to Vyner on 10th June.1912 , read : “As your letter reiterates your disobedience to my commands, i Hereby officially informed you that in consequence of this acts, I give notice that I shall not in future require your servive in the Gouvernment office nor in the Supreme court”
He went on to say that “obedience to the Rajah” had always been the rule and would remain so as long as he was Rajah.
He then suggested that Vyner should leave the country as soon as it was convenient to do so . Enclosed with the official letter was also a personal one in which the Rajah told his son that he had almost decided to resign in his favour “ and leave it to you to hold the Raj with your present title until my death” he hinted broadly that he was still willing to transfer the Raj at the end of the year.
This latest turn of event greatly shocked the people of Sarawak. As far as Vyner was conserned the personal letter from his father didn’t after the situation in the slightest , and , in spite of Sylvia pleading with him to stay in the hope that things would sort themselves out, his mind was made up.
“My father never changes his mind and neither do I” he told his wife . Having spent hardly a month in Sarawak, Vyner and Sylvia packed their bags and set sail for England . Before leaving they left letters fr Betram who was n his way back frm Engand, the content of which were not very pleasant. Vyner, uncertain of the role of his brother played in the setting up of a state Commite in london of which he also was the president wrote :”I am to the dirty work out here , the letter Sylvia left for her brother in law was rude beyond reason”
In fact , Betram had agreed to the Proclamation on the belief that Vyner had already been informed of its contents. I’s questionable as to why the Rajah deemed the Proclamation as necessary one.
Perhaps he felt that his son would never be as loyal to Sarawak as he was determined to preserve the Brooke tradition.
But for now Vyner was not pre-pared to accept the throne under te conditions imposed by the Rajah.
As he cleary stated in his letter to his brother ,”I do not return to Sarawak again umless with full power. By full power I mean absolute control over the country”
When Betram arrived back in Sarawak the Royal Salute and Guard of Honour were there to welcome him. Amidst pomp and ceremony be attended the meeting of thje Supreme Council with his father .
Back in England, Vyner ‘s wife gave birth to a second daughter. When the rajah had heard the news that there was another child on the way he prepared Kuching for a big celebfration.
Flags and Banner were raised and the bell-ringers were standing by in anticipation of a grandson. With the birth of another girl the flags came down and the bell-ringers were sent home.
It was the thought of those bell-ringers that prevented me giving birth to a son and heir. I could visualize the grim old Rajah sitting in his palace, his glass eye glittering as he tapped the floor impatiently with his stick and the Chinese bell ringers hanging on the bell ropes , waiting for the signal that never came.It was enough to put anyone off.”Wrote Sylvia.
However,when The Rajah returned to England toward the end of 1912, the quarrel between him and his son was patched up. Both Vyner and Sylvia had taken steps to write letters of apology which the Rajah grud-gingly accepted.
He directed that when Vyner was away from the Stae, Bertram should assume the position of Vice-President in the Supreme Council and other Council inSarawak. When Betram was in England he was to be President of the Advisory Council in Westminster.
In Sarawak , Betram was to be shown the same respect as the Rajah and could use the Astana as hus residence if he so wished.
Charles hoped that by placing his son in the position it would be “an additional safeguard “ against speculators who wished only to make profits from the country with little concern for its welfare.
Another clause in the Will was that no changes were to be carried out in the State or Government by Vyner without first consulting with his brother.;”I fervently hope that my sons will see the necessity of acting together to keep intact and develop the resources of the country which has been brought to its present state
By myself and my faithful followers after so many years of devotion to it”
The Will also eiterated that the policy and methods of Government of Sarawak which had been adhered to by Charles and the first Rajah were not to be departed from.
He worried that his son would not devote themselves to a lifetime in the East and for that reason , urged his successor to establish themselves in Sarawak immediately after accession.
He hoped that the attractions of life in a Westren country would not divert their attention from the more pressing needs in Sarawak.
He impressed upon the new Rajah the need to spend eight months of each years in the country and stating that the task of Rajah was to be “the slave of his country and people”.
He then went on to point outh that “The Rajahs of Sarawak should habe but one home and that Sarawak. As the firs Rajah used to say to me; The head can not be long separate fromthe heart”, lastly, he directed that Betram was to recieve the title Tuan Besar.
One can only assume that the terms ofthe will must have been a great disappointment to the new Rajah, as Charles brooke was still standing by the Proclamation of 1912 that had caused such an uproar between father and son.
But in new view of his mistrust of his son and their strained relationship, it is hardly suprising that he decided to try as best he could to safeguard his country after his death.
Bertram, who couldn’t quite adjust to his new title, was happy o continue to be known as the Tuan Muda. He was devoted to Sarawak as his brother but was satisfied to let Vyner control things.
If the new Rajah was hurt by his father’s obvious trust in his brother it never showed. But Vyner was never one for harboring resentment or il feelings and he and his brother got along quite well.
However , he seldom, if ever, folloed through any recomendations put foward by Betram and rarely consulted him on matters or affairs in the State. Perhaps if Bertram had been a little more aggresive during the early of his brother’s rule the familynqurrel broughtnabout over the cession of Sarawak,might have been avoided.
As it was, Betram had perhaps waited too long to remind Vyner of the terms of their Father’s will and was not included in the more important discussions concerning the cession of the counry.
Contrary to everyone’s fears Sarawak did not change dratically over-night. The System of Government remained the same and the European officers who had served his father continued to serve Vyner with the same responbilities and trust.
Perhaps the only obvious change during the first few years was in the general atmosphere. Charles Brooke had been stern, feared and hardworking, whereas Vyner was dignified, gracious, courteous, and easy-going. But he did not take too kindly to over-familiarity and a chill glance from his sometimes cold looking blue eyes would be all it needed to nip it in the bud.
At first the Rajah did not spend as much time in the country as his father had hoped and he came and went often. But later on he settled down to a more regular routine spending the spring and summer month in England and the autumn and winter in Sarawak.
The new Renee took a great interest in her adopted country. She was entertaining and clever. For the first time since the Renee Margaret left, parties were again being held at astana .Life for the Europeans in Kuching was suddenly much more interesting.
The Renee loved to enjoy herself leaving people with the assumption that she thought only of her own pleasure. The Renee dicided that in a limited government society the safest course of follow was to treat everyone aqually.
The gossip that went around was something she had to learn to live with and try to ignore.
Vyner, who had a weakness for woman, found some of his officers wives”pretty and alluring” and the Renee felt that some of the women made use of this weakness . She on the other hand but her fair share of handling the attentions and flattery of the men who were trying tp”advance themselves with Vyner through me “ She felt that for people who had “ as we did, absolute power” temtations were inevitable.
Kuching was much quieter when the Tuan Besar was in control whenever Vyner was back in England. There were no parties and Betram didn’t even live in the Astana , preferring instead a more humble abode close by.
One of the first changes that came about under the new Rajah was the disbanding of the Sarawak Rangers which was then turned into a constabulary forces.
This was, in line with his policy of gradual change di occur in Sarawak. The country continued to progress both economicaly and socially and more public services were developed.
Vyner undertook the reorganization the railway, which had been set upnby his father, and by 1920 it was possible to travel along its full length of ten miles after dark.
More wireless stations were added, so that by 1927 , there were stations throughout the country.
The hospital service was improved and a government dentist was appointed. And a printer from England was engaged to improve on the only newspaper-The Sarawak Gazette- which was set up in 1870 but only appeared sporadically.
More European women arrived in Kuching to joined their husbands and a club was opened in 1920 for their pleasure.
The first Cinema in the country was opened by the Rajah and named after his wife. It proved a profitable venture and shows were held there regulary. Kuching was also undergoing a period of relaxation under the easy-going ruleof the new Rajah.
Office hours were not as steneous as they used to be but the officers in the outstation still had to work as hard as ever.
New offices were created , there was a new departmen of Trade and in 1929 , a Secretary for Chinese Affairs was appointed.
Most of the officials from the days of Charles Brooke had either died or retired and very soon there wasn’t anyone left who remenered the difficult and troubled times of the early reign of the second Rajah. Sarawak prospered and flourished and looked foward to a bright future, but family quarrels, which seemed to be part and parcel of the Brooke tradition,loomed ominously on the horizon.

b. Second World War
When the second Worl War erupted in Europe, Sarawak felt little of its effect at first.
To help Britain along with its war effort , the Rajah prented its government with a gift of one and a half million dollars in 1940, followed by another million in 1941, from the Sarawak Treasury.
This should serve as some indication of how prosperous the country had become. The gift was in deference to the Treaty of 1888,in which Britain agreed to protect Sarawak against enemy attacks.
Celebrations commemorating the the Centenary of Brooke rule were held in 1941, with week long festivities from the 20th to the 28th September.
Six month earlier the Rajah had announced publicy his proposal to divest himself of absolute power and his intention of establing a consti-tution for Sarawak. The Rajah delegated his authority to a committee of Administration, which was set up on 31st March, until thre new Constitution came into force.
He also signed an agreement that would provide financially for his future and thet of his family dependent on him, and he was recieve compensation for the lost of his rights.
The constitution was issued on the 24th September, to coincide with the centenary celebrations, but under the terms of his father’s Will, the line of succession yto Raj had already been laid down and the Rajah should consult his brother before making any changes in the govern-ment or Administration of Sarawak.
The Rajah,who had sworm on his accession to honour his father’s Will,failed in his duty to carry hat promise.
`The Tuan Muda’s consultative right had been ignored and Betram could see no reason to alter the plan of succession laid down by his father which bequeahed the succession to his sons and their male issue .accord-ing to the rule of primogeniture, and failing them,to the son of his late younger Brother Stuart. Betram was already the legal heir presumptive but owing to his failing health, it’s likely that he would have denounced his right in favour of his son,Anthony,should be outlive Vyner.
The Rajah did not trust Anthony Brooke whom he had appointed Rajah Muda in 1939, but subsequently revoked the appointment due to a minor incident. The Rajah anounced the Tuan mUda as his heir but under the new constitution should Bertram die before his brother then the question of heir for Sarawak would be turned over the Committee of Administration. Under such terms the future position of an heir for Sarawak would remain uncertain.
Vyner nor his wife were too pleased with the idea of Anthony Brooke becoming Rajah of sarawak, and Sylvia tried to have the line of succession changed so that her daughter’s son could inherit the title, but nothing came of her efforts.
It seem ironic that throughtout his life his life Vyner had to accept his parent’s prference for Betram’s son would inherit the Raj.
If Vyner had a son of his own perhaps his feelings toward the persevation of the Raj would have been stronger. As matters fared, Anthony Brooke was never given the opportunity to prove whether or not he would have made a good ruler for Sarawak.
It will never be known either how the country would have adjusted the new Constitution because by Christmas day ,1941, the Japanese had invaded Sarawak.

c.Japanese Occupations
24th, Chritmas day 1941,Japanese invaded Sarawak. The Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke with his secretary Gerald Mac Brayn had run to Brisbane Australia, where he made the temporary Kingdom , then he gave the responbility of the sarawak National treasure to his brother Betram Brooke as “Pesuruh Jaya Khas Sarawak” in England.
The country and its people struggled under the Japanese Occupation which lasted almost four years until, on the 11th September, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formalsurrendered of the Japanese Soldiers.

3.1.2 PISCTURE TALKS
1) C.V. BROOKE SIGN AND OFFICIAL STAMPED
2) PROFILE CV BROOKE
3)YOUNG CV BROOKE AND HIS WIFE
4) OLDER CV BROOKE AND WIFE
5) CV BROOKE FAMILY PICTURE
6) CV BROOKE OFFICIAL PICTURE
7) NATIVE INOCENT IBAN 1
8) NATIVE INNOCENT IBAN 2
9) IBAN CEREMONY
10) IBAN TATTOUGE
11) POSTALLY USED KUCHING RIVER PICTURE POSTCARD
12)KUCHING HOSPITAL

3.1.3 STAMPS

1)1918 CV BROOKE FIRST STAMPS,LIMITED EDITION 8C-9240,16 C-28.500, 20 C-36.960, 25 C-20640.
2)1932 OLDER CV BROOKE STAMPS
3)1941 OLDER CV BROOKE, 3 C GREEN,4 C BRIGHT PURPLE,8 C-CARNINE AND 15 CENT BLUE.(RARE BECAUSE MANY USED WITH DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT AND OVERPRINT BMA & CROWN)

VARIATIN WHITE FLEA 2 C CV BROOKE 1918 EDITION
CHALKY PAPER CV BROOKE 1928 LIMITED EDITION , 8 C BRIGHT ROSE RED-15.000, 25 CENT-10.000 AND 1 DOLLAR-10.000.

TWO CENT OVERPRINT 12 C.LIMITED EDITION-12420.

3.1.4 REVENUE
1) ONE SET CV BROOKE STAMPUSED as revenue,20 cent,25 CENT, 30 CENT, 50 CENT, 1 DOLLAR, 2 DOLLAR, 3 DOLLAR AND 4 DOLLAR WITH SERIKEI CHOP .

2)CERTIFACE OF IDENTITY WITH 50 CENT STAMP AS REVENUE,

3)3 CENT BLACK STAMPS USED AS REVENUE IN ARABIC CHAR .

4)3 CENT BLACK STAMP 1.10.37,USED AS REVENUE

5)3 CENT BLACK STAMP USED AS REVENUE IN KUCHING 10.1.1944.(SARAWAK PHILLATELIC REPORT)

6) 50 CENT DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT IN COMPLETE SAVING MONEY CHEQUE. WITH RED INLAND CHOP.

7) ONE SET FRAGMENT OF DAI NIPPON OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT STAMP AS REVENUE ;
a) 50 CENT OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT JUICHI GATSU 1944, 15.10.2604; NI GATSU ,
b) STRIP TWO 5O CENT, OVAL OVERPRINT BLUE, NI GATSU(2604).
c) 1 DOLLAR, OVAL OVPT BLUE, NI GATSU
D) TRIP TWO 1 DOLLAR, OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT, JU GATSU
d) 2 DOLLAR , OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT ,200/04
e) 2 DOLLAR, BIGGER OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT
f) 2 DOLLAR AND ONE DOLLAR OVERPRINT ROUND RED,JUICHI GATSU.
g) 5 CENT VIOLET, BLACK ROUND DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT
h) SQUARE VIOLET OVERPRINT 50 CENT STAMP
i)Round red Dai nippon overprint 2 cent green CV BROOKE STAMPS

J) RED BIGGER OVAL DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT WITH STRIGHT OVERPRINT ON 1 DOLLAR CV BROOKE STAMPS.

k)SMALL ROUND RED OVERPRINT ON 3 C CV BROOKE GREEN.

l) ONE SET VIOLRT BIGGER OVAL DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT ON CV BROOKE STAMPS, 50 CENT,1 DOLLAR,2 DOLLAR, 3 DOLLAR.

m)SURAT IKRAR BERPINDAH NAMA (CHANGE OF THE OWNER NAME CERTIFICATE) WITH STRIP TWO 2 DOLLAR CV BROOKE STAMPS OVERPRINT ROUND RED AS REVENUE, 20 THMARCH 1946.

n) Sime, Darby & co Revenue & Postal History.
(1)Alant Dant the last EUROPEAN BRANCH MANAGER SIME,DARBY & CO SARWAK WITH HIS SIGN ON THE RECIEVED FROM THAT FACTORY WITH 3 CEN CV BROOKE STAMPS AS REVENUE(REPORT BY HONG MING YONG)
(2) SIME,DARBY & COMPANY LIMETED MALAYA & SARAWAK AMPLOP , SEND BY SIM THIAM PECK BORNEO TO SURABAYA INDONESIA, CDS KUCHING 1949.THREE OVERPRINT CROWN ON CV BROOKE STAMPS 3 C GREEN, 4 CENT MAGENTA AND 8 CENT CARMINE WITH HANDWRITTEN THE COST 5. ( HISTORIC COVERS)

o) CROWN OVERPRINT 5 DOLLARD CV BROOKE BROWN RED STAMPS USED AS REVENUE.

p)OFFICIAL DAI NIPPON STAMPED ON CONSTRUCTION GENERAL SURVEY 7 DOLLAR AS THE WORKER FEE CERTIFICATE (PRIVATE COLLECTION).WITH TWO SAME ANOTHER TYPE(FROM THE AUCTIONS)

q) 3 CENT GREEN CV BROOKE STAMP OVERPRINT CROWN AS REVEUOE ON HONG JOO SHOT GUN FACTORY RECIVED,

h)5 CENT BROWN CV BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE ON CHIN 7 SON SHOTGUN RECIEVED.

I)IWAN ‘S PUNCH HOLE STAMPS AS REVENUE
(a) 3 X 3 DOLLAR + 1 DOLLAR CV BROOKE STAMPS USED A REVENUE ,26.3.49 (PRIVATE COLLECTION,FIRS REPORT)
(b)STRIP FOUR OF 4 DOLLAR CV BROOKE PUCH HOLE REVENUE , USED AS REVENUE 20.4.50 (PRIVATE COLLECTION,FIRST REPORT)

(c) BLOCK FIVE OF 5 DOLLAR CV BROOKE PUCH HOLE STAMPS AS REVENUE WITH INLAND KUCHING SARAWK STAMPED .20-11-49.(PRIVATE COLLECTION FIRST REPORT.)

(d)5 dollar King George withouth punch hole used as revenue.

(e) Mr Bill report to mr Ong, block four 5 dollar King George with one punch hole and the other no punch,
(Transition between puch and no puch)

(f) SARAWAK BRITHISH COLONY STAMPS USED AS REVENUE, G-5 DOLLAR,2 DOLLAR AND 50 CENT,I DOLLAR . E- 1 AND 2 DOLLARS.

J. POSTALLY USED QUEEN ELISABETH II SARAWAK STAMPS FROM KUCHING 7 JY 1963 TO JAKARTA INDONESIA TWO MONTH BEFORE THE BIRTH OF MALAYSIA10 SEPT 1963. &CONFRON-TATION

3.1.5 UNIQUE PICTURE

1) G.G. VAN DER KOP TRAVELLING’S PICTURES.
(a) KUCHING RIVER VIEW LAND-SCAPE,RIGHT AND LEFT
(b)Kuching river and Astana
(c) Chinese street and Gouverment office.
(d) Sarawak Museum.

2) Sencored Pictures from dreams of a pagan past prewsented in Sarawak.
(a) Rajah Charles Brooke with hid wife.
(b)iban girl and black ink sencored on the bare breast.
(c) a serial of iban ethic pictures

3)Anticession REVOLT PICTURES
(a)PICTURE ‘S COVER-BOOK
(b)RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE AND MALAY LEADERS

4) RAJAH ‘S CERTIFICATE
(a) RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE LAND’S CERTIFICATE
(b) RAJAH CHARLES VYNER BROOKE LAND’S CERTIFICATE

3.1.6 COINS
1) 1/2 CENT CV BROOKE COPPER COIN.
2) 5 CENT CV BROOKE COIN
3) 10 CENT CV BROOKE COIN
4)20 CENT CV BROOKE SILVER COIN
5)50 CENT CV BROOKE SILVER COIN
3.1.6 PAPER MONEY
1) ONE DOLLAR YOUNG CVB
2) BLUE ONE DOLLAR CVB
3) TWENTY FIVE KATTIS RUBBER BONDS
4) ONE PICUL RUBBER BONDS
5) SERIAL NUMBER ONE DOLLAR DAI NIPPON MALAYA
6)SERIAL NUMBER FIVE DOLLAR DAI NIPPON MALAYA
7) GREEN ONE DOLLAR CVB
8)FIVE DOLLAR CV BROOKE
9) TEN DOLLAR CVB
10) 25 DOLLAR CVB
11)50 DOLLAR SPECIMEN NCVB
12)100 DOLLAR SPECIMEN CVB

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This CHAPTER HAVE MORE INFORMATION THAN THE CAPTER ONE, because the socond rajah issued seven types stamps and the communications with abroad country developed. Many Plantations in Sarawak have communications with Indonesian Plantation company, and some postal history have found and some at the Chriestries auction 1 March.24th.1994 “Fine Stamps and Covers of The Straits Settlement and South East Asia at Singapore. In this auctiuon, 19 postals used covers with The Second Rajah Stamps were sold in this Auction, This informative books now became antique collections. The senior specialist collectors had contributed in this auctions like Colin Fraser, Jeffrey Schneider,David Parsons and nIcholas Startup. Some of the rare postal History collections provenance by C.M.Symes. His the founder of Sime Derby & Co Ltd . still don’t have information. Mr Hong Ming Yong have write about Alan Dant the latest Sarawak Brach Manager of Sarawak Branch Manager of Messrs Sime,Darby & Co and I have found one postally cover from Sarawak Siedarby to Surabaya Indonesia, will discuss in the chapter the third Rajah because the cover form that time. All of this collections send to Mr Th Jackson and Mrs A.Myerscough, and the postal history became their names “Jacson” and “Myerscough” Cover. All the covers sent to England, I need more informations the Sarawak cover to another country,please give your kind information to me, thank you. We shall discuss about the nineteenth covers on every types second Rajah stamps and the limited edition issued informations from Stave Tan,s Unternational Stamps & Coin SDN BHD “Standard Stamps catalogue Of Malaysia ,Singapore and Brunei 2004.” The Sarawak specialist collector.s alway need, because many second rajah stamps limited editions, especially the Postage and reveneu stamps in 1888,typo by De La rue . 1.1. Historic Bacground The Second Rajah Sir Charles Brooke (1868-1917) 1.1.1 Morison,Alastair; A Fearful Radical” The Rajah is extrely nice and kind but a fearful radical. This was how his sons’s tutor described Charles Brooke,the second Rajah of Sarawak, in 1887. There have been few more remakable Europeans asso-ciated with South-East Asia. His life forms the subject of a new book. The first full-length biography of the man. It fills a gap in the surprisingly large body of literature on Sarawak. Charles Brooke was the nep-hew of the first Rajah james Brooke. Charles Brooke joined his uncle in 1852 after service in the Navy which he joined at the astonishing age of twelve. He was no stranger to the area having served in Borneo waters on several occasionbs. His was hardly the upbringing to produce a man of elegance and refinement but it suited tough and craggy personality and inured him to hardship. He spent much of the early service in Sarawak in the small and isolated station of Lingga which lies in the estuary of Batang Lupar in what is now the second Division of Sarawak. It was no pleusure resort but was an important strategic centre for the control of a large region populated by lively and warlike Iban groups. Here with little, save his own strong personality and that of his principal assistant, the brave and able Malay leader Abang Aing, he sought successfully to impose the Goverment’s authority. This meant discouraging local feuds and head hunting , supporting the groups which were friendly towards the Rajah’s goverment and periocally leading exspeditionsn against those who defied the goverment’s authority. Although a hard and generally tacitum man he was the same time immenseky patient in his dealing with those under his authority , able and willing to talk and listen endlessly. He respect local custom and thought it essential to live close to the people and to give up the refinement of European society in order to understand and sympathise with them. He was no misogynist and wrote warmly of the charm and grace of Iban girls. He was completely fearless; calm and resourceful in emergency and at his most cheerful under the stimulus of personal danger. He acquired a deep affection for Sarawak and its people and this was to become the dominant motivation for the rest of his long life. His personal characteristic were such as to gain the respect of Bornean people and none more so than the Iban among whomhe spent so much of his time. The Iban were an energetic, warlike, egalitarian people. They were not the original inhabitant of Sarawak but had moved over from the Kapuas valley of Indonesian Borneo, displacing or asborbing the small tribes who had lived in the area previuosly. Although a homogeneous people in matters of language and costum they were never united. The unit of organization was thet of a number of longhouses , Villages under a single roof containing up to fifty or more families, their members closely related and generally occu-pying a river valley. A dynamic individual would be accepted as the local leader. Warfare and the taking of enemy heads ( Thought tho convey great blessing on their new owaners) were the most important activities for every able-bodiedman. As the authority of Rajahs became established channnelled into activities in support of the goverment, providing the manpower for the expeditions which imposed the goverment’s authority. In 1857 it was the support of the Iban under Charles Brooke which crushed a rebellion by members of Chinese secret socities during which the capital Kuching was captured and the Infant State of Sarawak nearly destroy. Charles elder brother , the heir apparent,had quarrelled with James Brooke, and so Charles Brooke succeeded his Uncle in 1868. He was active in Sarawak affairs until his death in 1917. With only a handful of European officers he depend-ed almost entirely on local supports .Malays administration but the support of the Iban and other local peoples was also indisispensable.Many former opponent were to become loyal supporters. Slavery and endemic tribal warfare were gradually eliminated, largely through persuasion and conciliation . The last actin against pirates, the destructionof a group of lilanum boats and the rescue of most of their four hundred captives had taken place in 1862. As in the engagement of 1848 this action too was to be the source of some controversy. Actively engaged on the Sarawak side was the Anglican Bishop at labuan and Sarawak. Bishop MacDougall, a hearty medical missionary who had only taken holy orders because his Intended bride was deter-mine to marry a clergy-man . The Bishop sent an account of the fighting to the london times but wrote, somewhat unfortunately “” My double-barrelled Terry’s breech-loader….proved itself a most deadly weapon….it never missed fire once in 90 rounds…. ” We are. Indeed , all most thankful to our Heavenly Father who thus ordered things for us and made us His instrument to punish those bloodthirsty toes of the Humanrace. The ultimate sactions avaliable to the goverment in imposing its authority were punitive expeditions, an unpaid rank and file being rewarded with loot and the heads of enemy fallen. The expansion of Sarawak at the expense of Brunei conti-nued until brought an end by the British Goverment in the early years of this century. But for this Brunei would have been entirely absorbed in Sarawak. The Revenues of the state grew steadily.They were, at least in the early days, derived largely from opium, spirit and gambling monopolies catering or the Chinese populations. Viewed in the light of present –day taxes on Tobacco, drinks, and betting, the Rajah was perhaps a little ahead of his time. More attractive, however the Rjah’s Ideas on Administration. He followed his predecessor’s principles” To rule for the people and with the people and to teacch them the rights of free men under the restaints of Government” Administration was direct and informal and based on a much closer degree of social contact with the governed than was the case in any colonial territory. The Rajah had been responsible in the year preced-ing his accession for forming a General Council which came to be known as Council Negri. This was an advisory body, the majority of whose members were local men, mostly Malays and Muslim Melanous. Thereafter it met at regular intervals. The Rajah approved of many aspects of the life of his subjects and although slavery and headhunting were eliminated, he was prepared to tolerate most of the others. He had no wish to change the life of the countryside and compared the life styles of Sarawak country people favourrably with bthose of the labouring classes in Europe. He thought that the impact of the West would be to corrupt and weaken the people. He especially admired the Iban peoples. Only three years before his death he said this of them : “ What one has to admire in the Dayaks is their vitality, energy and activity;if they are not farming por otherwise employed in peaceful pursuits they are on mischief bent, worrying or killing their so-called enemies. If it was not for their vitality they would be an effete race, as a weakly flower in a garden that one scarcely takes the trouble to notice; they are, however , strong in body, a mass of muscle,quic in intelligance and perception, with brains that are as the Virgin soil and only require seedlings of agoodly sort to be planted. I feel sure, to produce useful things on a future day, I never tire of their misdeeds and I have reason to know that on many occasions they desired to obtain my head and boil it on a cauldron” The realationship between the Rajah and his wife and the Sarawk Malays were closed and indeed affectinate. His wife has dsecribed,how,when one of her children was stillborn, the Anglican Bishop refused to allow it to be buried in consecrated ground because it had not been baptised. She wrote “The Datus(the Malay Chief) on hearing this, were so indignant at such a state of thing that, although good Mohammedans, they came to the Astana,laid the poor mite in a coffin and carried it themselves to the cementetry, where it was buried with affection and dignity” The Rajah always rose at five in the morning. When not away travelling he would then go for a ride. After breakfast he would cross the Sarawak river to be greeted by the senior officers and the Malay Datus and proceed to the goverment office. Here he would superinted and transact every kind of government business and sit in ncourt where he could be approach informality by any member of the public. Justice was arbitary but probably fair. There were few coded laws, one of the few being society was a capital offence. This was a legacy of the 1857 rebellion but subsequently Sarawak, unlike Malaya and Singapore, had no problems with secret societies. Matters relating to local costum were deelt with by the Datus and other local chiefs. The Rajah was agreat reader and once commented that a good book and a profuse perpiration were indispensable in Sarawak for health and happiness. At the age of forty-six, at the suggestion of his wife, he took up the study of Frebch with a French schoolmaster who had been shipwrecked off Sarawak coast. He became a staunch francophile, kept his diaries in French and always trevelled in French ships. Accessible to all his subjects and he expected his officers to be accessible too. He country’s finances werr carefully husbanded and the Brookes never became wealthy. In England they were no more than moderately well-off country bgentlemen. The rajah’s only real indulgence was fox-hunting for which, whenever possible in later, he returned to England in the northen winter. He might have done more to plan for the education of the people he loved but he was more concerned to give them peace and security and to protect them from undesir-able outside influences. His last public address to Council Negri ended with sn sdmonition against foreign commercial exploitation: “There may others who will appear after my time with soft and smiling countensances to deprive you of what I slemnly and truly consider te be your right and that is the land. It is your inheritance on which your flesh and blood exist, the source of your self existence which if once lost , no amount of money could ever recover. After my life the future will remain with you to be independent and tree citizens, or be humbled and interior class without pride in yourselves or in your race. You must choose between two, the owner send the master on one side or the dependent and coelie on the other. It is for you to see that whatever rules this land that the land is not granted away to strangers. This is the bdanger after I have passed away. I am now old and cannot live many more year if any. I have had a long life, but my cord must have nearly reached its end. I now bid you bid goodbye A year later he was dead. (The author and his wife lived for many years in Sarawak). 1.1.2 Armentrout,Fred S.”Dreams of a pagan past preserved in Sarawak” InAugust 1897, at the age of twenty three, Vyner Bfrooke, the son Of Charles Brooke , joined the Raja staff permanetly. He then spent several year ser ving his time as Resident of different district until May 12th 1904, he was proclaimed the Rajah’s heir before the council Negri. Charles then decreed that his son would reside in Kuching and share his duties. His new position empowered him with the control of outstation affairs, to deputize on behalf of his father in the supreme court and the supreme and general councils and to used the Rajah’s flag and the royal umbrella From 1904 onwards, Charles had sufficient trust in his son to leave him in charge of the affairs of the country whenever he returned to England. On 24th May 1917, just one week after the death of Charles Brooke and in accordance with his wishes, he was publicicly declared Rajah of Sarawak. 1.1.3 Clipping & Ducument a. Rajah Charles Brooke private love. He seated himself near her and placed a grubby piece of paper on the piano keys.”Read that” was all he said. Written wich pencil on the paper were thr following words :”With a humble demean if the king were to pray that you’d be his queen. Wouled not you say Nay?” Renee ‘s first reaction was to laugh and the Rajah was rather upset and cross at her attitude. He assured her that he nmeant every word that was written on the note. He told her that she could do a lot of good in Sarawak and if her answer was yes, he would be very happy. Weighing up her life as it had been and seeing herself as not being of much use to anyone in England. Renee decided to say yes. She knew that the Rajah couldn’t possibly be in love with her but perhaps realising his chances of finding another woman to marry. Apart from her mother, were rather slim . she woul do as well as anyone. She wasn’t in love with him either althoungh she respected and admired him for the great man that he was and felt that by marrying him she might be of some use to someone after all. Her mother and relatives were aghast at the idea of Renee marrying a man so much older than herself and as if that wasn’t enough, she was being taken off to live in some uncivilised country at the other end of the world. However,the Rajah wasdetermined to merry her and his silent determintation finally overcome all opposition. They were married quietly in Highworth church, in England, on the 28th October 1869 , when Renee was just twenty years old. Apart from her mother and brothers only a few friends and neighbours were present. Her relatives and the Rajah’s parent decided to stay away. After the wedding the Rajah and Renee left to spend the night in Exeter before proceeding to”Burrator”, where they were to spend their honeymoon. This was a small house in Devonshere left to the Rajah by his uncle James Brooke. Before boarding the train for Exeter the Rajah purchased a copy of the “Times” and “Punch” magazine. He settled his new bride in one corner of the comparment with “Punch” and sttled himself in another corner, where he became totally immersed in his paper until they reached Exeter. They arrived at the hotel just in time for dinner which unfortunately, the Rajah felt was tpoo expensive to indulge in. Instead odered grilled pheasants legs, bread and butter,tea and a half bottle of port. 1.2. Pictures Talk 1.2.1 Rajah sign Charles Brooke sign and seal 1.2.2 Profile 1)The Young Charles Brooke 2)Rajah Charles Anthony Brooke 3)Young Renee 4)Charles Brooke Family 1.2.3 Landscape 1)Sarawak River 2)Old Sarawak House 3)Native Iban in the river 4)Iban soldier 5)Courthouse and Astana,1890 6)Carpenter street,1890 7)Kuching Courthouse,1890 8)Astana from the Sarawak River,1890 9) PADU rivers 1.3. The Second Rajah coins 1.3.1 Brass Coins 1)Brass ¼ cent 2)Brass half cent 3)Brass one cent 4)Brass one cent hole 1.3.2 Silver Coins 1)Silver 5 cent 2)Silver 10 cent 3)Silver 20 cent 4)Silver 50 cent 1.4. The Second Rajah Stamps 1.4.1 Common Stamps 1)Jan.1 st ,1871,no Watermark,P 11 irregular,Litho.by Maclure ,Mac-donald & Co. 2)Jan.1st.1875, P 11 ½ -12 by (?),may be by Maclure ,Mac-donnald &co 3)Nov.10th,1908. reprint type 1888 limited editions, but with Postage & Postage inscribed, p 14 , no Wmk, by De La Rue. 1.5.2 Limited Editions Stamps&Postal Hidtory a. Limited edition STAMPS 1)1888, postage & Revenue limited edition stamps. Edition between 181.080 – 12.120. 6c –edition 12.840 16 c-edition 10.400 1 dollar-edition 12.120 2)Jan 1st 1874, TWO CENTS surcharged in black on 1871 second Rajah stamps. 3)Nov.10th 1888 ,Limited edition Postage & Revenue second Rajah Stamps 4)May ,23rd 1892, Surcharged ONE CENT on 1871 stamps 5)1895 OLDER SECOND RAJAH LIMITED STAMPS Edition 30.000-60.000 6)1899, surcharged 2 & 4 CENTS ON 1878 STAMPS b. Rare Postally Covers 1).Postally used Cover .2 cent postage & Revenue with india stamps cds Sarawak ang Singapore. 2) 1 cent postage & Postage charles Brooke on picture postcard (provenance Dr F.Ngu) 3).Myerscough covers 1.5.3 STAMPS VARIATIONS a. 1871, second Rajah first stamps with manuscript surchard” e ctt “(One cent ?), never report before. b. 1874, TWO CENTS surcharged 1871 second rajah first stamps in 1994 this were bogus stamps, but in 2004 “ Recent research has shown that it is almost cretain five enused copies exist. Two or three copies are known used. Forgeries of this surcharged with forged cancellation exist up to about 20 in number, but there are readily identifiable “(Steve Tan,2004) c. Small c ,TWO CENTs variation, normal TWO CENTS and antique 1899 stamps Found in Indonesia , used, cds SARA(WAK) . d. Another variations in postally used stamps or covers still waited informations. 1)Flea dot on Charles Brooke forehead’s hair on 2c postage & postage,postally Use CDS K 2)Manuscript (on) e ctt on three cent Charles brooke first stamps, CDS square S. 3)Variation eight cent dark green Charles Brooke first stamps off center, perforation 14 (normal 11 ½-12) and smaller size. 1.6 The second Rajah Posmark 1)CDS square S first Sarawk postal stamped on six cent charles brooke first stamps 2)Cds round type Sarawak on 3 cent charles Brooke first stamps 3)CDS round type SARAWAK ON 8 C POSTAGE & POSTAGE Cds round type SADONG on 2 c postage & postage. 4)Cds round type Miri on 3 c postage & postage. 5)Cds round type S. 6)Cds round type K on 2 c Charles Brooke Postage & Postage. 7)Cds round Kuching 1907 on 4 cent Charles brooke poste & Postage. 8)Sarawak round cds on 5 cent charles Brooke postage & Revenue. 1.7 The Second Rajah Revenue History 1)Used off sheet Charles Brooke Revenue,5 cent,25 cent,50 cents,1 dollars,3 dollars,4 dollar,5 dollar, and to dollars 2)Dead of Transcription(Surat Tukar Nama) with combination 5 DOLLARS CHARLES brooke revenue and one dollars CHARLES vyner BROOKE STAMPS (provenance l.T.ong) 3)The same as L.T.Ong Revenue history above, I found the same ,date 23th Mar 1935, 4)Charles Brooke High Nominal Revenue 5 dollars block of six an ten dollars block of 16 (Provenance H.H.Ngu) 5)Older Chales Brooke 3 c stamps used as Revenue ,1917 (provenace L.T.Ong) 1.8 The Second Rajah Paper Money 1)Charles Brooke Ten Dollar Cancelled paper money. 2)The Earliest Sarawak Papemoney,Sarawak Government Treasury,five cents,ten cents,twenty cents, twenty Five cents,fifty cents one dollar 3)Charles Brooke one Dollar papermoney 4)Charles Brooke Ten Dollars Papermoney 5)Sarawak Ten cents paper money The Sarawak Charles Brooke paper money above provenace by Mr Steve Tan Kuala Lumpur (photo)

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