I have only little informations about The First Rajah Sir James brooke as the founder of Sarawak Country will be discuss in the Historic Background.
Only one stamps issued at March 1 st 1869,litho by Maclure ,Macdonald & Co.Perforeted 11, no watermark, colour brown yellow. I have never seen the Used Stamps on Covers, but I think some have that unique postal History will be kind to send us the informations. I have mint stamps from a Dutchman during Phillatelic exhation jakarta 1986 and the picture will be the book ‘s chapter one illustration, the sarawak phillatelic association journal have block four mint. Many this first stamp mint no gum , if with original gum are worth considerably more high value.
I have some coins and article about the first Rajah, the informations and illustrations will be in the Historic Background This book were the Global project , as the suggested byMr Bill in his letter to Mr Ong and list in the Sarawak Phillatelic Journal ,2000: “ Neville Watterson,s monograph on the subject ,published 4 years ago (1996), is the only one on trhe Subject. I loaned him all my material at the time and helped out with proof –reading it. Obviously there is now a great deal more to added and I agree that members living locally in Sarawak are in the best posituon to do it . Should you set such a project I shall be very happy to contribute such Information as I have.” Indonesian Oldies Sarawak Collectors have many Sarawak Postal History espacially from West Borneo, that is way I start your project very long time ago in 1974.
1.1.1 literature’s Study
a. Sarawak Anti-Cession Revolution (H.M.H.Sulaiman,1972)
1) Sarawak as Brunei Area
a) Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Ibnu Sultan Muhammad Jamalul-alam as the Brunei Emperor and Rajah Muda Hashim as the Sarawak Govemour.
b) Sarawak Native People’s Rebellion because the higher tax and Rajah Muda Hasim cann’t solved the Rebellion. In August.15th 1839, James Brooke came to Sarawak for the first time and Rajah Muda Hashim told him about the native revoluition but he still went to Celebes with his Ship (by with the money from his fathers).
c) In August,29 th 1840,James Brooke came back to Kuching and met Rajah Muda Hashim, the revolvutions Riot at the peak. Rajah Muda hashim asked james Brooke to help him and promise if he could made the Rebellion off , James Brooke will be Sarawak Gouvenor. Brunei Emperor have Rajah Muda Hashim(Pengiran Mahkota). September.24th 1841 , James Brooke as the gouvenor of Sarawak with area between Tanjung Datu to Batang Semerahan.
2) Tuan Besar James Brooke Govenor Sarawak.
a)September.24th.1841 James Brooke was appointed as Sarawak Govenour by Rajah Muda Hashim and he went to Brunei to get the official status from Brunei Emperor.
b)July.31st.1842,The excutive of Brunei(Pengiran Mahkota) made a meeting and Brunei Emperor made the Official “Pengesahan” James Brooke as the Sarawak Gouvenor title “Tuan Besar” with agreement “Treaties and Engagements affecting the Malay States and Brunei.”James Brooke must send Ufti 2.500 Dollars every Years to Sultan and his “Waris”,and Sarawak country cann’t give to another persons.
3)Rajah James Brooke In October .25th 1855, during the meeting between Sarawak Malay leader and Consul General Borneo Mr Spencer St John, James Brooke have the title “Rajah” and the around area have their own Govenor like Sadong,Skrang, Lingga,Serikei, Mukah and Meredu. In 1855, James Brooke went to Brunei, ask the permission to help Pengiran Metusin’s war against Pengiran Arshad at Mukah. James Brooke send his Nephew Charlee Brooke to Serikei to help Pengiran Matusin at Mukah. Tuan Muda Serikei Sharif Mashor with native people from Dutch Borneo Pontinak and border area have made a rebellion against sarawak during James Brooke went to England, 1n 1859 the first war at Kanowit, Tuan Muda Charles Brooke punish the the Rebellion army at Kanowit and Kabah and he came back to Kuching to wait the good moment to attack Tuan Muda Sharif Mashor. When Tuan Muda Charles Brooke arrived at Kuching, he have the informations that Datuk Petringgi Gafur with Iban Troops want to attack Rajah Brooke, and Datuk Petinggi Gafur through out to Singapore. Sharif Mashor have three planning: First Datuk Petinggi Gafur from Singapore to Pontianak and command the native people there to made the rebellion against Ducth Indie goverment in West Borneo and after that went to Sarawak to help Shrif Manshor. Second, Tajang,Brunei Leader went to Sadong like Putra mahkota Brunei (Crown Prince) and Datuk Bandar Kassin the brother of Datuk patinggi Gafur will asked the Native Malayu and Iban at Lundu,Landak,sanggau and Pontianak moved to attack the European citizen. Third When in the Panic’s Situation at Kuching, Sharif Manshor will back to Sarawak to kill the European and Tuan Muda Charles Brooke. In 1860, Datuk Patinggi Gafur was arrest by Duct Indie Goverment, and Sharif mansor went into Sarawak River but blooking and back to Serikei, but he attack Tuan Muda Charles Brooke at Semunjan , Sharif Mansor lost the war and run to Serikei , but Abang Ali the friend of Charles Brooke attack him , Sharif Manshor run to Igan but Charles Brooke burn his house. Sharif mansor went to Brunei , at the same time of the new Consul General G.w.Edwards ceremony at labuan . In 1860 Consul general Edward with Victoria Ship went to Mukah and the same time Charles Brooke went to Mukah to punish sharif manshor, James Brooke aske the Britsh Emperor to move Edward to another place. The New Borneo Consul General Britisth asked Brunei to give Mukah to James Brooke Sarawak. In August 1861, Mukah and all beach area until Kidurong official give to Rajah james Brooke by Sultan Abdul Mumin and Sharif Mashor run to Singapore. c. Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastren and Southren Asia Page 534 (Belfour,1880) 1)Sarawak, in Borneo , is situated in a bay to eastward of Point Api , at the foot of a range of mountains from 1500 to 3000 feet high, extending towards the interior of the Island . The sarawak goverment acquired the coast territory from Cape Datu to the river Barram . The banks of the river of Sarawak are every where covered with fruit trees; the mengosteen, Lansat, Rambutan , jambon , and blim-bing are all abundant , but the durian is most so and most esteemed. A Beautifully resplendent sand , the particles of which resamble amethysts and topazed , is found at Lingah , a branch of the great Batang Lupar river , not far from its mouth. Sago is manifactured at Mukah and antimony is found at Bassein in Borneo. 2)In Borneo the Dutch had plated several tradingstations, though most of these had later been abandoned due to Chinese competition. In 18th century the Dutch factory at banjarmaisn was reopened during 1785 and another was opened at Pontianak, a district nomilly subject to Bantam, in 1786. Following the Anglo-Dutch war of 1780 to 1784 the Government of Batavia abandoned to East-coast Sttlement, Pontianak and its susidiaries , in 1791. Banjarmasin was vacted in 1797. After the British occupation of the Moluccas in 1808 the Sulatan of Banjarmasin request British protection and a Sttlement was established there. In 1813 a British Agent was installed at Pontianak, and following British blockade , the other major Sultanates on Borneo (eg Brunei,Sambas) accepted British suzerainty. Following the London Treaty of 1814 , British interest were minimised and the Dutch returned to Banjarmaisn (1817), then Pontianak and sambas. Because British and Dutch couldnot agree about their relative spheres of influense in Borneo, the regulation of this island was excluded from the Anglo-Dutch trety of 1824. Around this period one of the main centres of piracy was the region North-west of Borneo where obvious groups of sea Dayaks had their strongholds. But such peoples had no political cohesion. The rising properity of Singapore gave further stimulus of piracy. 3)Brooke,Sir James,raja of Sarawak,was born 1n 1803 at Benares . At the age of sixteen he recieved a commision in the Bengal Infantry and served in the first war against Burma, where he was severely wounded at the storming of a stockade. He lost his appointment by overstaying his home leave. On the death his father , he succeede to a handsome patimony and on the 27th of October 1838 his yacht “The Royalist” quitted England for Sarawak . He found its ruler , Muda Hasan , engaged in the suppresion of a rebellion, but with a few volleys from the European gun the insurgents surrendered, and Mr Brooke was duly installed in the rank of Raja of Sarawak,previously promised to him. The newly acquired territory was swampy, and ill cultivated by the native dyaks, who varied their occupations as tillers of the land by head-hunting excursions among neighbouring villages. He declared headhunting a crime punisable by death to the offender, and he suppressed it and priracy. On revisiting Britain, the british Goverment recognised his position, ordered a man-of-war to take him to the seat of his new settlement , gave him the tittle of Governor of Labuan, with a salary of 1800 poundsterling, with an extra 500 Poundsterling for a consular Agent, and afforded himthe services of a deputy Governor also on a good salary. He compile a code of laws, declared trade to be free, all roads to be open, all property inviolable, instituted a current coinage, and rigorously suppressed head-hunting, and maranding expeditions gradually became extinct in the province.
3)Brunei,the capital of Borneo, and the seat of Goverment . Its houses are built on piles in the river, and its population 20.000. Communication by boats. C. A Fearful Radical page 52 (Alastair Morrison) In 1841 Jame Brooke was made Rajah of Sarawak by the Sultan of Brunei and gradually extended his authority at the expense of that state. Naval help in curtailing piracy culminated in 1849 when large Iban fleet was severely handled by a Sarawak force supported by the Navy. The Action and especially a claim by the Navy for twenty thousand prize money aroused extensive publicity in England , musch of it hostile . Naval help was withdrawn and thereafter the Brookes had to fend for themselves, On the whole they managed dependent entirely on local support. with considerable success, British protection was only extended in 1888. Charles Brooke joined his uncle in 1852 after service in the navy which he joined at the astonishing age of twelve. The complete story in chapter two.
d)Book’s Clipping & Documet
1)TUAN MUDA HASHIM,Page 62 Tuan Muda Hashim Govenor of Brunei area Sarawak saw it as an opportunity to make friend with British Government , in the hope of gaining their assistance, and treated the plight of the shipwreck sailors in a sympathetic manner, He housed and fed them before sending them back to Singapore at his own expense. The sailors were fulol of stories of praise for Hashim’s friendliness and humanity and the esrablisment in Singapore was impressed. Mr Bonham, perhaps unaware of the limited power of the Rajah Muda, was trying to establish a firm footing for british influence in the court of Hashim and requested James Brooke to convy his thanks and that of the singapore Chamber of commerce to the Rajah Muda.
2)James Brooke first Visit Sarawak,Page 62-64 On the 1st August 1840, the James Brooke’s ship “Royalist” dropped anchornoff the westren side of Tanjong Datu, the Cape which marked the Westren boundry of Sarawak. Due to stormy weather it was August 5 th, before she rounded the Cape to Anchor off the Island of Talang-Talang , James spent a few days there surveying the coastline and ammending the Admirality charts which had placed the Island some miles off course. The “Royalist” then anchored beneath the mountain of Santubong which dominates the westren mouth of the sarawak river on the 12th August , and a boat was dispatched to the Rajah,s residence twenty miles up river to inform him of the arrival of James Brooke. The next day the Rajah Muda Hashim send an official invitation to James Brooke t proceed to Kuching where the “Royalist” dropped anchor on the 15th August, and James Brooke had his first glimpse of the town that he would eventually rule over. It was merely a collection of wooden huts founded some year earlier, and the greater number of its eight hundred inhabitants were Brunei Malays. The”Rayalist” fired a twenty-one gun Royal salute for the Rajah Muda Hashim, who together with Makota, welcomed james formally to Sarawak. James Brooke was then given permission to trevel in several parts of the country, where he enjoyed the scenery and fauna and the simple pleasure of exploring the terrain. On the question of revolt , both the Rajah Muda Hashim and Mahkota assured James Brooke for Singapore hoping to pay a return visit as soon as the war was over. Brooke than followed through with the next stage of his plans and sailed for the Celebes in November. He found the trip an interesting one but neverless retured to Singapore in May 1840, in poor health, depressed and with his fund running low. He then decided he would like to return to sarawak for one last visit before proceeding on to Manila, China and back to England.
3)James Brooke second visit Sarawak ,Page 62-64. On Arriving in Kuching on the 29th August 1840, he was astonished to find that the revolt was still very much in evidence. Because the rebel forces were now within thrirty miles of the town, James Brooke saw no hope of being able to travel into the interior and,with no much else to do in Kuching,decided to depart, but when Hashim heard this he begged him to stay; laying his problems before James brooke he express :”His resolution to die here rather than abandon his undertaking-to die deserted and disgraced” He pleaded with him to visit is army at Lidah Tanah up river which was under the command of Mahkota. Feeling his presence there would over encouragement of the soldiers. This James Brooke did, only to find that Makota and his men were more interested in the supply of provisions on board rhe “Royalist” than listening to his advice. James Brooke return to Hashim again to tell him of his plans for depature but again the Rajah Muda Hashim pleaded with him not to leave. James Brooke returned to the front, this time to lend assitence, and arranged to have the “Royalist” guns brought into action. But soon had to face the fact that his efforts were wasted. Makota would not attack the enemy and neither would he allow James Brooke to negotiate. In his own words he described the situationas such “In a few days I witnessed such scenes of cowardice, trechery, intique and luke-warmness amongst his followes such a determination not to take advice or to pursue any active measures, that i left them and returned to my vessel” Under such circumstances it’s hardly surprising that the war had been going on for so long. Weary now of the siruation James Brooke went to see the Rajah Muda Hashim on November the 4th, and told him again of his decision to leave. But now teh Rajah Muda was desperate and in his desperation told James that he would invest him with “the Country of Siniawan and Sarawak with its goverment and trade” Suggesting that “He would also give him the title of Rajah” .Although hesistant about accept-ing such offer, not quit sure if Hashim was sincere. James didn’t say no and there is no doubt that he found the offer a very tempting one. Returning to the scene od the war, having stipilated that he be given supreme command, James Brooke and his follower succeeded in quelling the revolt with many of the Rebels fleeing to the jungle. They than sought peace and were willing to negotiate, but only with James Brooke. They offered to surrender if James Brooke could promise that their lives would be spared. Reminding them that rajah Muda would be the one to decide their fate he promised to do all he could to influence the Rajah. But Hashim, encouraged by Mahkota,didnot want to spare the lives of the rebels and only agrred to do so whem James Brooke threatened to leave again. None of the rebels were put to death. With the revolt at an end,James Brooke felt that the time was right to remind Hashim of the offer he had made.
3) Rajah Brooke and Miss Burdett-Coutts.,Page 206.
4)The last photo of Rajah James Broke in 1860 before Leaving Sarawak in 1863 Rajah Sir James Brooke leaving in the capable of his Nephew Charles Brooke, the Rajah left Sarwak for the last time end of 1863. Mis Burdett-Coults was not too happy with the rajah’s choice of Charles Brooke as administrator of Sarawak as she didn’t like him any more than she had like his brother. She had a change of heart when she recieve d a letter from Charles making it clear that he recongnized her as heiress to the Sarawak Raj and assuring her of his loyaty. (photo no)
5)The Story of Captain James Brooke ,”Son”(Photo ) Interesting story about Rajah James Brooke during Captain. This story told by Mr Owen Rutter based on information from Mr John Dill Ross, whose father was an intimate friend of the Rajah’s. Mr Dill Ross clearly stated that James Brooke was “wounded in the genitals by a musket ball”, an explaination that Mr Rutter felt he had good reason to believe in as it explained the discrepancies in Brooke’s character, including why he never merried. The claim by many writers who researched brooke’s life is that if such a story is true it was rather odd that his nother should proudly display the offending bullet for all to admire saying it was removed from her son’s lung. But there really isn’t anything odd about that all. There aren’t many mothers who would advertise the fact that their sons had been deprived of their manhood. Yet,there are a number who would go to great lenghts to protect them from the snide remarks which could result if such a claim were belivedd . Maybe that’s what Mrs Brooke (James Brooke’s mother) was trying to do. We’ll never really know though. On other hand, the appearence of Reuben George Walker on the Scene and the Rajah’s absolute conviction, backed up by his sister’s Magaret Savage, that Reuben was his son make his mother ‘s claim even more plausible. But James also had a reputation for taking an interest in the lives of young men, perhaps with the intention of grooming them for services in Sarawak. His friends believed that Reuben was another one of his proteges and in other to justify his grat interest in him, decided to pass him off as son; having been tricked by Reuben into doing so. But thta also seems strange because of all his proteges, why did this one ment the rank of “son”? What’s even stranger is that he providede adequately for this young man and his family in his will. Many of the Rajah’s friends at the time were amazed that he believed so fercently that Reuben was really his son. Some event went so far as to sggust that he was losing his mind. From evidence that exists though, it would appear that James had known about his son for some time and so did Margaret Savage. An indication of this was an incident which transpired when James Brooke was in England. Shortly before his meriagge the Rajah wrote asking him to pay a visit to a young man by the name of Reuben Walker. He claimed that the boy had been in his service in England and that he was concerned for his welfare. When the news about Reuben being the son of the Rajah was made public, Brooke Brooke the realised that it was the some young man he had gone to see in England. He was hysterical when the Rajah suggested considering Reuben for a position in Sarawak and was clearly embarrassed and humiliated by the revelation. He had conviced himself that the Rajah would now change his mind and make his “son” the heir. Although the Rajah dis his best to reassure his nephew. 6)Letters writen By Rajah Sir James Brooke(Chai Foh Chin) 3 King Street.St James Sq 30 Nov 1865. Dear Sir, Mr John Abel Smith has sent me your letter to him and I write to say I shall be happy to see you here upon Friday or Saturday- or if more Convinient any other day before Wendsday next. After our meeting we can settle about the appointment but I see no difficulty in your taking it if you wish. Your very truly Handsign J Brooke
1.1.2 Pictures Talks
a.Information From Map
1) Early Borneo Map Informations (ill no 3) All the names are a mixture of Spain. Identified where some of today’s town :
a) Ride Burulo Ride Burulo is where intulu is now situated.
b) Pochauaraon Punchauaraon is Mukah as we know it today.
c)Mont St Pedro Mont St Pedro , many names changes over the yaers ranging Peter’s and then Mt St Pedro, and St Pedro seems to have been the most common , then became Kinibalau means the “Chinese Widow, it’s established in North Borneo.
2) Borneo Map ,Engraved in Leyden,Fistke Van Der A.R
e)Tanjong Bargon(Tanjong Datu?)
3) THE DEVELOMPNET OF SARAWAK
a) Kuching area 1841
b)Simangang area 1853
c) Serikei ,Sibu and Bintulu area 1861
d) Miri area ,1883
e) Limbang area .1890
f) Trusan and Lawas area 1885
I.2 Early Sarawak’s Picture Everybody say “The Picture’s Talk”, you will understand its informations , if you know the “Picture’s language”.
1.2.1 Early sarawak landscapes
b.River of Sarawak & Kuching ,1848
c.Hall of Audience ,Sarawak, KEPPEL, 1846
1.2.2 Early Sarawak Native ’s Leader
a. Rajah Muda Hashim
1.2.3 Sir James Brooke profile
a. Young James Brooke
1.2.4 James Brooke’s Resident
a. View from James,s Bungallow looking up river.1848.
b. James’s Bungallow,1840.
1.2.5 The James’s Battles scene
a. The attack on Paddi . Boat HMS Dido, 1846.
b.Iban attack with poisoned arrow through the “pipe”,1848.
C, Cutting the boom at Malladu ,1840
d. Night attack on the Panglima,s Prabu, 1840
e.HMS Dido at Sarawak,1846
1.3. Early Sarawak’s Coin The Four Early Brass Coins James Brooke :
1.3.1 Sarawak Official Coins, Brass.
a. Half Cent (Front and Back’s photos no…..& …..), silver couted, found in West Borneo, Difficult to find in Sarawak.This coin circuoated in West Borneo and they used as amulet .
b. One Centr (front and back photo no….& …..), found in West Borneo, hard to find in Sarawak. c.1/4 quarter cent , didn’t found until this day, photo from Catalogue.
1.3.2. J.B. One Keping Singapore Merchant’s Brass Coins One keping in arabic char, with initial J.B. means james Brooke with Sarawak armed’s animal, didn’t find the original one, many falcification or fake coin , photo from calatogue. I have all type of Singapore marchant’s token during Raffles except Sarawak, may be someone send me the photo of original JB Sarawak coin.
1.4. Early Sarawak Postal History
1.4.1. India Stamps Used In Sarawak.
a. Sarawak Post Office Round Stamped with handwriten 25/10/64, the earliest date.
b. India Stamps with local square B 172 stamped, 1.4.2 Sarawak first stamps The first Sarawak Stamps with Rajah Sir James Brooke profile, only find in Mint condition from the Duch collectors during Indonesia International Stamp Exhebition at Jakarta 1996, I never saw the used stamps with cleared date and name of the town off cover or postally covers, if someone have it please send me the information and your name will be the name of that stamps.
1.5. Sarawak’s phillatelist The famous Sarwak ‘s phillatelist report especially for the next chapters informations, Dr R.Ngu and Mr Chan Key Tex had gave informations to put their report on this book , but International Collectors I don,t have contact please send me yuor informations including Malaysia and Singapore phllitelis like Mr Steve and Mr The Peng Hian .
1.5.1 International Sarawak Stamp’s Collectors a.C.M.C Symes In 1971 he found some rare postal history covers and put in the Auctions, this covers was sold in 1991 and 1994 international Auctions : a)”Myerscough” to London Covers,1897. b)”Conrad Meyer”,1880 to Singapore and ”Diercking”1892 to Kowloon covers.
1.5.2 Native Senior Sarawak collectors
a.Chan Kee Tex I have met Him in 2007, he gave me many informations and very kind phillatelic friend who show me Kuching View from the top of tower and introduced me some senior Sarawak Phillatelist. I wrote this book in English for Him and after read this informations I hope he will contact me for more infor-mations, Please beg a pardon because not on time like I promise to you, be-cause the situations didn’t well.
b.Ho Ka Moh He report Phillatelic creations cover , Australian Stamps Used in Kuching,1945
c.Ong Liap Teck He have reported his communication with mr Bill London about the Sarawak Phillatelic and postal history. d.Francis H.H.NgU I have meet him, my Medical collaguae with same profesions in 2007, he gave mee permission to used his informations. One of his information was “An Unrecorded Ha Buey Hon Picture Postcard” e.Chui Foh Chin He report Kuching view picture postcard 1930-1940.