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Archive for August, 2010

Created By Dr IWAN S FROM HIS UNIQUE COLLESTIONS

Private Limited e-book Issued for Ocenan and Fish thematic collectors and scholars

JAKARTA @ Copyright Dr Iwan S 2010
PS. FOR THE COMPLETE INFORMATIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS LOOK AT MY NEW BLOG BECAUSE THIS BLOG ALMOST FULL NO BYTES FOR INLLUSTRATION ANYMORE.
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PREFACE

CHAPTER ONE :”THE VINTAGE TEXT BOOK COLLECTIONS”

A. FISH TEXTBOOK

I. THE PHYSIOLOGY OF FISHES Vol I : Metabolisme (Brown.Margaret E.Academc PresInc publisher, Newyork and London ,1957), in the front page,the note of the owner bought 20.1.1965 Yen 6.000.-(circa US$60. bought in Japan auth)

1. Preface: General knowledge of physiology of fisahes has lagged behind that of mammals and insect probably becausew of the greater difficulty of experimenting with aquatic animals.But fishes also are of economic as well as scientific interest and a great deal of work on them in widely sacttered through periodicals published all over the world. …etc.

2. the unique illustration in this textbook

1)Yolk sac placenta of Mustelus

2) Embryo of goodeid fish showing elongated trophotaeniae

II.THE PHYSIOLOGY OF FISHES VOL II BEHAVIOR (Brown ,Margaret ,1957.ibid I)

In thefront page owner notes, bought 20.1.1965 Yen 6.400,-Interewting picture illustration :

1. The “four -eyed fish” Anableps anablephs.(page 146)

2. The Mouth Breeding Tilapia mosaambrica(page 257)

3.Atipycal pigmen cell growth(page 454) Golden,spot side and Malanotic.

III. BIOLOGY OF THE VERTEBRATES , A Comparative Study Of Man and His Animal Allies ( Walter,Herbet and Sayles,leonard.The Macmillan company,New York,1959)

The History Of Pisces (page 27-29)

1.When Pliny (23-79 AD) wrote his HISTORIA NATURALIS, he enumareted 94 kinds of fishes then known to the the Roman worlds. In 1735 Linneus listed 478. Today it is estimated that at least 25.000 species are known.

2. Some Unusual Styles Of Fishes

1) Hippocampus

2) Sternoptyx

3) Serrivomer

4) Sebasdtopritis

5) Tetraodon

6) Chaetodon

7) Antigonia

3. Two Pisces Subclasses

1) Subclass CHONDRICHTHYES

(1)Cladoschelache

(2) Squalus(spiny dogfish)

(3) Raia( a Skate)

(4) Pristis (Sawfish)

2) Subclass OSTEOCHTHYES

(1) Chondrostel :Polyodon,Acipenser and Polypterus

(2) Holostel : Lepidosteus and Amia

IV. OCEAN FISH CAPITIVE SELCTED BOOK- Issued in order to comemorated two windu(16 Yers) Indonesia central fisher Cooperation ,Jakatta.1963.

1. Handstamped of The Indonesian central Fisher coopereation at the front page

2.The history of the cooperation (GKPI) by Eddiwan

1) 1945

2) 1947

3) 1948

4) International Relationship CONFERENCE (1) Tokyo 1955,(2) Bandung 1957

5) Greakan Nelayan Indonesia (Gerani) or The Indonesian Fisherman Movement

V.THE FISH IN ALL THE WORLD (IKAN2 SELURUH DUNIA) VOL 1;

SIXTEENTH TYPE SEA WATER FISH

_______________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER TWO :”THE VINTAGE OCEAN BOOKS COLLECTIONS”

I. The New Naturalist THE OPEN SEA, Its Natural History .Part I, The world of Plankton ( Hardy.Alister,Collin ,London,1950.2nd edition)

1. Plate In Coloue (24 items): Planton,jelly fish, worme and molusca etc

2. Plate In Black and White(24 items):Phyto plankton,little jelly fish, pteropod ,etc.

II. ANUAL REPORT OF THE NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC COUNCIL 1957-58

III. THE LAW OF OCEN IN INDONESIA

IV.THE SEA FRIEND AND FOE ( N.GorskForeign Language Publishing House,Moscow , ,1961)

V. ANGIN LAUT TAWAR (sea wind) Ara.I.K. Balai Pustaka ,Jakarta 1969.

CHAPTER FOUR :”THE OCEAN AND FISH THEMATIC STAMPS COLLECTIONS”

CHAPTER FIVE :”THE MARINE POSTAL HISTORY AND DOCUMENT COLLECTIONS

THE END@COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN S 2010.

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Hallo Collectors and all my FB friend,
Iam just back from My Mother Cramtions dust put in my Father tomb at Panang Panjang Ceremony, and after the ceremony I have two days time for adventure at Bukittingi and Padang city, where I met old friend, and found some interesting collectoions, Ihave write in Indonesian Langgugae about the vintage Minangkabau School of Payakumbuh vintage book with the unique minangkabau ethnis language , with article :”Istilah unik ethnis Minang ” , and after this I will at the information of unique collections found during my adventures , etancient and vintage foreign coin found in West Sumatra, and also other kng of unique collections.
After my old blog can operational again, because I have wrong in the blog account name and passward , now ok, I will put the info and not edit info in hhtp://www.uniqecollections.wordpress, and the edit info wit full illustrations will put in my new blog hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com. Please click my new blog if you want the more profesional iilustration and edit info,especially the premium Info special for the Premium member. My old blog still free info.

Greating and thank you for click Dr Iwan s old anfd new Blog

Dr Iwan S.
old blog : hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com
new blog:hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

Halo kawan-kawan kolektor, dan teman-teman Fcabook.
Setelah kedua blog saya yang lama dan baru dapat operasional lagi karena permasalahan kekeliriuan account nam and pasword sebelum ini,sudah teratasi dengan baik, juga teman-teman dari Kompasiana.com, apabila and ingin info gratis yang tidak diedit dan tidak lengkap illustrasinya dapat dilihat dlam blog lama ini, tetapi bila ingnin melihat srtikel yang lebih rapi,sudah mulai diedit,dengan illustrasi lebihbanyak yang free dan bila mau yang lengkap premium harus menjadi anggota premium agar saya memiliki dnsa untuk fee editor dan fotograper yang profesional. dapat mendaftar diri di blog baru hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.
I hope thisd appointment wiull make all collectors friend more enjoy and will not comment why didnot edit,many wrong type,and bigger words and so on, the non edit free info,no charge, I cannot edit because wdit and complete illustration have very high const that is is why you must join the premium member to collect the fund.

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FI =Free Information @hak cipta Dr IWAN S 2010, hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

.Kata Pengatar

Setelah berziarah keMakam Peluarga di Padang Panjang Sumatera Barat hari sabtu 7 Agustus 2010, saya memiliki kesempatan untuk bertualang ke Kota Bukittinggi dan Padang untuk berburu koleksi unik. Penjelasan apa itu koleksdi unik sudah saya tampilkan linformasi lengkap dengan ilustrasi terkait didalam blog Internet saya yang lama hhtp://uniquecollection.wordpress.com dan blog yang baru karena yang lama hampir penuh hhtp://www. iwansuandy.wordpress.com . Bertualang dan berburu koleksi unik untuk melengkapi karya tulis saya di blog berjudul” Kisah Perluangan Dr Iwan Berburu Koleski Unik”, Pada pertualang kali ini saya masih mernemukan beberapa koleksi Unik yang menarik. Salah satu koleksi menarik yang sangat informatif adalah Buku terbitan Ikatan Alumni SMA Negeri Satu Payakumbuh edisi ke IV tahun 1987,kota yang terletak hampir 40 km dari Bukittinggi, kota kelahiran Ayah saya dan pendiri Kompas ,Intisari dan PT.Gramedia, Bapak almarhum PK Oyong teman satu sekolah MULO sebelum perang diKota Padang yang sudah saya tulis ceritanya. Buku unik ini saya temukan di Kota Padang diToko Buku Bekas di Pasar Raya Padang, yang dengan Redho Allah tidak runtuh saat Gempa Besar di Sumbar 2009, seluruh bangunan pasar disekitarnya hancur dan amblas termasuk bekas Rumah Pribadi saya yang sudah dijual dan dijadikan Hotel Ambacang ,Tuhan Maha Adil Toko Rakyat Kecil diselamat-kanNYA.

Buku Unik tersebut diatas diantaranya memuat beberapa artikel yang membahas keunikan bahasa etnis M8inanghkabau, sebagian besar sudah saya pahami sebagai putra Minangkabau walaupun bukan etnis asli Minangkabau tetapi Eyang Putri saya adalah Putri Minang Asli kelahiran Kabupaten Pesisir Selatan Painan dang Eyang kakung saya adalah pemeluk Agama Islam pertama dari etnis Tionghoa yang merantau dari Filipina ke Indonesia. Walaupun demikian masih ada juga istilah Minangkabau yang unik yang baru saya ketahui dari buku unik tersebut.

Marilah seluruh Warga Minangkabau menikmati dan bernostalgia dengan istilah-istilah Kampuang(kampung) Halaman nan (yang Jau(jauh) dimato(mato) nan kito(kita) cinto(cinta), sedangkan bagi pembaca yang bukan warga Minang perlu memahami dan menikmati keunikan istilah Minang dibawah ini,khusus bagi yang bertugas dan berdagang di Nagari (Keluruhan) Minangkabau dapat memahaminya dan jadi betah tinggal di provinsi yang sangat Indah dan unik tersebut.

Pada saat saya baru saja mendarat di Lapangan terbang Baru yang diberi nama Lapangan Internasional M inangkabau yang berjarak lebih kurang 20 km dari kota Padang menju ke Kota Lubuk Alung Kabupaten Priaman(sekarang Pariaman ,yang kena gempa besar juga tahun 2009-pen) dekat Nagari (kelurahan ) Sicincin belok ke kiri menuju pinggir patai, dulunya lapangan terbang lama mlik Angkatan Udara namanya Tabing (artinya Tebing), saya melihat sebuah toko Etnis Minang dekat Ai Tawa(Air Tawar) denang nama TANGKELEK (artinya Bakyak = sandal etnis yang dibuat dari kayu).

Saya harap artikel yang pendek(singkat ) ini dapat menghibur para perantau Minangkabau yang berada diseluruh dunia kecualai Angkasa Luar, dan begitu juga para pembaca yang ingin tahu dan sedang bekerja atau berdagang di Tanah Minang khususnya di nagari(kampung) diseluruh tanah Minangkabau.

Mohon maaf bila karya tulis ini tidak “perfect” karena saya bukan typy manusia “perfectionist” penuh keterbatasan, oleh karena itu koreksi dan masukan daris eluruh pembaca sangat dsaya harapkan terima kasih untuk itu.

Saya mengucapkan terima kasih atas karya tulsi putre-putri Minangkabau Alumni SMA I Payakubuh yang telah memebrikan banyak informasi tentang Kampuang Halaman ita Minagkabau Ta Cinto, harap ambo (saya) dibari(diberi ) izin mencuplik beberapa istilah Minag dalam Buku terbitan Alumni tersebut yang sangat menarik hati.

Jakarta 9 Agustus 2010

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

I. Istilah Minang Terkait Transportasi Dan lalu Lintas

1. Istilah transportasi Kendaraan Bermotor di Alam Minag kabau

1) Lego Kambing ( Laga Kambing) artinya Kendaraan bermotor tabrakan seperti Kambing berlaga (diadu) Kepala lawan Kepala ,jadi Bagian Depan kendaraan bermoto saling bertabrakan. ( Banyak pejabat Lalulintas dan POLRI di Sumbar jadi kelabakan ,karena istilah yang tepat adalah Tabrakan Depan-pen)

2) Oto Jatuah Kudo ( Mobil Jatuh Kuda) arti Kendaraan bermodtor Slip terjatuh sendir tanpa ada tabrakan istilah betwainya Mobil ban pecah,Slip atau tergelincir jalan licin dan hilang kendali, mungfkin ini diartikan sama dengan kuda dari kereta Dokar,Andong atau Delman tanpa ada tabrakan jatuh sendiri,mungkin karena,roda patah, slip atau kecapaen kurang makan atau bebannya terlalu berat)

3) Kaliang Jatuah (Orang Keling-India Hitam jatuh)

Menurut penulisnya S.D.Ananta dalam buku Alumni SMA negeri Satu Payakumbuh 1887,hal 16 ” Kan Lah samo tau awak( Akan bersama kita ketahui), nan (yang) Bhaso lain Nagari Lain Bahasonyo( Bahasa Negeri lain ,lain pulalah Bahasanya), Lain lubuak(lubuk) lain ikan nyo(ikannya),lain padang lain bilalang(belalang) kecek(kta) papatah awak(papatah kita).Bhahaso (Bahasa) nan (yang ) Kito (kita)pakai kalau indak(tidak ) dibiasokan (dibiasakan ) ,jangga(jnaggal) tadanga (terdengar ) dek (oleh) urang(orang) lain.

Ada seorang turunan India di Minangkabau disebut sebagai Orang Kaliang alias Keling atau Killing man begitu kata beberapa teman saya, walupun ia bukan pembunuh, tetapi berprofesi sebagai tukang jahit dan yang jualan rempah-rempah ,maksudnya etnis india yang kulitnya hitam( dulu guru saya juga diberi gelar yang sang sama tapi dengan istilah berbeda Pak Kalek artinya sepat tidak manis-pen)

Kaliang Jatuah artinya Orang Keling terjatuh, kisahnya saat sebuah Truk yang terbuka belakangnya buat diisi baarang-barang dagangan berangkat dari Padang Panjang ke Bukittinggi untuk selanjutnya ke Payakumbuh berangkat ,seorang etnis India alias Orang Keling saat pergolakan PRRI sangat terbatas transportasi, karena sudah penuh truk di kursi depan, ditengah jalan seorang Keling hendak menumpang dengan bergantungan naik saat mobil berjalan merangkak akibat tanjakan ke Kotabaru,sebuah desa yang tinggi dikaki Gunung Merapi, orang Keling naik ditarik stokarsaat mobil jalan seperti BUs KOta diJakrta dulu dan ia bergantungan pada barang-barang. Saat pendakian sangat menanjak truk hampir mundur dan ini berbahaya sebab barang-barang akan menusuk peruk orang Keling yang begelantungan tersebut yang tidak diketahui supir, Stokat berteriak kuat-kuat ” Kaliang Jatuah”(Keling Jatuh), maka supir menancap gas sekuat-kuatnya sehingga selamat, setelah sampai di Bukititinggi, sang supir bertanya, mana uang biaya penumpang orang keling itu (Mano sewanyo urang kaliang tu), sang stokar berdusta, sudah saya katakan (alaa den katokan ) Kaliang Jatuah Oi! jadi inyo (ia) indak ado lai(tidak ada lagi) , tertipulah sang supir, sebenarnya biaya ikut ngompreng sudah dibayar padanya, setelah itu istilah Kaliang Jatuah jadi istilah unik diMinangkabau untuk orang yang nompreng tidak bayar ,seperti banyak dikerraapi Bogor Jakarta, naik atap tanpa bayar, bagaimana kita pakai istilah itu di Jakarta “Kaliang Jatuah” terserah anda.

2.Istilah Minang Terkait Sepak Bola

1) Ais dan Duo Bale Pas

Ais tersebut karena anak-anak minang tidak mampu berbahasa Inggris, mereka dengar reportte radio berkata” Hand Ball” ,sungguh ironis malah jadi Ais-Ais teriaknya,minta diberikan hubukm duabelas Pas alias pinalti atau Dua Bale Pas (tendangan Pinalti jaraknya dua belas langkah pas atau tepat dari gawang atau sekarang disebut titik pinalti-pen)

2) Paku Kakinyo

Paku kakinya artinya Tahan Kaki lawan agar tidak dapat bergerak, dalam bahasa minang terkait hal sepakbola ini adalah ” Kok Kabarek rasonya malawan (Apabilas rasa berat untuk melawan) kai urang (orang,maksudnya lawan) paku kakinyo (diblok kakinya), lah tengkak se inyo la tu mah ( sehingga akan membuat ia pincang )

3. Istilah Minang Terkait Makanan

1) Gulai Paku (pakis)

Gulai Paku (pakis) kato orang siko (orang disini), kok ditkang kayu aritainyo (kalau pada tukang kayu artinya) tenau(tentu ) Basi nan malakok ka tongak (besi yang dipatek melekat pada tonggak)

2) Lantak Makan.dan Dindiang Makan(Tancap dan dinding Makan)

Baso (Basa) basi dalam (pada waktu) makan adolo(adalah) nan (yang ) takak tu(seprtiitu), Jan(jangan) mlau makan. Kok malu dindiang mnakan(kalau malau dinding makan), kok inda9JIKA TIDAK) MALU LANTAK MAKAN (TANCAP AKATU SIKAT MAKANNYA). Artinyo (artinya ) KAN ADO DUO (ada dua). lANTAK MAKAN, MAKAN BANALAH (makanlah yang sungguh-sungguhnya) ATAU MEMANG MAKAN LANTAK (makan sebanyk-banyaknya), KAYU NAN (YANG ) DI PANCANGKAN TAGAK LURUIH(tegak luruh ) KE TANAH, NAMONYA (namanya ) DI lANTAK. DINDIANG MAKAN artinya makan dibalik didinding , sehingga tidak tidak kelihatan orang lain, ATAU DIDING MAKAN maksuiknyo (maksudnya) BULIAH JUO MANYUIK (boleh untuk sembunyi ) . IInilah dialek etnis mMinagkabau kota Payakumbuh dan Kabupaten Lima Puluh Kota(Desa).

4.Istilah MinangKabau Sehari-hari

Untuk mengetahui Istilah Minagkabau ysehari-hari, telah di susun oleh Tan (sutan) Pono dalam srtikel yang berjudul KAMUS USANG .

1)Bakua,pekek,katidisng = bakul,wadah yg alasnyo perdegi empat atasnya bulat,terbuar dari anyaman pandan atau rumput ,membawanya biasanya(pada umumnya) dijunjung (diatas kepala)

2)Kambuik,kombuk ,katenteng,kibang =wadah seperti bakul tapi kecil bertali,membawanya disandang atau dijinjing (sat ini seperti alat penyandang handphone-pen)

3)uncang,kampia,kaduik = wadah bentuknya pipih ada yang bertutup biasanya berisih sirih pinang (saya jadi ingat uncang nenek saya biasanya untuk menyimpan duit,di pasang diikat pinggang-pen)

4)Ratak,rotak = retak,belum pecah (sering digunakan dalam hubunga suami isteri atau persaudaraan, katanya laki bini la ratak ,maksunga hubungan suami isteri sudah retak -pen)

6)Biang = hampir berlubang atau tipis ( di betawi lain lagi artinya seperti biang kerok -pen)

7)Tambuak,tobuak,posuak,tirih,balubang = berlubang (sering dipergunakan dalam istilah srawaknyanyo la tabuak ,maksudnua jelananya sudah tembus berlubang,kalau tirih atau tiris pada perahu-pen)

8)Tekong,cupak,galuak = muk ( artinya satu gelas atau alat ukur beras atau beli kacang rebus alias kacang abui-pen)

9)Pagu,salang = loteng

10)Sigai= tangga dari betung ( bambu-pen) yang rantinya tidak dipotong habis biasanya untuk memnajt pohon enau

11)Engge= tempat tidur

12)Gobe= selimut

13)Tika + tilam (tikar, contoh kamngala tia tu mai lai awak arti nya gelarlah tidakr maen kartu kita lagi-pen)

5. Istilah Minang dari Ayah saya

1) Luruih Kuruih artinya lurus kurus maksudnya bila pedagang jujur atau lurus seratus persen memberi tahu modalnya ,ia pasti akan lurus Badan kurus alias miskin, Ini bukan berarti bengkok atau menipu tetapi jadi pedagang harus mampu berbelok-belok tapi tidak keluar dari jalan atau melanggar aturan atu hkum yang berlaku,hukum dunia dan akhirat.

2) jaan jantung pisang artinya jangan jantungnya seperti jantung buah pisang ,lunak harus tegar tidak mudah cemas dan takut menghadapi perobahan ekonomoi dan nilai tukar uarang bila ingin jadi pedagang. (saya jantung pisang dan tak mampu menjalankan sikap luruih kuruih,makayana jadi pengarang, petualang dan koleksi benda unik saja.

6. Lagu Minang dari Penulis Sebagai Penutup

Ruma Gadang (Rumah Besar) nan sambilang ruang (yang sembilan kamarnya atau ruangannya)

Pusako Bundo (pusaka Ibu) sajak dulunya (sejak dulunya)

Bilo den kanang (bIla ku Ingat )

Hati den ka Ibo (hati saya akan iba)

Tabayang bayang (terbayang-bayang ) diruang mato ( didepang mata)

SELESAI @HAK CIPTA Dr IWAN S 2010.

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PERANG VIETNAM melawan DOMMINASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK ABAD KE 15 AD

*ill 001

Disusun oleh Dr IWAN S

Berdasarkan koleksi pribadi dan informasi yang diperoleh saat berkunjung ke Vietnam tahun 2007

PUBLIKASI PREMIUM PRIBADI UNTUK KOLEKTOR

JAKARTA @hakcipta Dr Iwan S 2010

*ill oo1Le loi pahlawan perang pertahanan vietnam terhadap dominasi kerajaan tiongkok abad 15

__________________________________________________________________________

KATA PENGANTAR.

PADA WAKTU PERTUALANGAN SAYA KE HANOI TAHUN 2007, yang kemudian dilanjutkan ke Nanning China meliwati perbatasan yang sangat terkenal Longson dengan nama perbatasan Persahabatan, tempat ini sangat bersejarah pada saat perang pertahanan rakyat Vietnam terhadap dominasikerajaan Tiongkok dipimpim oleh Le Loi dan Nguyen Trai sehingga patung le loi *ill 002 dan nama mereka di DIPATRIKAN PADA SIMPANG DAN JALAN*ill 004 &005 DIMANA SAYA MENGINAP di hotel Phi Vu*ill003 Ho Chi Minh City lihat peta hotel tersebut*ill 6.

*ill oo2
*ill 003 *004

*005 *006

berkat informasi dari pegawai Hotel , karena takut nyasar naik bus maka saya berjalan kaki seorong diri bertualang mencari informasi terkait dengan perang yang sangat bersejarah ini,stelah hampir tiga jam akhirnya saya menemukan sebuah toko buku antik, dan menemukan banyak literatur perang Vietnam termasuk buku tentang Nguyen Trai* dalam bahasa Inggris lihat illustrasi kulit buku tersebut .*ill007

*

saya berusaha menterjemahkan dalam bahasa Indonesia agar Kolektor Bangsa Indon esia dapat memahami semangat Juang dan strategi dari pahlawan Vietnam Nguyen Trai sedemikian istimewa sehingga dapat dijadikan pedoman bagi gnerasi penerus, setelah membaca kisah ini anda dapat memahami mengapa rakyat Vietnam mampu mempertahankan tanah airnya dari dominasi penjajah dari Kerajaan Tiongkok, Prancis dan Amerika Serikat, mereka tetap bersatu menghadang segala tantangan dari luar negeri dan saat ini Vietnam dikatakan sebagai Naga baru yang ekonominya sangat berkembang dengan situasi politik dan ekonomi relatif stabil setelah perang Pembebasan Vietnam terakhir dimenangi oleh rakyat Vietnam tahun 1975.

Tulisan ini masih banyak kekurangannya dan banyak kesalahan ejaan sehingga komentar dan saran perbaikan serta tambahan informasi masih diperlukan liwat komentar,terima kasih.

Terima Kasih kepada berbagai teman di Vietnam yang telah memberikan banyak info dan jugasesama turis yang ditemukan di Vietnam dari Negeri belanda,Israel, Tiongkok dll yang memberikan semangat kepada saya untuk merampungkan tulisan ini.

Tulisan ini tidak dibuat dalam e-book,hanya sebagai karya tulis biasa , kolektor dan teman-teman dapat membacanya dengan gratis, tetapi saya mohon hormatilah hak cipta sya dengan tidak memanfaatkan informasi ini tanpa izin penulis.

Jakarta,July 2010

penulis

Dr IWAN S
ps BAGI YANG BERMINAT MEMILIKI BUKU INI SECARA LENGKAP DAN INGIN DIPUBLIKASIKAN HARAP MENGHUBUNGI EDITOR LIWAT COMMENT.

____________________________________________________________________________

BAB SATU :PROLOG PEMBERONTAKAN LONGSON

I. DOMINASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK PADA DINASTI TERAKHIR TRAN (1407-1427)

*ill oo2

*ill 002 keramik anamese awal masa dinasti Tran yang ditemui di Indonesia,koleksi pribadi Dr IWAN

1.PERANG KERAJAAN VIETNAM(TRAN) VS KERAJAAN CHAMPA(VIJAYA) 1044-1069

1) 1044

Setelah pertempuran yang lama, Kerajaan Champa memindahkan ibukotanya ke selatan , Vijaya dan keluar dari Vietnam, lihat peta kerajaan champa *dan bekas bangunan kuno peninggalan kerajaan tersebut** dibawah ini

* **

.
2)1061

Pada tahun ini Kerajaan Vietnam menyeran Vijaya dan Raja Champa dibunuh.

.2.INVASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK KE DUA (1057-1061)

1)1057
Invasi kerajaan Tiongkok kedua yang dimulai pada tahun in yang akhirnya dapat diatasi oleh rakyat Vietnam dalam perang selama empat tahun sampai tahun 1061

2)1069
Pada tahun inikota Vijaya ditaklukkan untuk kedua kalinya, sehingga Raja Campa , Rudrayarman III melarikan diri ke Kamboja, tetapi dapat ditangkap dan dideportasi ke Dai Viet(nama kerajaan Vietnam saat ini) dan raja Campa terpaksa menyerahkan tiga provinsi yang dicaploknya tahun 790 sebagai imbalan dirinya dibebaskan.

3) 1120
Pada tahun ini Kerajaan Campa berusaha dua kali untuk menduduki provinsi yang hilang, tetapi tidak berhasil.

.4) 1132
Upaya kedua kerajaan Campa untuk merebut provinci yang hilang , tetapi pada saat yang sama Campa juga berperang dengan kerajaan Khmer yang menyebabkan kekuatan Campa berkurang sampai tidak berdaya sama sekali. sehingga tiga provinsi akhirnya terpaksa diserahkan kepada kerajaan Khmer. Kemenangan kerajaan Khmer ini menyebabkan berakhirnya dinasti Ly *dari Vietnam yang memang sudah menurun kekuatannya.

*

5) PERTENGAHAN ABAD KE-12
Campa merdeka lagi, dan kerajaan tersebut ingin melebarkan kekuasaannya diperbatasan , mereka bergerak ke Vietnam ketika Kerajaan Khmer ditarik dari dari daerah tersebut pada pertengahan abak ke-12.Kendatipun demikian terhalang karena Kerajaan Mongol muncul di arena Vietnam dan Campa segera menarik pasukannya untuk menghindari ancaman Mongol.

.6) Pasukan Kerajaan Mongol menyerang dan menduduki kota Hanoi tiga kali ( tahun 1257, 1284, dan 1287) tetapi kerjasama tentara Vietnam dan ankatan laut Campa setiap kali tidak dapat diharapkan walaupun pasukan kerajaan Mongol akhirnya meninggalkan negeri ini

.7) Seorang Jendral Vietnam bernama ,Tran Hung Dao* yang mampu mengalahkan pasukan kerajaan Mongol ,sehingga sampai saat ini masih dianggap sebagai salah satu pahlawan besar Vietnam

*

8)1306
Segera sesudah pasukan Mongol Kublai Khan pergi, raja Campa berusaha membuat persahabatn tetap dengan melamar seorang prinses Vietnam untuk dinikahi oleh raja tersebut. Setelah negosiasi yang mebawa hasil pada tahun ini. Kerajaan Vietnam akan menerima lamaran perkawinan tersebut apabila provinsi Quang Tri dan Hue diserahkan kepada negara tersebut. Sangat mengejutkan, Raja Campa Jaya Sinhavarman III menerima persyaratan tersebut.tetapi kurang dari satu tahun sesudah menikah Raja campa tersebut meninggal dunia dan pengantinya merebut kembali kedua provinsi yang telah diserahkan itu.(kerajaan Campa saat ini berada dibawah kekuasaan kerajaan Sriwijaya Palembang-penulis)

9) 1312
Pada tahun ini bagian Utara dari Kerajaan Vietnam menang lagi dan Raja Campa di penjarakan di Hanoi dan Kerajaan Campa memngirim persembahan kepada kerjaan Vietnam yang saat ini bernama Dai Viet.

.10)1326
Pada tahun ini, setelah beberapa pemberontakan dan kerajaan Vietnam meminta pertolongan kepada Kerajaan Tiongkok, Kerajaan Campa memperoleh kemerdekaan lagi.

.11)1363.
Pada tahun ini kerajaan Campa berusaha merebut provinsi Hue tetapi gagal

.12) 1371
Kemudian dari tahun 1360 sampai 1390, Raja kerajaan Campa yang terkenal bernama Chu Bong Nga*

ia merencanakan beberapa kali pemberontakan yang meneror kerajaan Dai Viet sampai ke Hanoi dan seluruh provinsi tersebut berada di bawah kekuasan Kerajaan Campa.

.13) 1398
Segera setelah Raja Campa yang terkenal tersebut meninggal dunia tahun ini, pasukan Dai Viet menaklukan selurh provinsi sampai Da Nang . Ibukota dipindahkan dari hanoi ke Thanh Hoa agar Kaisar lebeh dekat denga daerah pertempuran.Kemudian terjadilah peningkatan krisis didalam negeri Vietnam.

14) 1407
Seorang jendral bernama Ho Qui Ly naik tahta, yang merupakan kaisar terakhir dinasty Tran dengan nama kaisar Tran Hung Dao*

*
Ia adalah seorang reformis yang kaku tetapi ia meminta dukungan dari kerajaan Tiongkok dan pada tahun 1407 Tentara Kerajaan tiongkok menghilangkan bantuan dari me membangun kemabli kerajaan Tran, Penguasa Kerajaan tiongkok yang baru, Dinasti Ming, membuat negara Vietnam sebagai provinsi kerajaan Tiongkok.tetapi tidak berhasil karena mereka memaksa pengunaan bahasa dan pakaian Tiongkok sehingga segera timbul revolusi rakyat Vietnam.

.15 .1418

1).Le Loi dan Nguyen Trai mencetuskan pemberontakan Lang Son yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Perang Pertahanan Rakyat Vietnam terhadapa dominasi Kerajaan Tiongkok ( invasi dari Dinasti Ming.)

.2) Pada tahun in para pejuang Vientnam dipimpin oleh Le loi, seorang Tuan Tanah yang kaya dari Thanh Hoa dan pasukan gerilianya sangat sukses

16) 1428
Setelah Le Loi bergerilia selama sepuluh tahun sampai akhirnya pasukan kerajaan Ming meninggalkan Hanoi .(sejarah lengkap pemberontakan dapat dibaca pada bab berikutnya.)

Le Loi memproklamasikan dirinya sebagai Raja dan menganti namanya dengan Le Thai To, dan membangun dinasti Le Kedua..
Setelah perang, Kerajaan Vietnam menirim utusan ke Tiongkok unutk meminta maaf atas “Perilaku Yang tidak bertanggung jawab” dari para Gerilyawannya yang melecehkan Tiongkok , mereka juga telah mengirimkan permintaan maaf saat kemenanggan Vietnam abd ke 10 dan ke 13), hal ini berhub unggan dengan ajaran Konfusius, menjaga Harmoni dan menjaga agar Kerajaan Tiongkok tidak kehilangan Muka, Kerajaan Tiongkok selalu menerima ucapan maaf tersebut, malah juga pada saat setelah merdeka.
.17) 1441
Pada tahun ini upaya penyerangan Kerajaan Campa mulai sekali lagi.

,18) 1446
Pada tahun ini ,setelah lima tahun perang, Kerajaan Vietnam menduduki Vijaya tetapi tidak beberapa lama Kerajaan Campa bangkit lagi.

.19) 1460
Pada akhirnya kaisar Vietnam Le Thanh Tong (1460-97) dapat mengakhir konflik dengan kerajaan Campa tersebut . Kaisar Le Thanh Tong menaklukan kerajaan Campa pada akhir tahun dan Tanah bekas kerajaan campa di Vietnam dibagikan kepada masyarakat yaitu pendukung dan tentara yang tidak memiliki tanah. Kerajaan Campa kemudian menjadi Sekte cabang agama Islam dan bermukim didaerah antara Pantai Cam Ranh dan Saigon.,
(Pada tahun 1697 Saigon menjadi kota Kerajaan Vietnam dan pada tahun 1720, rakyat kerajaan Campa migrasi ke Kamboja dan Siam unutk menghindari hukuman kerajaan vietnam . Raja Campa terakhir meninggal tahu 1822 dan saat ini penduduk Campa tinggal 150.000, bebarapa orang Vietnam percaya bahwa permasalahan yang dihadapi Vietnam saat perang vietnam abad ke-20 adalah retribusi apa yang dilakukan nenek moyang mereka terhadap Campa, saat ini kerajaan Campa hanya tinggal kenangan saja berupa puing sisa bangunan yang illustrasi dapat dilihat sebelum ini dan beberapa patung peninggalan kerajaan tersebut yang ditemui *

_______________________________________________________________________

B INVASI KERAJAAN DINASTI MING KE VIENTAM PADA ABAD KE-15 MASEHI

1. PROLOG
Setelah Kerajaan Vietnam kecapaen oleh perperangan terhadap Kerajaan Campa, Kerajaan Vietnam mengalami perang lagi dengan Kerajaaan Tiongkok Dinasti Ming, yang menguasai Vietnam dan m ungkin adalah hal yang sangat mngenskan dlam sejarah Vietnam.
(1)Pasukan kerajan Tiongkok memaksa penduduk Vietnam bekerja ditambang Emas dan mineral lainnya, memotong Pohon yang langka dan menanam tanaman rempah, seluruhnya diekspor ke Tiongkok dengan gaidng dan tanduk badak,mutiara dan batu mulia.

.(2)Secara drastis mereka menerapkan kultur ada Tiongkok, menghancurkan literatur bahasa Vietnam dan si sekolah dengan bahasa Tiongkok, menekat adat Vietnam dan hanya diizinkan hanya untuk menyembah Tuhan Tiongkok.

.(3)Mereka menetapkan pakain Tiongkok untuk wanita, melarang pria memotong rambut dan melangar hukum makan pinang kapur sirih, bangasa vietnam sama seperti gula-gula karet untuk dikunyah bangsa Tiongkok.

.(4)Mereka menbuat suatu administratif khususu, menerbitkan kartu identitas famili,s ebagian dikontrol mereka dan sebagian sebagai dasar pemungutan pajak. (sampai akhir perang pembebasan Vietnam tahun 1975 kartu identitas family dan kartu pungutan pajak teap ada di Vietna, terutama pada orang Tiongkok perantauan yang dapat menjadi suatu koleksi yang menarik-penulis)

2. PENDUDUKAN KERAJAAN MING

1)Pendudukan Ming memicu pemberontakan di prakarsai oleh Le Loi dan pembantunya, Penyair Nguyen Trai yang menyusun strategi dengan syairnya.

(DOKTRIN VIETMINH SAM DENGAN STARTEGY NGUYEN TRAI SEBAGAI DASAR AKSI MILITER PADA AKSI POLITIK DAN MORAL PERJUANGAN YAITU :”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel” Lebih Baik Merebut Hati dari Benteng)

_________________________________________________________________________

II. PERANG PERTAHANAN NGUYEN TRAI -LE LOI TERHADPA DOMINASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK DINASTI MING

A. PROLOG

1.1418

Pada tahun ini Le Loi memprolamirkan dirinya sebagai pangeran Ketenangan.( Pacification) dan ia mengibarkan bendera Revolusi. Ia mengungsi ke Gunung bersama pengikutnya, teman-teman juga pejuang lokal, melatih mera taktik gerilya yang dapat dimanfaatkan terhadap kaisas Tran Hung Dao yang bergabung dengan tentara kerajaan tiongkok mongol.Pasukan kerajaan Tiongkok menjadi tidak aman akibat menyebarnya , mereka ahnya bertahan dikota dan hanya muncul pada siang hari, Batalion mereka yang besar berada di jalan besar dan pemberotak membuat anjungan pertahanan sepanjang jalan. strategi ini ditiru para perang Vietminh dan vietkong pada abad ke-20.

Secara berangsur-angsur setelah angkatan bersenjatanya seimbang, Le Loi menyerang pasukan kerajaan Tiongkok secara langsung,menyusun peleton gajah bersama kavaleri berkudanya.Penasehatnya,penyair Nguyen Trai* menyusun startegy dalam bentuk syair yang terkenal dengan “LEBIH BAIK MENAKLUKAN HATI DARI PADA BENTENG”

*

.

2. 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong.

3.1428
1)The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth)

B. VERSI PERTAMA PERANG LELOI DAN NGUYEN TRAI (Stenley Karnow version ,Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997)

1.The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman.

2.In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?”

3.1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth)

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”

3. 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope:

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors,

4. 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth)

B. PERANG PERTAHANAN LE LOI DAN NGUYEN TRAI VERSI HANOI
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980)*ill kulit buku **illustrasi nguyentrai halaman dalam buku

* **

(a) Biography

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi.

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher.

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan.

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty.

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi.

(b) Basic History

1)During Childhood

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement.

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education.

2) During youth

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought.

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom.

3) During manhood

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century.

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China.

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?”

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life.

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province.

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism.

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts.

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers.

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth)

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two.

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds.

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth)

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price.

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam.

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse.

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader.

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain.

(1) 1417

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta.

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth)

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests.

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser.

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth)

___________________________________
d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
____________________________________

(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions.

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An.

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung .

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements.

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy.

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat.

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth)

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son.

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters.

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites.

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed* together with all members of his family.
*

Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu)

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth)

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour.

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below)

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch :

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ?

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food.

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo:

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks.

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier.

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem :

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem :

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison :

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame”

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem :

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Teman.mengapa saya harus kembali disini?

Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
Mengapa saya berjuang dalam kehidupan penuh debu?

What use are palaces and coaches ? apagunanya istana dan lapangannya ?

Water and vegetables are quite enough Air dan sauyan cukup tersedia

Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals; tentu seoran manusia biasa dan bodoh tidaklah cukup;

But each is searching for what he disstres-Tetapi setiap orang mencari apa yang mengnyakitinya

Life lasts one hundred years at most.-Kehidupan kebanyakan akan berakhir pada seratus tahun.

And all of us turn again to dust and grass-Dan kita semuan berubah jadi abu dan rumput.

Friend , Listen to my mountain song.Teman , perhatikan laugu gunung saya.

Kendatipun ,selain menemukan konsilidasi dengan alam daan pemandangan saat masa kecil, Nguyen trai gagal menemukan ketenagan pikiran perdamaian dan menulis syair.(However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem)

My country, all I have to give you is my heart-Tanah airku,saya telah memberikan seluruh hatiku
Torments inside me have chased away all repose-menusuk kedalam kalbuku yang telah menghilangkan seluruh reaksiku,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn.-Pada bantalku I tetap bangun sampai pagi hari

(10) Syair Nguyen Trai yang terbaik adalah “Prolami Kemenangan atas NGO”( The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”-dari Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428)

(a) dikatan (It was said) :
Untuk menjamin Perdamiai buat rakyat(To ensure peace for the people). Layaknya suatu essensi Kemanusian dan perdamaian (Such is the essence of humanity and peace),

Untuk menghilangkan kekerasan(To eliminate violence), seperti terutama perilaku tentara kita (such is the primary aim of our soldiers)
Tanah Air kita Dai Viet-Vietnam perkasa (Our country Dai Viet) sudah lama sejak masakeb ujaan tuan Tanah yang lama(has long since beenLand of old culture),

Dengan sungai dan gunung miliknya, cara dan kostumnya berb eda dari bagian Utara (With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,Different from of the North)

Kaisar Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, membangun kemerdekaan kita dan berdiri sederajat deng kasiar Han, Tang ,sung, Yuan (The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan)

Kita tahu saat kejayaan dan waktu kemunduran ( We had know both days of greatness and times of decline),
tetapi kita tidak pernah kekurangan pahlawan(But never had lacked heroes)oleh karena itu mengapa kita mengikuti ambisi jahat Luu Chung(That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions)

(b)Dan mimpi Trieu Tie menaklukan dan menduduki Toa dan Ham Tu(And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa and at ham Tu.) and membunuh O Ma di sungai Bach Dang(And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang)
Contoh peningalan eksploitasi ini (Proof remain of those exploits),
Pada saat mulanya kebijakan yang membawa kekacauan akibat provokasi Ho menyulut kemarah(In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho Provoked anger and ressentmen.

(c)Kerajaan Ming mengambil keuntungan dengan memnimbulkan kesengaraan di Tanah air kita(The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.)
Dan para traitors menjual tanah air kita untuk uang dan kehormatan(And traitors sold the country for money and honours),
Rakyat dibakar dalam nyala api oleh bangsa barbar atau dikubur dalam kuburan bencana( The people were burnt on the flames of barbarityOr buried in the tombs of disasters.)
Untuk memperoleh Nirwarna dan orang, para insvai mengunakan ribuan amesin perang(To decieved Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations);
Selama dua puluh tahun mereka membunuh dan menghancurkan (For twenty years they killed and oppressed.)
Kemanusian dan Keadilan dilenyapkan, Tanah diambil alih, kurs dan pajak menguras hutan dan ladang sampai kosong (Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty)

Penduudk dikirim ke mulut hiu laut saat menyelam mutiara(Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls),
Lainnya menderita deman saat mendulang emas dari tanah,(Others into fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand),
Dimana-mana dipasang jaring dan perangkap oleh penduduk untuk menangkap rusa(Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer),
Tanpa perlidungan terhadap tusukan tanaman maupun serangga( Neither plants nor insects were spared.)
Meninggalkan banyak janda dan yatim piatu (Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans).

(d)Rakyat kurus dan kelaparan,tetapi penghisap darah tidak pernah puas(The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied);
Dunia dipindahkan,kayu diukir,rumah dan istana dibangun(Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built);
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak.

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes.

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil.

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies.

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains.

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned.

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered.

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest.

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed.

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth)

Vietnam War 2.1 – Before the European Came
October 18, 2009 by uniquecollection

I. 1. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR
“ BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME”

1.1.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY

1.1.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONOLOGY

1.1.3 ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR

LITERATURE

___________________________________
1.1 VIETNAM WAR BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME.
___________________________________________

1.1.1.THE ANCIENT DYNASTY
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE)

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY)

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC)

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD)

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD)

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)
*The 12 Lord Rebellion (966-968)

b) 10-13 th CENTURY OF INDEPENDENCE

* EARLY LE’ DYNASTY ( 981-1009)
@ LE HOANG ( (O981-1009)

*LY’ DYNASTY(1009-1025)
@ LY CONG UAN (1009-1025)

*TRA’N DYNASTY (1225-1400)

6) very short time dynasty before Fourth Chinese dominations
* HO’ DYNASTY (1400-1407)

5)Long Time dynasty after Fourth/last time Chinese (Ming) domination

LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780)
*EARLY LE’ (1428-1788)
*RESTORED LE’1533-1788
# MAC DYNASTY 1527-1592
@ THE LE-MAC FIGHTING (1527-1592)
# SOUTHERN & NOTHERN DYNASTY
1533-1592
#TRINH-NGUYEN WAR 1627-1673

b) China domination

1) SECOND DOMINATION(43-544)

*TRUNG NU VUONG (40-43)
*LADY TRIUE’S REBELLION (240)
*TRIEU THI THRINH (248)
* 1st LY DYNASTY
@ LY BAN (541-544)

2)THIRD DOMINATION(602-905)
*MAI HAC DE’OR MAI THUC LOAN (722)
*PHUNG HUNG(791-798)
*NGO QUYEN(939-964)
*DINH BO LINH(968-980)
3)FOURTH DOMINATION (1407-1427)
* LATER TRA’N DYNASTY (1407-1413)
* LAM SON REBELLION(1418-1427)

C) AUTONOMY (905-938)
*KHUC FAMILY(906-930)
*DUONG DINH NGE’(931-947)
*KIE’U CONG TIEN(937-938)

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago).

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC)

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty.

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself.

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD)

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD)

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC.

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination)

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”.

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?)

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence.

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth)

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth)

a. PRA REBELLION

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380)

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti .

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south.

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) .

(4) 104-86 BC

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti.

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth)

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth)

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams.

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion .

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination.

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs.

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report.

___________________________________
2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD.

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide .

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide.

b) The Third Chinese domination 602-905.

1) Though the Chinese conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted.

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information

3) Phung Hung (791-798)

Not yet information

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history.

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”.

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict.

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times.

c) Fourth Chinese domination(1407-1427)

1)Later Tran dynasty (1407-1413)

(1)1418
Le Loi and Nguyen Trai (Lam Son rebellion ) resistent war against Ming dynasty Invation.

b.Vietnam Independent ‘s Kingdom

1)Trung Sister *40-43)

2) Early Ly dynasty (544-602)

3) Autonomy (905-939)
* Khuc Family (906-930)
* Duong Dinh Nghe’(931-937)
* Kie’u Co’ng Tien (937-938)

4)Ngo dynasty (966-968)
* The 12 Lord rebellion (966-968)
The emperor of NGO dynasty couldn’t subdue the dozen local armies chief and never recognation from Chinese.

5) Dinh dynasty (968-980)
The emperor of Dinh dynasty more ephemera and defeated the warlord and pacified Chinese with tribute.
6) Early Le’ dynasty (980-1009)
The emperor of early Le’ dynasty, Le Hoan He was a very successful king.
He defeated a Chinese inavtion in 980 and after that attack Champa.

7) Ly’ dynasty (1009-1225)
Ly’ dynasty defeated emperor of early Le dynasty in 1009 after he come back from attacked Champa.

8)Tra’n dynasty (1225-1400)

9) Ho’ dynasty (1400-1407)

10) Later Le’ dynasty (1420-1780)
* Early Le’(1428-1788)

__________________________________
2.2.2. Chronology of Ancient Vietnam Rebellion/Resistent war AD.
___________________________________

1)First Rebellion in 40 AD

(a)Lady Trung Trac, avenging the murder of her dissident husband by a Chinese commander, let the first major Vietnamese insurrection against China.

(b)She and her sister, Trung Nhi, mustered other restive nobles and their vassal, including another women, Phung Thi Chinh, who supposedly gave birth to a baby in the middle of the battle yet continued to fight with the infant strapped to her back.

(c) They vanquished the Chinese in A.D. 40 and with the Trung sisters as Queen., set up an independent state that stretched from Hue into southern China.

(d) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed in this year and the Trung sisters commited suicide- in aristocratic style- by throwing themselves into river.
( The Vietnamese still venerate them at temples in Hanoi, Sontay and elsewhere and the communistacclaim them as Pioneer nationalist. Madame Ngho Dinh Nhu, sister-in-law of South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem, erected a statue in Saigon in 1962 to commerate their patriotism- and also to promote herself as their reincar-nation, read more at chapter Saigon Regime -1955-1963 auth)

2)The Second Rebellion in 248 AD

a)Another women , Trieu Au, revolt against China in A.D. 248 , a generation after the collapse of Han Dynasty.

b)She wearing golden armor and riding an elephant as she led a thousand men into battle.

c)Gloriously defeated at the age of twenty-three, she committed suicide rather than suffer the shame of surrender.
( like the Trung sisters, she is remenbered by a temple, and by her words of defience :” I want to rail against the wind and the tide, kill the whales in the sea, sweep the whole country to save the people from slavery, and I refuse to be abused”
These femine exploits, doubtless inflates in popular legend, illustrate the unique status of women in Vietnam society.
In contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in Asia and even in Europe, emancipated only recently, they could traditionally inherit land , serve as trustees of ancestral cuts and share their husband’s property(Stenley Karnow)
(In Indonesia the same Lady’s emancipation hero in Aceh where the Tsunami tragedy, “Cut Nya Dinh”, I have ever seen her momunent and House at Bandar Acheh ex Kutaraja or the King city , this province very famaous due to Tsunami and GAM rebellion, now became autonom islamic province Aceh Darusalam -auth)

_________________________________
3) The Warlods rebellions in 938 -968

(a)Historian distinguish fifteen dynasties in Vietnamese history. Four were were the short lived independent government that revolt against Chinese rule before 939.
The next three also had very short careers, numbering in all eight kings over a seventy-year period.

(b) The Ngo Dynasty (939-968)
The first of these, the NGO (939-968), was unable to subdue a dozen local military chiefs and never secured recognition from China.

(c)The Dinh dynasty (968-979) was even more ephemeral, but it defeated thewarlords and pacified the Chinese with tribute. The new Emperor Dinh Bo Linh ascended the throne and called his state “Dai Co Viet” the Kingdom of watchfull hawk,
The son of an official, he organized the peasant army commanded by the urban intelectual.
His dynasty lasted only in one decade but he won the chinese recognation of the Vietnamese ‘s independent in exchange for regular payment tributes.
The tributes arrangement which was the typical chinese relations with the other state in South East Asia.
( the same with Indonesia state , but emperor srivijaya during Yuan Dynasty didn’t want to send the tribute and made the “tattoo” cross scar the Yuan Envoy Ming Tse, and the Emperor Kublai Khan send the army to punish the Kingdom os Singasari’s King , read at The Travelling’s Unique collections in this blog-auth)

(d) The early Le Dynasty(979-1009)
This dynasty had a very successful king named Le Hoan He. He defeated a Chinese invasion in 981 and in the following year he attacked Champa, killed its King, sacked the Champ capital Indrapura and came home with an enormous amount of booty His successor. However , was dethroned by the first monarch of the Ly dynasty,

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4) The two centuries stabled Ly dynnasty (1009-1225)
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(a) The Ly dynasty replaced the warlord with a Chinese-style civil service was stable enough to last over twocenturies

(b)The Ly monarch called their country Dai Viet, but the Chinese name of Annam (The Pacified South) was used everywhere else. The country prospered and the goverment encouraged cultural process by vigorously promoting literature, art and Mahayana Buddhism .
But DaiViet growth was always threatened by external wars.
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5) The Vietnam-Champa war (1044-1069) and Second Chinese invation, four years war (1057-61)
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(a)Long feud with Champa was renewed the Champs moved the capital south to Vijaya to keep it out of Vietnam .

(b) 1044
in this year the vietnamese sacked Vijaya and killed the Champ king again 1061.

(c)1057
A 2nd Chinese invation was defeated at four years war from this years until 1061

(d)1069
Vijaya was sacked a second time in this year . This time the Cham king, Rudrayarman III was chased into Cambodia, captured and deported to Dai Viet had surrender the three provices taken in 790 to regain his freedom,

(e) 1120
The Champs made two attempts to recover the lost provinces but didn’t suceed.

(f) 1132
The second Champs attempts to recover the lost province but another war with the Khmers at the same time reduced Champa to impotence.
Then Cambodian monarch pursued the same role in the Vietnamese-Cham scrap and the three disputed province ended up under Khmer.
The Khmer victories finished off the Ly Dynasty which was already in decline.

(g) Mid 12th century
Champa was independent again, and wanted a rematch over the disputed border province.
They went to Vietnam by default when the Khmer withdrew from that area in the mid 12th century.
This time however, the feud barely got strated when the Mongol empire appeared on scene.
Vietnam and Champa quickly put aside their squabble to meet the Mongol threat.

(h The Mongol attacked and took Hanoi three times ( in1257, 1284, and 1287) but the combination of vietnamese army and Cham navy infl icted unacceptable losses each time.
Eventually theMongols gave up and evacuated the country .

(i) The Vietnamese general who defeated the Mongols Tran Hung Dao is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese History.

(j)1306
Once Kublai Khan was gone, the king of Champa tried to make the new friendship permanent by asking for a Vietnamese princess in marriage. After negotiations that dragged on until 1306,
the Vietnamese said they would allow the marriage if Champa give up the provinces of Quang Tri and Hue. Suprisingly, the Cham king, Jaya Sinhavarman III, accepted.
But he died less than a year after the wedding, and his successor started a new war to take back the two province.

(k) 1312
This Time the nothrern kingdom won again, by 1312 the Cham king was a prisoner in Hanoi, and Champa paid tribute to Dai Viet.

(l)1326
In this year, after several rebellions and an appeal to China, Champa regained her independence.

(m)1363.
The Champs tried to take back Hue in this year but failed.

(n) 1371
Then came Chu Bong Nga (1360-90) Champ’s most outstanding king.
The series of well-planned raid she made against Dai Viet kept theVietnamese in a state of terror during the reign.
In this year, he even pillaged Hanoi. All the disputed territory came under Champa’s rule.

(o) 1398
As soon as he was dead, however, the Vietnamese conquered every-thing as far as Da Nang and in this year.
The capital was moved from Hanoi to Thanh Hoa so that the king could be closer to the action.Then a crisis at home hail the Vietnamese progress.

(p) 1407
A general named Ho Qui Ly usurped the throne.
He was a capable and bold reformer, but the suppoters of the Tran dynasty called in Chinese aid, and in 1407 a Chinese army removed the usurper instead of re-establishing Tran rule, China’s new rulers, The Ming dynasty, made the country a Chinese province,it didn’t work, the Chinese imposed their language and customs soseverely that the Vietnamese revolted almost immediately.

(q) 1418
In this year the rebels found a capable leaders named Le Loi, a wealthy landowner from Thanh Hoa. His guerrilla campaign was succesful,

(r) 1428
ten years after the Le Loi guerilla, the Chinese abandoned Hanoi.( Complete strory read another chapter Lang Som rebellion by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai-auth)
Le Loi proclaimed himself king, changed his name to Le Thai To, and founded the second Le dynasty.
After the war , the Vietnamese sent gift earing emissaries to China to apologized for the” irresponsible behavior” of their guerillas who had ambushed the Chinese ( they also sent embassies to apologized for Vietnamese victories in the 10th and 13th centuries).
This was in accord with the teachings of Confucius, preserving harmony and saving the Chinese from too much loss of face.
The Chinese always appreciated that thev Vietnamese, even when independent.

(s) 1441
In this year, the feud with Champa started up one more time ,

(t) 1446
In this year , after five years war, the Vietnamese occupied Vijaya,but for long, for the Chams soon recovered it.

(u) 1460
It was Le Thanh Tong (1460-97) Vietnam’s greatest king, who ended the conflict once .

(v) 1471
Emperor Le Thanh Tong conquer-ing of Campa in this year. The Land was given to masses of landless soldiers and peasant.
The Champs coverted to the Shite branch of Islam and withdrew to the area between Cam Ranh Bay and Saigon, but they were never given a chance to establish their kingdom,
(By 1697 Saigon itself had become a Vietnamese city and In 1720 the remaining Chams migrated into Cambodia and Siam to escape Vietnamese persecution.
The last king of yhe Chams died in 1822, and there are only 150.000 Chams left to day. Some Vietnamese believe that the problems their country has suffered in the twentieth century are divine retribution for whattheir ancestors did to Champa-auth).

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6) Kublai Khan Invaded Vietnam in 13th centuries.
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(a)The Mongol emperor invaded Vietnam tree times, pushing south to control the spice routes of the Indonesian Archipelago.(read Meng Chi affairs-auth).

(b)The Vietnamese, commanded by the illustrious Tran Hung Dao, repulsed each offensive . Like outnumbered Vietnamese officers before and since, he relied on mobile method of warfare, abandoning the cities, avoiding frontal attacks, and harassing his enemies until, confused and exhausted, they were ripe for Final attack.

(c)In the last great battle, which took place in the Red River valley in 1287.

(d)The Vietnamese routed three hundred thousand Mongol troops.
In a victory poem, a Vietnamese general affirmed that “ this ancient land shall live forever”
(Seven centuries later, the Vietminh commander, General Vo Nguyen Giap, evoked Tran Hung Dao’s memory as he launched an operation against the French in the same area- S.Karnow,p-113)

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THE TRAN DYNASTY (1225-1400)

(1)1225

(a)After many yeqrs in the civil state, it was replaced with the Tran dynasty.
The tran dynasty pursued the same policies that worked during the Ly dynasty.

(b) Porcelein Village during Tran dynasty
According to the Bautrang and Giang Cao village’s descended records, during the Tran Dynasty , three Thai hoc sinh degree scholars ( an academic degree in the feudal education) were sent by the King to China as envoys.
These scholars were Hua Ving Kieu ( Bat Trang village) , Dao Tri Tien (Tho Ha Village) and Luu Phuong Tri ( Phu Lang village) .
On the way home , as three passed Thien Chu area , a big storm came. They were forced to stop to rest.
There they found the Kai Feng pottery plandt , thus, the scholar learned pottery production techni-ques.
When returned home, they educated their fellow villagers in ceramics.
Each scholar had a distinct syle, which led to the spesific styles of their villages.
Bat Trang produced white enamelled pottery, Phu Lang produced brown enamelled pottery, and Tho Ha produced brown enamelled that drips from the center.
One of Bat Trang pottery ‘s features is its white clay with Kaolin ( Hoa Vin Kieu from Bat Trang village knowed the Chinese secrete of the petunse or kaolin that made the strong porcelain, the finished products are decorated with simple or complex pattern
(I have found very rare blue-white big tea cup porcelain with the simple decoration near same with the rare Yuan dynasty tea cup .
Before someone told me that the chinese potters came to Vietnam , and the vietnamese learned from them ,this were the wrong information when I found the Heritage magazine july/August 2007 at the Vietnam air flight from Ho Chi Minh city to Saigon. the photo of that rare Tran dynasty cup, near same with an early blue-white Annamese cup on the internet’s auction , as the front cover of the subchapter Ancient Vietnam war before european came, I also have the Brown Jar with the ear like string and incised flower from Phu Lang village, this Jar very popular list the book of Annamese ancient Pottery, put in the Adan Malik Museum, and Rockefeller Museum, if someone preferred to looked at that unique and beautiful Jar , please aasked in the comment – auth)
Many new enamel materials and color have been invented and used profieciently by Bat Trang pottery makers. Unlike many other pottery center with development of the trade Bat Trang villagers has adopted favorably. It is not only a production center but also now a popular tourist destination that attracts hundreds of visitors a day. The products in Bat Trang diversified from simple bowls, dishes, cups, and pots to eleborated dragon styled lamps on sophisticated statues. Economically Bat Trang has grown to be the few rich handicraft village nationwide. (Pham Cao Quy & Ca’t Tuong ,Ceramic Travel, Heritage magazine,page 15-16, july/August .2007)

(c)Many valuable documents and pictures of religious building under the Tran Dynasty were found and put in the museum.
This compartement introducing the striking development of the Dai Viet in 13th-14th centuries inmany fields ( economy, politics, culture , arts) .
It is in this period when the feudal state in Vietnam became a prosperous and powerful kingdom in the region.
( The information about Bat Trang early simple decoration Blue-white porcelains from the Ceremic travels by Pham Cao Quy and Ca’tr Tuo’ng was true, I will write nex time Ceramic Travel in Indonesia to found the situs where many foreign’s Ceramic artifact were found, the area near the Ceramic port like China city near Medan, Palembang during Sung-Ming and Qing dynasty era, Banten Lama near Bantam ancient port during last Ming dynasty era, Tuban,, Mojopahit east Java , Ketapang and Maya-Karimata island west Borneo at the Sung. late Yuan and early Ming dynasty era-auth)
Many Tran dynasty artifacts are preserved and exhibited of the Vietnam Museum of History. Including pictures and artifacts of famous historical sites Pho Minh Pagoda and Tower (Nam Dinh), Kiep Bac Temple (Hai Duong), Binh Son Tower (Vinh Phuc), Van Ban Bell (Hai Phong), Da Boi Shield (Thai Binh).
There are also exhibits to these victorious resistance wars against Yuan-Mongolian aggresors and the policies and socio-economic development, state apparatus consolidation, and the construction of dyke system.(source Baotanglichau vn)
In this museum also exhibit
(1) the Collection of folk and royal ceramics bearing characteristic styles of the Tran’s Dynasty especially brown-pattern ceramic articles.
These constitutes an original part of the Vietnamese ancient ceramics, with many beautiful and precious samples of various types bowls, plates, saucers, basin, jars, jugs etc. Richly decorated with decorative pattern ( dragon, birds, fish, lotus, flowers, bodhi leaves)

(2)Terracota artifactural materials and ornament (paving tiles decorated with lotus or chrysanthenum, roof-tiles with dragon , phoenixes, bodhi leaves ). These the evidence of the continuance development under the Tran Dynasty.(Museum Vietnam History of Tran Dynasty

(d) The Long established dynasty after the Mongolian invaded.

(2) 1225

(a)The Tran,s dynasty which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriege between one of its nembers and the last Ly monarch, an eight-old princess.
Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400) the country prospered and flourished as the Tran rulers carried out extensive Land reform, improved public adnministration , and encourage the study of chinese literature.

(b) The Tran however, are best remembered for their defense of the country agains the Mongols and the Cham by 1225, theMongolia controle most Nothern China and Manchuria and were eying southern China ,Vietnam and Champa.

(3)1257 and 1284
The Mongol armies of Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam,sacking the capital Thang Long( rename Ha Noi in 1831) on each occasion, only to find that the Vietnamese under theleadership of General Tran Hung Dao drove shortage of supplies , the climate , and the Vietnamese strategy of harasment and scorchedearth tactic foliled the first two invation.

(4)1287
The third Mongol invasion of 300.000 men and avast fleet was also defeated by the Vietnamese under the leadersih of Generan Tran Hung Dao.
Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat aninvading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River ( located in northen Vietnam present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung andQuang Ninh province) and then with a smallVietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. Trapped or impaled by iron-tipped stakes, as the entire Mongol fleet of 400 craft was sunk, capture or burned by Vietnamese fire arrows. The Mongolsarmy retreat to China, harassed enroute byTran Hung Dao’s troops.

(5) 1312
The fourteen century was marked by wars with Champa, which Tran reduced to a feudatory state by 1312.

(6) 1326
Champa freed itself again by 1326 .

(7)1360
under the leadership of Champ hero Che Bong Nga, staged a series of attacks on Vietnam between 1360 and 1390,

(8) 1371
Sacking Than Long in 1371 . The Vietnamese again gainedthe the upper hand following the death of CheBong Nga and resumed their southward advance at Champa’s expense. Despite their erlier success, the quality of Tran rulers had declined marked by the end of the fourteenth century, opening the way for explotation of the pheasantry by the feudal landlord class, which caused anumber of insurrections .

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7) HO DYNASTY (1400- 1407 )
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a)1400
General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself the founder of the short –lived Ho dynasty(1400-1407).
He instituted a number of reforms that were the rental of excess land by the state to landless peasants, proclaimed printed in Vietnamese rather than Chinese, and free schools in provincial capitals. Threatened of by the reforms, some ofthe landowners appealed to China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to intervene.

b)1407
Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming asserted Chinese control in 1407,

c)1407-1427
Nguyen Trai rebellion against chinese Ming invasion( The complete history in The Ming Invation below ,source the Nguyen Trai book ,I have found in Hanoi book’s fleamarkets in 2007-auth)

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The Ming Invation Vietnam
in 15th Century.
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a) Prologue
Exhausted by their campaigns against Champa, the Vietnamese again fell prey to China, now unified under the Ming dynasty, whose brief rule over Vietnam was probably the harshest in its history.
(1) Chinese gauleiters forced Vietnamese peasants to mine for gold and other ores, cut rare woods and grow spices, all to be exported to china along with elephent tusks, rhinoceros horns, pearls and precious stones.
(2)They drastically imposed Chinese culture, confiscated Vietnamese literature and compelled schools to teach in Chinese, suppressed Vietnam cults and permitted only the worship of Chinese gods.
(3)They decreed Chinese dress for Women, prohibited men from cutting their hair and even outlawed betel nut, the Vietnamese equivalent of chewing gum.
(4)They created an administrative grill, issuing Identity cards to families, partly to control them and partly to streamline tax collection
( Until the end of the Vietnam liberation war in 1975, the Identity card and land tax collections still keep by the Vietnamese, especially the chinese overseas, that is why we can made the exciting document , revenue fiscal , and postal history collections-auth)

b) The Ming occupation

(1)The Ming occupation inevitably provoked an issurrection . Vietnam’s savior this time ,Le Loi and his adviser, the poet Nguyen Trai , set the Vietnamese strategy in an assay
(Vietnam Communist Vietminh doctrine of insurgency similar with the Nguyen Trai strategy, Subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it sated:”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel”

(2)1418
Le Loi proclaimed himself the prince of Pacification (in vietnamese “Annam”-auth), he raised the banner of revolt.

(3) 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong.

(4) 1428
The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth)

c)There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth)

(1)*Stenley Karnow version (Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997)

(a)The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman.

(b)In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?”

(c)1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth)

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”

(d) 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope:

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors,

(e) 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth)

(2)Hanoi’s Version
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980)

(a) Biography

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi.

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher.

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan.

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty.

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi.

(b) Basic History

1)During Childhood

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement.

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education.

2) During youth

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought.

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom.

3) During manhood

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century.

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China.

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?”

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life.

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province.

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism.

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts.

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers.

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth)

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two.

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds.

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth)

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price.

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam.

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse.

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader.

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain.

(1) 1417

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta.

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth)

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests.

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser.

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth)

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d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
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(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions.

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An.

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung .

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements.

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy.

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat.

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth)

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son.

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters.

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites.

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed together with all members of his family.
Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu)

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth)

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour.

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below)

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch :

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ?

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food.

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo:

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks.

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier.

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem :

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem :

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison :

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame”

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem :

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
What use are palaces and coaches ?
Water and vegetables are quite enough
Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals;
But each is searching fr what he drestres
Life lasts one hundred years at most
And all of us turn again to dust and grass
Friend , Listen to my mountain song.

However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem

My country, all I have to give you is my heart
Torments inside me have chased away all repose,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn.

(10) The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”
( Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428)

(a) It was said :
To ensure peace for the people. Such is the essence of humanity and peace,
To eliminate violence, such is the primary aim of our soldiers
Our country Dai Viet has lng since been
Land of old culture,
With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,
Different from of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan
We had know both days of gretness and times of decline,
But never had lacked heroes
That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions

(b)And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa d at ham Tu.
And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang
Proof remain of those exploits,
In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho
Provoked anger and reseentment.

(c)The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.
And tratitors sold the country for money and honours,
The people were burnt on the flames of barbarity
Or buried in the tombs of disasters.
To decieve Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations;
For twenty years they hilled and oppressed.
Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,
Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty
Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others int fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand,
Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared.
Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans.

(d)The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied;
Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built;
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak.

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes.

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil.

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies.

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains.

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned.

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered.

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest.

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed.

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth

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Dr IWAN NOTES/CATATAN DARI Dr IWAN S
______________________________________________
1. THIA PREMIUM INFORMATIONS WAS Dr IWAN S CREATIONS BASED ON HIS STUDY/PREMIUM INFORMASI INI KREASI Dr IWAN S BERDSARKAN HASI PENELITIANNYA ,

2.EV ERYBODY WHO WANT TO HAVE THIS STUDY REPORT IN 25 YEARS PLEASE CONTACT EDITOR VIA COMMENT /BAGI YANG INGIN HASIL PENELITIAN Dr iWAN sS SELAMA DUA PULUH LIMA TAHUN. SILAHKAN KONTAK EDITOR MELALUI KOMENTAR
,
3.PLEASE LOOK AT THE FREE SAMPLE INFO BELOW/,SILAHKAN MELIHAT CONTOH GRATIS DIBAWAH INI,

4. Dr IWAN S WILL GAVE THE COLLECTORS HIS OWN SECRET IF 100 COLLECTORS WANT TO BUY HIS E-BOOK IN CD-ROM OR SEND VIA E.MAIL OR THE PRINTING BOOK INC WANT TO ISSUED THIS E-BOOK IN cd-ROM.
Dr IWAN S AKAN MEMBUKA RAHASIA BAGAIMANA MEMNGUNGKAP MISTERI KOIN GOBOK APABILA ADA 100 ORANG KOLEKTOR INGIN MEMBELI EBOOK DLAM cd -ROM ATAU ADA PENERBIT INGIN BEKERJA SAMA.
===============================================================================================================================

TO OPEN THE MYSTERY OF CASH COIN OR GOBOK WHICH FOUND IN INDONESIA
MENGUNGKAP MISTERI KOIN GOBOK YANG DITEMUKAN DIINDONESIA
THE REPORT OF Dr IWAN S STUDY OF HIS OWN PRIVATE CAST COIN COLLECTION AND VINTAGE LITERATURE FROM 1985-2010.

PRIVATE PREMIUM LIMITED E-BOOK FOR SENIOR NUMISMATIC COIN COLLECTORS
JAKARTA @COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN S 2010
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
PREFACE

________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHAPTER ONE/BAB SATU :
” WHY IN INDONESIA THE CASH COIN WERE NAME GOBOK ”
Menagapa di Indonesia koin cash dinamakan gobok.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER TWO/BAB KEDUA
” ARE THE GOBOK COIN’s FORMS ALWAYS ROUND ”

Apakah Bentuk Gobok Selalu Bulat
GENERALLY ROUND WITH HOLE IN THE CENTE BUT NOT ALWAY THERE WERE GOBOK WITHOUT HOLE ESPECIALLY IN LATE QING DINASTY.R, AND IN HAN DINASTY THERE WERE SIX DIFFERENT FORMS LOOK THE ABOVE ILLUSTRATION.. Pada umumnya berbentuk bundar dengan lubang ditengahnya,tetsapi ada juga tanpa lubang khususnya gobok akhir dinasti qing. DAN PADA DINASTI hAN TERDAPAT ENAM JENIS BENTUK GOBOK.LIHAT ILLUSTRASI DIATAS .
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER THREE/BAB TIGA
How to identified the script on the gobok coin
Bagamna caranya mengidentifikasi tulisan diatas koin Gobok
1.NATIVE TRADITIONAL INDONESIA METODE/CARA TRADITIONAL INDONESIA
2. THE CHINESE METHOD
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHAPTER FOUR/.BAB EMPAT
HOW TO IDENTIFIED THE NOMINAL VALUE GOBOK COIN
*ill eight cash coin/delapan cash

Bagaimana caranya mengidentifikasi nialai nominal koin Gobok
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER FIVE/BAB LIMA
THE GOBOK ONLY MINT ISSUED FROM CHINA EMPIRE-APAKAH GOBOK DIBUAT OLEH kERAJAAN tIONGKOK SAJA
THE ANSWER NO -TIDAK, ANOTHER COUNTRIES RELATED WITH CHINA EMPIRE LIKE jAPAN,vIETNAM AND iNDONESIA KINGDOM AND CHINESE KONGSI ALSO ISSUED CADHCOIN OR GOBOK COIN DURING THE TIME cHINA EMPIRE HAD STRICTLY ISUUED DURING THE TARTAR AND MONGOL WAR, ALSO THE MIDDLE MING EMPEROR ,IN EMERGENC TIME jAPAN, vIETNAM AND cHINESE OVERSEAS KONGSI IN iNDONESIA ALSO ISSUED GOBOK BUT IN METAL TIN, THE iNDONESIAN ACIENT KINDOM ALSO ISSUE GOBOK LIKE pALEMBANG PITIS FROM TIN, bANGKA CHINESE KONGSI AND MONTARDO CHINESE KONGSI WESTBORNEO, THE BANTAM KINGDOM,

________________________________________________________________________________________________________
CHAPTER SIXtHE RARE AND HIGH VALUE pRIZE GOBOK COIN
KOIN GOBOK lANGKA YANG BERNILAI JUAL TINGGI
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
THE END@COPYRIGHT Dr WIANS 2010.

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THIS IS THE PREMIUM INFO,IF THE COLLECTOR WANT TO HAVE THE COMPLETE INFO AND ILLUSTRATIONS PLEASE CONTACT THE EDITOR FOR ADMINISTREATIONS FEE, PLEASE LOOK ATA THE SAMPLE OF THE PREMIUM E-BOOK BELOW. THE SAMPLE ILLUSTRATION WILL INSTALLED ONE BY ONE.AND MORE ILLUSTRATION PLEASE CLICK MY NEW BLOG HHTP:// WWW.IWANSUWANDY.WORDPRESS.COM.THANKYOU FOR CLICK uniwuecollection.wordpress.com and iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.
____________________________________________________________
THE VINTAGE TIMOR KUPANG
AND RELATED AREA COLLECTIONS

PRIVATE LIMITED E-BOOK SPECIAL FOR COLLE CTORS.
Created by Dr IWAN S from many vintage books and His private collections

JAKARTA @copyright Dr IWAN S 2010
Code number P/001 of 100
Name owner Dr IWAN S

PREFACE
Timor Kupang and related area in Indonesia was called Nusa Tengara Timur Province, Kupang is the capital city at Timor Island, another island were Sumba,Solor, Alor,Flores ,komoko ,roti and Timor Indonesia,border with Timor leste.

I NEVER VISIT THIS AREA,BUT IN 1999 DURING MY DUTY TO TIMOR DILI(now TIMOR LESTE), I have seen from the fligth the beautiful three color Kalimutu Lake,

and many of my nurse and the wife of health personil were evacuated from Dilli to Kupang Timor due to the worst situation before the Timor leste elections between freedom and autonom Indnonesian Province.
Very difficult to find the Timor Kupang collection in Sumatra and Java or Bali, bacause not much communications between that area, but some Timor Kupang man which moved to Jakarta still bring their vintage books and picture collections and when they were passed away their family throw away teir collecrtions and I have found some rare collections from the Lapak, and in 2008 i found some postal history from that area which belonging of a snior collectors from Macassar,cutting fragment from his letter from that area ,very pity but still us a rare info from the small city in the Flores and Timor Island.I have aslo found vintgae book about that area early textile and embroidery.
If the c ollectors have MORE INFO FROM THIS AREA PLEASE CONTACT ME VIA COMMENT, THANK YOU.This e-book stil in processing, if finish I will announced.
Jalkarta June 2010
The author
Dr IWAN S
____________________________________________________________
CHAPTER ONE
THE VINTAGE PICTURES COLLECTIONS.

1. The Koepang horse race June 1927
2. The Koepang sea port
3. The ethnic Kupang family and their house Sept.2nd1924
4. The ethnic Kupang man in their house 1924

CHAPTER TWO
THE EARLY TEXTILES AND EMBROIDERY COLLECTIONS
1. THE SUMBA ISLAND EARLY TEXTILE

(1) SUMBA PENNANT(PENJI?) WITH LIZARD BEADS EMBROIDERY. CIRCA 1900
(2)Lau Pahudu (women’s cremonial skitrs) design human figure
(3)Lau Pahudu tubular decorated Bands 19th century
(4)Lau Katipa applique Band design dancing horse late 19th century.

2. TIMOR KUPANG EARLY TEXTILE
(1) TIMOR KUPANG EARLY TEXTILE EMBROIDERY HANING IN THEIR HOUSE 1924

3.FLORES EARLY TEXTILE

(1) EAST FLORES APPLIQUE BAND WITH HUMAN DESIGN

4. SOLOR EARLY TEXTILE

(1) WOMEN SARONG DESIGN ROSTER AND GEOMETRIC LINE.
5. ROTI ISLAND EARLY TEXTILE
(1)APPLIQUE BAND DESIGN SPIRAL LINE.
(2) WOMEN SARONG SKIRT DESIGN LINE AND RAIDING HORSE.
CAPTER THREE
THE POSTAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS
CHAPTER FOUR
ANOTHER TYPE OF COLLECTIONS
____________________________________________________________
THE END@COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN S 2010

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CREATED BY Dr IWAN S FROM HIS PRIVATE VINTAGE BOOK COLLECTIONS, THIS IS THE PREMIUM INFO, IF THE COLLECTORS WANT TO HAVE THE COMPLETE BOOK ABD ILLUSTRATION PLEASE CONTACT EDITOR, AFTER THE ASDMINISTARTION FEE OKEY, THE COMPLETE E=BOOK WILL SEND STRAIGHT TO YOU VIA YOUR EMAIL, FOR INDONESIAN COLLECTORS WE CAN SEND IN CD-ROM VIA TIKI . READTHE SAMPLE OF THE E-BOOKS. BELOW.@COPYRIGHT Dr IWANS 2010.

*ill 001

BORNEO*ill ooi front cover
AND
THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO.

London:
SPOTTISWOODE AND SHAW,
New-street Square.

F. M. DELT.
M. N. HANHART LITH. PRINTERS

CHINESE JOSS HOUSE.
LONDON; LONGMAN & CO. 1848
________________________________________

F. M. DELT.
M. N. HANHART LITH. PRINTERS

BORNEO
AND
THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO.
WITH

DRAWINGS OF COSTUME AND SCENERY.

BY

FRANK S. MARRYAT,
LATE MIDSHIPMAN OF H. M. S. SAMARANG,
SURVEYING VESSEL.

LONDON:
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS,
PATERNOSTER-ROW.
1848.
*ill 002

*ill 002 Chenese Junk
________________________________________
[v]
INTRODUCTION.
________________________________________
I wish the readers of these pages to understand that it has been with no desire to appear before the public as an author that I have published this Narrative of the Proceedings of Her Majesty’s ship Samarang during her last Surveying Cruise.
During the time that I was in the ship, I made a large collection of drawings, representing, I hope faithfully, the costumes of the natives and the scenery of a country so new to Europeans. They were considered, on my return, as worthy to be presented to the public, as being more voluminous and more characteristic than drawings made in haste usually are.
I may here observe, that it has been a great error on the part of the Admiralty, considering the great expense incurred in fitting out vessels for survey, that a little additional outlay is not made in supplying every vessel with a professional draughtsman, as was invariably the case in the first vessels sent out on discovery. The duties of officers in surveying vessels are much too fatiguing and severe to allow them the time to make anything but hasty sketches, and they require that practice with the pencil without which natural talent is of little avail; the consequence is, that the engravings, which have appeared in too many of the Narratives of Journeys and[vi] Expeditions, give not only an imperfect, but even an erroneous, idea of what they would describe.
A hasty pencil sketch, from an unpractised hand, is made over to an artist to reduce to proportion; from him it passes over to the hand of an engraver, and an interesting plate is produced by their joint labours. But, in this making up, the character and features of the individual are lost, or the scenery is composed of foliage not indigenous to the country, but introduced by the artist to make a good picture.
In describing people and countries hitherto unknown, no description given by the pen will equal one correct drawing. How far I may have succeeded must be decided by those who have, with me, visited the same places and mixed with the people delineated. How I found time to complete the drawings is explained by my not doing any duty on board at one time, and at another by my having been discharged into the hospital-ship at Hong Kong.
It was my intention to have published these drawings without letter-press, but in this I have been overruled. I have therefore been compelled to have recourse to my own private journal, which certainly was never intended for publication. As I proceeded, I found that, as I was not on board during the whole of the time, it would be better, and make the work more perfect, if I published the whole of the cruise, which I could easily do by referring to the journals of my messmates.
I would gladly mention their names, and publicly acknowledge their assistance; but, all things considered, I think it as well to withhold them, and I take this opportunity of thanking them for their kindness.

FRANK S. MARRYAT.

________________________________________
[vii-viii]
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
________________________________________
LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES.
CHINESE JOSS HOUSE Frontispiece
WEST POINT, HONG KONG To face page 142

BORNESE VESSEL Title-page
VIEW ON THE ISLAND OF POO-TOO 151

LOONDOO DYAK To face page 5*ill 003
CHINESE JOSS HOUSE AT NINGPO 156

RIVER SARAWAK AND TOWN OF KUCHIN 6
QUELPARTIANS 182

KEENEY-BALLO 59
MANDARIN OF QUELPART (COREA) 183

SEREBIS DYAK 79
JAPANESE 185

SAGHAI DYAK 80
NATIVES OF LUZON (PHILIPPINES) 199

WAR DANCE OF THE DYAKS 85
VIEW IN SAMBOANGAN 201

MALAY CHIEF (SOOLOO) 101
ILLANOAN PIRATE 207

BRUNI 106
DUSUM 210

COURT OF THE SULTAN OF BORNEO 109
PORT LOUIS 220

WOODCUTS.
Page Page
MR. BROOKE’S HOUSE 7
PROCESSION OF THE SULTAN OF GONONG TABOR 133

DYAK HEAD 13
EARS OF DYAKS AT GONONG TABOR 135

MALAYS OF KUCHIN 23
PORTRAIT OF MAHOMED PULLULU, SULTAN OF SOOLOO 139

NATIVE OF BATAN 27
TANKA BOATS—HONG KONG 141

NATIVE OF PA-TCHU-SAN 31
CHINESE FISHERMEN 145

SOOLOO VILLAGE 42
COOK’S SHOP 146

NATIVE BOAT—BORNEO 63
PAGODA—NINGPO 154

DYAK WAR PRAHU 64
TANKA BOAT WOMEN 165

DYAK WOMEN IN CANOE 74
MAN-OF-WAR JUNK 168

TEETH OF DYAKS 79
TRADING JUNKS 169

COSTUMES OF DYAK WOMEN 80
JAPANESE BOAT 184

SUM-PI-TAN—BLOW-PIPE, WITH POISONED ARROWS 80
SALT SMUGGLERS 193

DYAK VILLAGE 82
SPANISH GALLEON 196

OBTAINING FIRE 89
WATER CARRIERS—MANILLA 199

VIEW OF SINCAPORE 93
ILLANOAN PIRATES 208

MALAY WOMAN 100
NATIVES OF N. E. COAST OF BORNEO 210

PROBOSCIS MONKEY 103
CONVICT 215

NATIVES OF BRUNI 108
KLING WOMAN 216

CITY OF MANILLA 121

________________________________________
[1]
BORNEO
AND
THE INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO.
________________________________________
On the 25th of January, 1843, H. M. S. Samarang, being completely equipped, went out of Portsmouth harbour and anchored at Spithead. The crew were paid advanced wages; and, five minutes after the money had been put into their hats at the pay-table, it was all most dexterously transferred to the pockets of their wives, whose regard and affection for their husbands at this peculiar time was most exemplary. On the following day, the crew of the Samarang made sail with full hearts and empty pockets.
On the 25th February, sighted Fuerto Ventura: when off this island, the man at the mast-head reported a wreck in sight, which, as we neared it, appeared to be the wreck of a brig. Strange to say, the captain recognised it as an old acquaintance, which he had seen off Cape Finisterre on his return from China in the Sulphur. If this was not a mistake, it would be evidence of a southerly current in this quarter of the Atlantic. This may be, but I do not consider the proof to be sufficient to warrant the fact; although it may lead to[2] the supposition. If this was the wreck seen at such a long interval by the captain, a succession of northerly winds and gales might have driven it down so far to the southward without the assistance of any current. It is well known that the great current of the Atlantic, the gulf stream (which is occasioned by the waters, being forced by the continuous trade winds into the Gulf of Mexico, finding a vent to the northward by the coast of America, from thence towards Newfoundland, and then in a more easterly direction), loses its force, and is expended to the northward of the Western Islands; and this is the cause why so many rocks have been yearly reported to have been fallen in with in this latitude. Wrecks, all over the Atlantic, which have been water-logged but do not sink, are borne by the various winds and currents until they get into the gulf stream, which sweeps them along in its course until they arrive to where its force is expended, and there they remain comparatively stationary. By this time, probably, years have passed, and they are covered with sea-weeds and barnacles, and, floating three or four feet out of the water, have every appearance of rocks; and, indeed, if run upon on a dark night, prove nearly as fatal.

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March 3rd.—Anchored off the town of Porto Praya, Island of St. Jago, in nine fathoms. Porto Praya is a miserable town, built on a most unhealthy spot, there being an extensive marsh behind it, which, from its miasma, creates a great mortality among the inhabitants. The consul is a native of Bona Vista: two English consuls having fallen victims to the climate in quick succession, no one was found very willing to succeed to such a certain provision from the Foreign Office. The interior of the island is, however, very different from what would be expected from the sight of Porto Praya. Some of the officers paid a visit to the valley of St. Domingo, which they described as a perfect paradise, luxuriant with every tropical fruit.[3] Porto Praya is renowned for very large sharks. I was informed by a captain in Her Majesty’s service, that once, when he anchored at Porto Praya, he had left the ship to go on shore in one of the twenty-two-foot gigs, not unaptly nick-named coffins in the service. He had not pulled more than a cable’s length from the ship, when a shark, nearly as long as the gig, came up swimming with great velocity after them; and as he passed, the animal shouldered the boat, so as nearly to upset it: as it was, the boat took in the water over the gunwale. As the animal appeared preparing for another attack, the captain thought it advisable to pull alongside, and go on shore in the cutter instead of his own boat; and on this large boat the shark did not make a second attempt.
April 25th.—Anchored in Simon’s Bay, Cape of Good Hope. Sailed again on the 7th of May, and fell in with a favourable wind; and too much of it. For six days we were scudding before it under a close-reefed main-topsail and fore-staysail. On the 10th we lost one of the best men in the ship, the sailmaker, Charles Downing, who fell overboard; the ship was rounded to, the life-buoy let go, but we saw nothing of him. June 7th saw Christmas Islands, and on the same afternoon the land of Java. On the 11th we arrived off the town of Anger, in company with a fleet of merchant vessels of all nations and of all rigs. Having been so long without a fresh meal, we were not sorry to find ourselves surrounded by boats loaded with fish, fruit, and vegetables; we ate enormously, and they made us pay in proportion.
On the 19th we arrived at Sincapore, and found the roads very gay with vessels of all descriptions, from the gallant free trader of 1000 tons to the Chinese junk. As Sincapore, as well as many other places, was more than once visited, I shall defer my description for the present. On June the 27th we weighed and made sail for the river of[4] Sarawak (Borneo), to pay a visit to Mr. Brooke, who resides at Kuchin, a town situated on that river.
The public have already been introduced to Mr. Brooke in the volumes published by Captain Henry Keppel. Mr. Brooke is a gentleman of independent fortune, who was formerly in the service of the Company. The usefulness and philanthropy of his public career are well known: if the private history which induced him to quit the service, and afterwards expatriate himself, could with propriety, and also regard to Mr. Brooke’s feelings, be made known, it would redound still more to his honour and his high principle; but these I have no right to make public. Mr. Brooke, having made up his mind to the high task of civilising a barbarous people, and by every means in his power of putting an end to the wholesale annual murders committed by a nation of pirates, whose hands were, like Ishmael’s, against every man, sailed from England in his yacht, the Royalist schooner, with a crew of picked and tried men, and proceeded to Sarawak, where he found the rajah, Muda Hassein, the uncle to the reigning sultan of Borneo, engaged in putting down the insurrection of various chiefs of the neighbouring territory. Mr. Brooke, with his small force, gave his assistance to the rajah; and through his efforts, and those of his well-armed band, the refractory chiefs were reduced to obedience. Willing to retain such a powerful ally, and partial to the English, the rajah made Mr. Brooke most splendid promises to induce him to remain; but the rajah, like all Asiatics, did not fulfil the performance of these promises until after much delay and vexation to Mr. Brooke, who required all the courage and patience with which he is so eminently gifted, before he could obtain his ends. At last he was successful: Muda Hassein made over to him a large tract of land, over which he was constituted rajah, and Mr. Brooke took up his residence at Kuchin; and this grant was ultimately confirmed by the[5] seal of the sultan of Borneo. Such, in few words, is the history of Mr. Brooke: if the reader should wish for a more detailed account, I must refer him to Capt. Henry Keppel’s work, in which is published a great portion of Mr. Brooke’s own private memoranda.

F. M. DELT.
M. N. HANHART LITH. PRINTERS

LOONDOO DYAK.*ill 003
(N. W. COAST OF BORNEO.)
LONDON; LONGMAN & CO. 1848
On the morning of the 29th June we saw the high land of Borneo, but for several days were unsuccessful in discovering the mouth of the river. On the night of July the 4th we anchored off the entrance of a river, which the captain supposed to be the Sarawak. The next morning the two barges, well armed, were sent up the river to obtain information. After pulling with the stream six or eight miles, they discovered a small canoe, which, on their approach, retreated up the river with great speed. Mr. Heard, the officer in charge of the boats, had taken the precaution, as he ascended the river, of cutting a palm branch for each boat, and these were now displayed at the bows as a sign of peaceable intentions
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