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Archive for October, 2009

CONTENTS
_________________________________

3.1 BEFORE AND DURING WW II

3.1.1 HISTORIC BACKGROUND

3.1.2 UNIQUE VINTAGE COLLECTIONS

LITERATURE

3.1 INDOCHINA BEFORE WW II

3.1.1.Historical Bacground of vietnam dynasty
(1)NGUYEN DYNASTY between 1887-1945 under the Westren imperialism 1887-1945
(2)Hue Emperor(1802-1946)

(a)From 1802 to 1945 Vietnam vas rule by a series of Nguyen emperors who lived extravagant live most of the population lived as poupers.

(b)the Nguyen dynasty under French’s protectorate and were called the emperor of Annam, with trhe capital Hue, the territory included Tonkin and Cochinchina –auth)
When these leaders died, monumental tomb sites-some like miniature towns – were built south of Hue along Perfume River,-

(3) The emperor of Nguyen Dynasty during Franch protectorate in 20th centuries.

a)Khai Dinh (1916 – 1925)

b)Bo Dai (1925-1945)

3.1.2.Chronology Document and Postal History Collections (Compile from Dr Iwan S.’s Collections, Romein.1954 ,Stenley Karnow,1983 document and Nguyen Ngoc Vy,2006,Ta Chi Dong hai & Dang van Khoa,1994; abbrevation PH for Postal History, D for document or book clipiing , and P for Picture)

1)1859
France issued special stamps for her colonies, including indochina, colour brown red,10 cent, design eagle, double circle , colonies de l”empire france 10c.postes.10 cent. But never seen postal used on cover with hanoi or saigon cds.(PH)

2)1862
In this year, after the emperor Tu Duc relucanty ceded to France , the three provincees adjecent to Saigon, regional dignitaries continued to harass the France despite the ruler’s decision.
One of them , Truong Cong Dinh, the son of a military mandarin from central Vietnam mobilized his own peasant units, armed them with spears and swords and told Tu Duc that “we are determined to disoney yours orders as long as you speak of peace and surrender”

3)1863
Betrayed and killed in this year, Truong Cong Dinh was succeeded by his twenty year old son, who soon met death when he tried to expand his father’s movement through alliences with other partisan group. His comerade in that venture included a poet, Nguyen Huu Huan, who was later captured and executed by the French; his verses typified the burgeoning nationalistic sentiment of the period :

The more I sense my duty the more I feel
On my shoulders its infinite weght
A man worthy of the name must blush
If he cannot pay the debt with his life

4)January.21th 1875
In 1875, La Banque de Indo-chine (The Bank of Indo-China) came into existance in Saigon under the acts dates 21th januray 1875,the first notes were issued in Haipong or Saigon. Besides the French char nomial : cinq piasters also the English’s nominal five dollars.

5)Before 1876
The report of the earliest postal history covers sent from equador “Sis Soeft “Jenny ‘C” Hanoi tonkin the date not clear .red cds(PH, gogle exploration please the owner comment-auth)

6) After 1876
The earliest recorded postal History from Army Chinese emperor post office Yunnan sent to vietnam used indochina overprint china stamps (PH, Gogle explration, please the owner comment-auth)

7)1883

a) Khien Phuc ascended the throne as the emperor of Dai Viet, during his dynasty issued 1phan cash coins in chenese char. “ Kien Phuc Thong Bao” (this coins rare ,because the dynasty only two years-auth)

b)After 1883, when the French forced a “Protectorate” on Vietnam, Ton That Thuyet smuggled arms, ammunition, fod and money to a secret base north of Hue, the imperial capital.
He also disposed of three earlier emperors whose submissiveness to the French exasperated him.

8) 1884
The young emperor of Dai Viet ascended the throne. The emperor was tweleve’s years old.
During last emperor of Dai Viet “Ham Ngi dysnasty”, issued a very rare 1 phan cash coin with chinese charcter “ Ham Nghi Thong Bao” was read Up-down, right to left. .(the coin very rare because the young emperor only 2 years on his throne, the collector must learned the Chinese character was used on that coin, wa list in the coins catallogue , the vietnamese didn’t have this catalague, they only have the bad photocoies one- auth)

9) 1885
a) July 1885
When French imposed their demands at Hue in this month, Ton That Thuyet provoked them into an attack. They pillaged the city and palace, and he fled to his sanctuary with Ham Ngi , whom the French promptly replaced by a pliant elder brother. (?)
Ton That Thuyet escaped to China , ostensibly to seet aid, while Ham Nghi took refuge in a Hmong village near the Laotian border.

b)Only in the summer of 1885 did the sporadic and disjointed Vietnamese opposition gain border legitimacy when Ham Nghi, the thirteenth year old emperor, joined the resistance. His movement collapse within three years, but his defiance assumed legendary proportions
The mastermind behind his insurrections was a passionate nationalist Ton That Thuyet , a scion of the Royal family.

c) The french, who had set the mountain tribes against Lowland Vietnamese, bribed the Hmong village chief with money, opium and a military title to betray the fugitive emperor.

d) French Protectorate Annam , The firs emperor of Annam Dong Khan ascended the throne .
During this time issued Vietnamese cash coin with the designed like Chinese empire cash coin 1 phan. ( This coin not common coins-auth)

8)March.16th 1886
The postage stamps of Indochina begun on March.16.1886 with the overprint of S or SC.CH on the generic stamps of the French Colonies stamp (issue in 1859), for use in Cochinchina, mainly Saigon.
(I never seen this stamps in used conditin off cover or postally used covers-auth)

10) 1886
(1)In late 1886 for examples ………….

11)1887
France creates Indochinese Union composed of Cochinchina, Annam, Tonkin and Cambodia.(D)

12)1888

(1)January,21th,1988
stamps crudely overprinted A & T
( meaning Annam & Tonkin) along with a “1” or “5”, and also on the generic colonies stamps were issued for those territories.
(This stamps reported off cover cancalled Ha- Noi in Tonkin 17 March 1890.(PH)

(2) ? , 1888
The second emperor of Annam, Than Thoi ascended the throne. During this dynasty were issued 10 phan cash coin (This coin common, because very long on the throne from 1888-1907 and many sirculated because the inflations after WW I -auth)

(3) May .16th 1888
The Bank of Indochina(la Banque de I’Indon-Chine issued one dollar(une piastre ) , and 100 dollar (cent piaster) banknote in Saigon.(D)

(3) Late 1888
The French captured Ton That Thuyet and Ham Nghi , exile him to Algeria and executed all of his follwers except monarch. The other strangled himself to death out of shame.
Ham Nghi had issuet an edict during his fight from Hue, urging “The rich to give their wealth, the mighty their strenght and the poor their limbs so that the country might be rescued from the invader”
The proclamation, known as Can Vuong or Loyality to the emperor, inspired resistance leaders long after his deportation.

13)1889
(1) Unification of colonial adminis-tration .
(2) Unification first result in Surcharges in januari 1889 on the 35 french colonies stamps, reading Indo-Chine o9/S/RD (8 january) where “R” refered to the colonial Govenour P.Richaud and the the “D” to the postmaster at Saigon General P.Demars.
This stamps report Off Cover cancelled Vinh Long, a town of the Mekong Delts , 9 april 1899. afew month after the stamp was issued
(3) the Indochinese stamps officially came into being and were used in Vietnam,Laos and Cambodia. These were colonial stamps over-printed with “Indochine”, the number 1889 or 89, the two letters RD and the number 5 (PH)

14) 1890
Ho Chi Minh is born in central Vietnam and his real name Nguyen Ai Quoc(D)

15) 1891
Not yet info

16)1892
The first regular stamps of Indochina were issue with design standard Navigation and commerce series used by the describe Indo-chine(P)

17) 1893-1897
Not yet info

18)1898
(1)September 7th1898
The Bank of Indochina issued banknote Twenty Dollar ( Vingt Piatres)

19) 1899-1900
Not yet info

20)1901

(1) April.3rd. 1901
The Bank Of Indochina issued in saigon and Haipong four kind of note with nominalonly in Frech language (1,5,20 and 100 piastres).
The notes in Tonkin (haipong) was not allowed to excahnge for Cochinchinese (Saigon) notes and cochinchinese notes had to spent in Cochinchina(Saigon).
(The Haiphong notes very rare difficult to found, I have seen one in the auction, and I have the Saigon notes found in Hanoi – auth)

(2)august.6th 1901
Off cover of postally used stamp on two type regular definitives Indochine RF stamp type I standard navigation and commerce orange 4 cent and red 6 cent, CDS Dalat-A(nam) 6.8.01, was found in Indonesia.
(Dalat a historic city for Indonesian people because Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman meet Field Markal Tarauci to have an authority to Indonesia Independent in August.14th 1945, read the complete story in this block and look “Indonesia Independent War” and look the vintage picture postcard-and vintahe photo/picture in 1964 Vietnam Unique collections- auth)

21) 1902-1904
Not yet info

20)1905
(1) October.14th 1905
Off cover Indochine first regular deffinitive stamps ,brown,15 cent, postally used cds Dien Bien (phu) 14 Oct 05 ,was found in Indonesia
( The famous city Dien Bien Phu where the Vietminh win the war against Franch, very popular city-unique CDS-auth)

21) 1906
Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign were issued 1 phan cash coins thwo types , machinal struck and traditional struck.(Traditional struch more rare that the macinal struck)

22)1907

(1)Than-Thai vietnam emperor throught out from vietnam to Reunion island by Franch (P)

(2) The attractive native woman design regular stamps were issued in 1907.(PH)

23) 1908-1910
Not yet info

24) 1911
(1) Ho leave Vietnam(D)
(2) October,4th .1911
Off piece Two Blue definitives native women Indochine 1 Piastre ,1000A2000 revenue , used with handwritten 4/10/11 .were found in Indonesia
(the unique earliest 20th century high nominal revenue, because in this time many used in low nominal,because in this year recetion and tax revenue became high, -auth)

25) 1912
(1) January,31.1912
The early off cover postally used CDS Lao Bao –Anam 31.Jan.12 on orange first type definitif Indochine Stamp 10 cent. Found in Indonesia (what the new name of the citry Lao Bao ? rare village postal stamp ?,because didn’t found in later vietnam name, please comment for information-auth)

26)1913
Early twentieth century Indochine Justice Francaise Extract “Extrait du casier judiciare concernant” Tribunal Cantho. Droit de timbre a o$15 en compte avec le Tresor.
Extrait du casier judiciare concernant
Name (nomne) : Nguyen Huee Tam
Fils de Nguyen Huee Vien
Et de Ha thi-Thu
Ne le 21 Fevrier 1925 a Tan quoi (Cantho)
Domicilee au dit lien
Etat civil et de familie Celibataire
Profession ……………………………….
Nationalite Sujet francais de Cochinchine
Pour extrait conforme:

Cantho le 1er December 1913
Le Greffier
Vu au Parquet Signed Lie
De procureui de la Republique Round Stamped
“Procureur De La Republique

Tribunal De cantho”
27) 1914
Some hundred thousand Viet-namese go to French in Labor battalions during WW I.(D)

28) 1916
Emperor Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign issued two kind of 1 phan cash coind “Khai Dinh Thong Bao” Traditinal and mechanical struck. (The mechanical struck more comon coins-auth)

29) 1917
Not yet info

30)1918
Ho arrives in Paris during Russian revolution and remains there for the next seven years.(D)

31) 1919
(1)Ho tries to petition for self determination in Vietnam against President Woodrow Wilson , at the Versailles Peace Conference
(2) A surcharged set of 1919 reccestated by the changeover from centimes to piastres in the prsent years. And a reprinted set staring 1/10 cent denominated.(PH)

32) 1920

(1)Ho joins newly formed French Communist Party .(D) and the photo of Saigon in this year.(P)

(2) In 1920 the Banknoted issues from Haipong and Saigon could circulated all over Indochinese territory In this year also issued low nominal banknote 10 ,20 and 50 cents.(Haipong issued more difficult to found-auth)

(3) September. 2nd 1920
(1)The earliest Reciept of House land tax Paid sign by Nguoi thau of Cantho, Village du thoi thanh, with red stamped. Franch Liberty Indochina with chine character.(D)( I have the best collection of this land tax reciept from Village Tan –Buoi from 1920-1922, 1930-1934, 1939, 1940-1943, 1946, 1949. This unique document were the factual information that during 1923-1929, 1935-1938, 1944-145, 1947-1948 something happen that the land tax did,t paid and the authority also change by name , may be the conflict and war situations, let we proof that fact with historic informations, let the Historian made the study of this historic collections, let ‘s study together-auth)

33)1921

(1) June.29th1921
The receipt of land house tax paid ?(so hien bien lai ) , nhan lauh cua hua i ngsat, nguoin thau signed Nguoi than and red Franch Liberty stamped Cantho- Village du tan-Buoi

34) 1922
(1)Khai Dinh(1916-1925) Annam’s emperor visit Paris (P)
(2) July.10th 1922
The reciept of Land Tax paid, signed Nguoi Than, redbrown French liberty stamped Cantho, Village du Tan Buoi.
(the last signed Ngoui Than-auth)
And anpther same document but with first signed Vien chuoc thou nhem (new title-auth)

(4) December,17th,1922
The blue paper reciept of Land tax paid, signed by Vien Chuoc thou nhem and lFrench liberty stamped Catho ,Village du Tan Buoi. (D)

35)1923

(1)January 25th 1923
Republique Francaise Indochine 36 cent Revenue Sheet, used added Indochine Dimanston revenue 24 cent USED WITH stamped Annuale , This was the the Francaise Indchine revenue’s letter sheet contract “To ban Chuoc vuon ruong” adress “Nguoi ban le van thiet 45 luoi vo la Nguyen thi Khue 42 tuoi Saigon , for “Gia ban chuoc ban lon Mot Ngan Dong(1000$00)”, between ngoi ban ming and nguoi mua ming , “zoi-giao : Trong bon nam chuoc thi bac co loi nam ba phan ngoai bon nam chuoc lai thi bac nad loi con von J ngay to”( please native Vietnamese t translate this historic revenue sheet-auth)

(2)April ,5th.1923
Bo Dai was born in hue the capital of Vietnam Kingdom ( He was the last emperor of Vietnam-auth)

(3) April 13th 1923
Francaise Indochine 24 cent Revenue letter’s sheet was used to write the information in Franch & Vietnamese characters :
a) Lang cap duc nam 1866
S-o-160-50 2 Ha 20.00-Rg 2ecl VC-Thong Minh –dao ,S-Re chle , E.-Re .Nguyen Do , O.-Re.Nguyen tac-Yen.
b) 9 Jiullet 1905
212-243-88bNgai-v-Thoi -2.26a.00-Vuon .
NG .-reg Chu , S-Reach hu-Tri , E-V-Vg-Tai-Vang , O.-Re.Le-v-Thanh.
Ngua cua con Hbh-Phai la Hbh van Tbao trans NG0 2908 du 9 Juillet 1905.

c) 17 Aout 1909.
Vendu deft par les heritiers de Thuan Wbai’;t;Do ewught Ngo 2809 du 17 aout 1909. signe Eudel.
d)5 September 1917
(1)Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi survant partage a l’anuable intervenu entre les heririers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt Ngo -2773 du 5 September 1917. Po L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard,
(2) Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi suivant partage a’ l’annuale inteerheum entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Do euregt ngo 277e eu 5 September 1917 .P.o L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.
d) Extrait de Diao du Village de3 Thanh Thien, canton de Mhinh-puc
(1)Lang cap duc nam 1866
49-24-49 Diavo actuel -2.000 Ha-Reg 2e-cl : N-Reg chu,S-V-chu,E.-Re Ngai –v-Do, O-Re.Nguyen tacc yen.
Veneu deft per Pham-v-quan ,sanh,Thien,Ngai, Duong, bay, Than,Hoa,Dieu,Thuong, Nham,Cuac, Dat, Chou et Gian, heritiers de Thuan, ai Ngai-v-Do enregt No 2809 du i7 Aout 1909 P.o.eur Sign Eudel.
Part attribuee Ngai –v-Thoi suivant partage a l’annuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt-Ngo 2773 du 5 September 1917. P.o.Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(2) 71-34-71 Ngai-van-Thoi
2 Ha Reg 1er cl : Ng –reg-Chu, SW.- Vuon chu, E. R-Ng-tac-vang, O-r-Le-v;Thanh,
Ngua duc cua Hbuynh-v-Phai va vo la Nbg Ru Phuong cau chung no 2369ndu 17/7-1901.
Part attribute a Ngai-v-Thoi sui vanpartage l’anuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai van-Do enregtno.2773 du 5 Septembre 1917 Le l’Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(3) 72-170 -72 Ngai –v-Thoi 280.00 : Thong Minh Dao, S.- reg chu, E.- rg Ng-tac-Vang , O.- reg Le-van-Thanh.
Ngua euc cua thj Phuong la vo Phai cau chung so 2367 du 17 September 1901.
Ngeme partage que le Ngo-3H du bo. P.g.l’Ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.

P.E. G.
Droit percu : 5 $ 00.-
Quittance No.5511
Bentre, le 13 Avril 1923
P.L’administrateur etfro
Sign by Huchard & Red Bentre Stamped. ( interesting information about ? from 1866 to 1917 and officially sign by Bentre Administrators with offcial stamped. On 12 April 1923, may be this official information about land owner ? from the Bentre Admninistration in 1923. )

36) 1924

(1)Ho leaves Paris for Moscow , becomes full-time Communist agent . Later went to Canton as assistant to Mikhail Borodin , Soviet represen-tative in China.(D)

(2) December.8.1924
Off cover brown definitive Indochine RF stamp , 12 cent in double circle type -2 stamp, Postally used CDS Hanoi (To)nkin 8.12.24.

37) 1925
Emperor Khai Dinh was died, he was burried at imperial ‘s tombs, near the purfurmed river. His tomb very best and artistic, like miniature city, with many artistic statue of dragon,gourd and civillian, elephant, horse .
Theorically Bao Dai his elder son became the emperor Of Vietnam, and The young emperor came back from France to ascended the throne under france tottulage.

( I have some original vintage photo of Khai dinh Tomb fro 1930 , 1949, and 1955, the old photo, the childrens were riding the horse and elephant ‘s statues
In the modern times we hav the informations about that Tomb :………………………………………..- auth)
Khai Dinh ‘s elder sons was the last empror of Annam 1926-1945, but he always at Paris, and under Japanese protectorate he came back to Vietnam stayed at Dalat,
( by referendum the last emperor was thrown out by Ngho Dinh Diem in 1955, read another subchapter-auth)

38) 1927

(1) June .13th.1927
Mytho Indentity Card,certifies exaste les reneignaments et-dessus(issue by) Mytho le 13 Juin 1927 Le Directeur, form was printed by Photo-Nadal,120 rue cayinat,saigon. (Nadal-photo have produced many vintage picture postcard-auth)
No. Maticule 372
Nom (name) : Ly Thi Nega
Ne l e(born ) : 13 Juillet(july) 1913
A’ (at) Phu Lun (Sadec)
Eleve de L’Ecole des : Sacuro
Nom,profession : Ly dai Con
Adresse des parents : Proprieclaire a Phu Lun (Sadec). (Sadec an native traibes near the border with ex annam area-auth)

(2) August 18th 1927
Republique Francaise Indochine 12 cent revenue sheet, used at Bentre,by Tong Minh-hue Lang Thanh –thoi,
Bentre Village square official stamped with chinese char. Also thumb –finger print sign.

(3) August,1st 1927
Rare Indochine 40 cent Revenue 300$ A4000$ , used on Document “To Han Mai dat” Bentre le 1er Aout 1927 , handfinger thumb signed of seven persons , legalised by the chief of Bentre Village with square stamped Bentre Village Thanthoi and Province De Bentre Administrateure stamped at 3 Aout 1927.

(4) October.24.1927
The rare and unique Carte D’Indentite (I.D.) Changenebes de Domicile (Change the domicillies) from”D’Outremer Service de Laison avec les originares aries Territoires Francais d’Outra-Mer” (The Service’s laisson of Foreign France teritory area) with the round stamped on blue Republique Francaise Timbre tax d’outra-mer ,very rare Revenue for France Colony, pity the ID card quality poor but useable for historic archived and must restored–auth)
Nom (name) : Luong hoc San
Nationalite: Citayen Union Frnacasie (Cochinchine).
Profession : Efecidiant (not clear ?)
Ne le : 24 octobre 1927
Long Binh Ranch..Cochinchine.(The rare used Franch colony revenue in cochine china, pity the revenue in bad condition,but the photo and card good condition, still interesting Cochine chine ID card during that colonial era-auth)

39)1928
No Collections and no Information, please someone will kind to send the info in 1928-auth.

40)1929

(1)Nguyen Ai –Quoc more knwon Ho Chi Minh have builded Vietnam Communist Party (D&P)

(2)Nearly Mint Picture Postcard Hanoi-Le Jardin Botonique.printed by Grands Magasines Reunie Hanoi(OP)

(3)Republique Francaise Indochina 10 Cent Revenue sheet overprinted Indochine 3 Cent used in chinese char about …. with six square stamped “ “P.Binhoh-h.Phu-Cai”in center chinese char…….(PH)

____________________________________
41) 1930,the economic crisis and rebellion year.
_____________________________________

(1)in 1930 the economic crisis added the social economic conflict between the poor farmer and labourmens ,in Indochine they have made rebellion the same situation in China.

(2)The second type Banknote issued by The bank of Indochina, this notes different from the first type, the name of the issuing bank, which “Banque de I’Indochine (Indochine written jointly without dash, the first type “ Indo-Chine”), while in the transitional period of the two typical categoriethe one-piaster notes bore the bank name of “banque de I’Indo-Chine”, and there was on their back side trilinual letters of Chinese,Vietnamese,cambodian and note emblem.
For these second catagory of notes, on their back side there were lines of Chinese Characters and a legal warning (in French) which have been all writen nratly and lightly. The note values have been written clearly in three letters of chinese,Vietnamese and Cambodian.
The following five-piaster notes were called very popularly by our compatriots as “Con Cong ”(Peacock) papers. On the back side of the twenty piaster notes there was the four-faces statue found at bayon temple (Cambodia). They were called populary as “Giay Qanh”( “Vingt Papers) which come from the french number “Vingt”(twenty).
For one hundred-piaster note, there was rather special thing. The Vietnamese figures (The single vase,The Imperial Temple Gate of Hue,capital city) were shown on the front side, while on their back side was seen the bust of Joseph-Francois Dupleix, a well-kown french colonialist official. ( I have this notes in fine condition, but very difficult to find the veryfine or unc condition, this note were found in Russian market Phonphen Cambodia, in Ho Chi Minh city difficult to find the Indochine papermoney, alway verybad condition maybe because the Liberation ‘s war and many Saigon ntaive vietnamese flea away after the fall of saigon, the only place still found was Cholon area, but the chinese there very carefully to change this high nominal value after the French leave that area, please comment-auth)

The Doc Luc, Giay Qanh and Con Cong(Single vase, twenty piaster pape and peacock) have constituted a triad of big notes which have been used for a rather long time under the French rule.After this three bankonote, issued the same banknote disign but the Baque De I’Indochine and nominal value in Red Colour , the rare banknote was the highest nominal 1000 piastres, the first type in yellow colour ( That is way very rare the very fine conditions , many poor conditions have found –auth).
After this Banque De I’Indochine issued several design cammon banknote, une,cinq,cent,cinq cent with native design.

(3)January,13th .1930
Rare chinese calligraphy bring by chinese immigrant (hoa Kiao or Chinese overseas) to Cholon-Saigon, about Chinese homeland traditional ritual from Tjiang Shi (Quanshi?) , the best time to pray at 10.15 pm , position up above, also about Chinese zodiac good fortune.
(I have found several document ,revenue and postal history written in chinese char during ancient time, francaise Indochine, Bodai’s,diem ‘s and liberation war from the Vienama’s chinese overseas area at Haiphng near Hanoi and Cholon- Saigon. I will write a special book about Vietnam’s Chinese Overseas unique collections- auth)

(4) November,13th 1930
The reciept of Land House tax with Indochine Francaise liberty armour ‘s Cantho Village violet stamped , signed by Ngui Thau, before by Vien Chuc Thau Nhan. (fiscal history-auth)

42) 1931

(1)August,7th 1931.
The reciept of Land House tax paid ,signed Vien Chu thau Nham with Violet French Liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan Buoi (D)
( the change again of official govern-ment system in the village four times from 1920-1939, from Nguoi Thu(1922) – Vien Chuc Thau Nham(1923)- Nguoi Thau(1930)- Vien Chuc thau Nham(1931)-Nguoi thanh(1932)- Vien thau Nhan(1939 )-Nguoi Thau (1939,May)- Vien chuc thau nhan (1940)-Nguoi thau(1941)-Thue (1946)-Nguoi thau (1949), very best informatif set collection So Hien Bien lai , especially the year 1941-1942-1943 – 1946-1nd 1949 as the collection for showed-please comment-auth)

43) 1932

(1)July.10.1932
The Reciept of Land house tax paid, signed Vien Chuc thau nham, with red-brown franch liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi (D)

44)1933

(1) December, 17th 1933
The Pink paper reciept of Land House tax, signed Nguoi Than, with Red French liberty stamped Canth, village du Tan Buoi (D)

45) 1934

(1)May 20th 1934
Emperor Bo Dai merried Jeannete Marie (?) at the imperial city of Hue.
And his wife became “Hong Hau Nhan Phuong” or empress of the South.
( I ever stayed at the “Nhan Phuong” Hotel at Hanoi near Hoat kiem lake in 2007-auth)

(2)October, 15.1934
The White paper reciept of Land house tax pai, signed Ngui Thou with red chinese character of the Frech liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan buoi (D)

46) 1935

(1)December.30th 1935
Off cover emperor Bo Dai official stamps send from the capital of Vienam administration office , 5 cent orange Indochine definitive stamps overprint Service, postally used CDS HUE –A(NAM) 30.12.35
(Hue was the capital of the state of Anam . The Service stamps
for official latter of the Annam kingdom adminsitration during the last emperor Bo Dai-auth)

(2) Blue Matches label withe elephant design,”Societe Indochinese des alldmetes-Benthuy-Hanoi” with chinese char.
(Very rare Matches label from Indochine Francaise in the Tonkin village Benthuy –Hanoi found in Indonesia before the World war II , because many collections burns during Vietminth war against Franc in 1952-1955, this is the first reported of that kind collections, were someone had the same collection please comment –auth)

47)1936

(1)In 1936

(a) stamps issue depecting the various native emperor and king in variety of commemorative honouring notable figures.

(b) Old styled chinese char about Chinese School information (difficult to translate, my be someone will help me -auth)

(2)August.21th .1936
The Vaccination card, “ Ville De Cholon” Etat-Civil Indigne(Bo doi Bon Quoc), Bulletin De Naissance (To Bien Lai khai Sanh)
Identification :
Nome et prenom : Law Ngoc
Sexe de l’infant ; Hau um
Ne le (born) :18.8.36
Address :A Cholon Rue Thu Gia De Lam Thong Et de Hua Teich .

Ephemera of The Variolla vaccination ’s law in Vietnamnese and Chinese char:
“ Every newborn child must have variolla vaccination, ifn’t done the parent will have sactions”
Behind the card stamped :
Vaccine contre La variola 21-8-36, Succin 24-8-36, Vaccine per BCG 22-8-36.

(Rare Histroric health vacinnation record collection during Francaise Indochine at Cholon-Saigon Cochinchine in 1936 –auth)

48)1937
No collection and information, why? Please comment -auth

49)1938
No collections and information Why snf what happened ? please comment-auth.

50)1939

(1)29th April 1939
Two vintage document used as the covers of Hand written vintage book:

(a)The Reciept of personal Tax from Village Da ban-Huyen de Yen Binh, paid (Paye) 129$81 , “import personnel and Toncier of” nguyen Quang ,hand sign by “Administrtaeur-Resident”at 29 april 1939 with official stamped
Pour L’annee 1939
Village de Da Ban
Canton de….. Huyen de Yen Binh
1.-Impo’t personnel
. …contribuables a’ 250$00
…..contribuables a’ 200.00
….. contribuables a’150.00
……contribuables a’ 125.00
……contribuqbles a’ 105.00
…..contribuables a’ 80.00
…..contribuables a’ 55.00
…..contribuables a’ 40.00
…..contribuables a’ 25.00
…..contribuables a’ 15.00
…..contribuables a’ 7.00
…..contribuables a’ 5.00
..32contribuables a’ 2.50 80,00
….6contribuables a’ 1.00 6,00—— 86.00
Centimes additionales a’impot personnel 17.20
————–
Total de l.impot personnel et des centiemes additionnales 103.20

2.-Impot Toncter
Riziores de 1’ classe—— Mau a’1$90
– 2’ classe…… Mau a’1,50
– 3’classe……. 11 Mau a1,00…..11,00
Terrains de 1’classe…… Mau a’2$30…
— 2’classe…. Mau a’1.00
— 3’ classe…. 12 Mau a’0,50…..6.00
— 4’classe….. 30 Mau a’0.17……5,10
— 5’classe….. Mau a’0,02…..
Total de L’impot foncier 22,10
3.centiemes additionnels au principal de l’impot
Au profit du Badget provincial…………….. 4,42
4.4/1000 additionels au principal de L’impot foncier
Au profit deLa’Chambre d’Agriculture….0,09——– 26.61
______________
Total de lo’impot a’ verser par le village———- 129.81
________________
Arrete a La somme de Cent vingt reuf pistres ,quatre vingt et un cente.
Nguyen Quang te ………..29 april 1939
Administateur Resident
(b) Versaments Printed Document, The Rice field class no 1 & 2 and Land Tax in chinese char.
Nu du carnet d’enregistre ment ……….831
DATE de versements …………………….3739
VERSEMENTES
En Toutes latters….toen trrs piatres cents
En Piastres ……………………………………….103,20
Hand sign and not clear official handstsaped :
TRESORER’ DU CONTROLUER(?) ..
PLACE DU ECONOMIQUE..(?)..
IN THE CENTER ‘PA………..”

d) Vintage Handwritten Book in Chinese charcter and many Coding pictures about the confucian prayed

(This Unique Imporst Fiscal “ Nguyen or Tunyen(?) Quan ‘s “ Import personnel and Toncier from village Da Ban ,huyen Yen Binh was the first report Fiscal revenue historic collections from Vietnam, I am very lucky to find this very rare document with another documen were used as the cover of an handwritten chinese char vintage books in antique shop near Hoat Kiem lake Hanoi in 2007. auth)

(2) October,30-1939
Off Cover brown native stamp Indochine RF 50 cent, postally used CDS Haipong 30.10.39 (Haiphong was the older capital of Tonkin, the chinese marchant harbor, the rare Haiphong’s picture and ID Card look at the next page, chronologic year 1947 and 1955. auth)

29) 1938
(1)September.4th 1938
THE VERY RARE WESSELS ‘S HANOI TONKIN COVER TO DUTCH East Indie (now Indonesia).
THE UNUSUAL AIRMAIL cover from HANOI TONKIN, FOUR POSTALLED STAMPED DESTINATIONS WITH HANDWRITTEN DESTINATION AND PORTO F 1.
This postally covers was sent from Hanoi Tongkin to Het Postzegelhuis (Post Office) Djogja Indes Neerlandaises (Ned.Indie, now Indonesia) WITH FIVE Rhodes STAMPS , 3 x 5 cent , 6 cent and 18 cent Indochina stamps(rate 39 cent) Par avion WITH INDOCHINA MAP, with ROUND Postmark HANOI P.O.-TONKIN WITHOUT DATE , SENT VIA BANGKOK G.PO.c 4.9.38 , VIA BATAVIA (HANDWRITTEN IN BLUE PARKER INK “HAUR BATAVIA”(NOW JAKARTA) AND ARRIVING POSTMARK DJOKJAKARTA 7.9.38 WITH HANDWRITTEN f 1.- ADDED PORTO ONE GULDEN. (UNSUAL PORTO)
(the photo of this Wessel’s cover will show in this blog. Please comment if anyone have the same collection-auth)

(2)Near mint Indochine Pictured Postcard with the Native village Tonkin Womens sold the flower and fruit “Paysannes Tonkinese revenant du Marche.
This card base on “Cliche No-Nhu_Hoan,MY-Hao Ban-Yen-Nham-Tonkin, pritted by Edition photo NADAL ,Saigon-Imp.Braun(P)

51)1939
(1)March.23th 1939
The blue paper receipt of land House tax paid, signed Vien Chuc Than Nham with red French liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi , 23 mars 1939. (D)

52)1940
(1) March.29,1940
The Police D’Abonnement A L’Eau Porable , Cochine Chine polish insurance (?) With very rare overprint 36 on Indochine Francaise 25 cent Timbre fiscal revenue , le abonemen Cathedral De Saigon .RP Eugene Scullard ,Place Pigneu de Boheine.
secteur de saigon, Services Technique, control de Eaux et De Electricite, This contract sign at Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Vue et propose L’Ingenuer Charge du Controle, L’Abonne, Vue et soumis a L’apprebation de M.L’Administrateur Le chef de services technique sign R.Lachamp, and Vu et accepted Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Le chef de Service Administratifs with Cholon Region Station Services Technique Stamped.(Very Rare Cathedral de Saigon abbonnement certificate with very rare overprint Yellow-36 on 25 cent Indochine francaise timbre fiscal revenue, only found one pieces this emergencies revenue-auth)

(2)May.22.1940
(b)The Republique Francaise Indochine 15 cent Requete revenue sheet
(a) added “Tonkin -handstamped” R.F.Indochine 3 cent revenue , used with village stamped with chinese character “H.Phu-Cat V.Dai-Hac”, this revenue sheet was the house and land transaction , the house located at the highsociety area, north the village, south Phan Tiu, West Phan Yen, East Kwang chung .
( This revenue sheet found at Hanoi Hoat Kiem area” and the best showed collection to compare between the Tonkin ‘s Phu-Cai Hand-stamped 3 cent, with The Cochinchina’s Mytho- Mechanical overprint 3 cent, wonderful two historic revenue sheet from Tonkin-phut Cai (north) and Cochinchina-Mytho (south) found by Indonesian , especially if showed in USA or French , please comment-auth)

(b)added “ Cochinchina-mechanical overprint” R.F.Indochine 3 cent, used at “Tinh Mytho,Tong Phong vu ,” at Tang Hoa Log. To Ban Dut Dat Ruong”ontract betweeen “Vhu Phua and Chu Ben” date (ngay) 22 Mai 1940, (found at Ho Chi Minh city from Cholon area.-auth)

(3) July.17th.1940
Gouvernement General De L’Indochine, Residence de Thai Binh
“LIVRET DE FAMILLE” Nguyen Van Tan
(Family’s book, inside the book Nguyen Van Tan write in red ink the name and birth date of their family from the first generation born Hanoi,Nguyen van Tan 25.12.1893, 2nd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi.3rd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi 4th Nguyen van Kiem birth date 5.10.1922 at Thai Binh , 5th Le thiMInh,10-10-1930 at Ha Dong, 5) Nguyen van Toan 4.12.1954 at Saigon.Nguyen van Thinh 3.12.1956 at saigon and Nguyen Van Tring ,1-12-1957 at Da Nang etc another 11 persons.
(Unique Family birth date book of Governement General the Indochine, rare document from the official France colony administration, better shwed with another Gouvernur General Indchine document-auth)

(4) October,18th 1940
The best chinese overseas in Vietnam peom art calligraphy, as the remambrance for the best freands.
Including in small book more than fifteen poem and phraese about : (a)struggle for Independent
(b) you can have high vision, but must look at the true situations.
(c) Younger people don’t have the thought like a poet writers about old days situations , the Youngerman must made action to pass the threads in futures times.
(d)The Enemy were someone against us, the people were the battles.

(5)October .19th.1940
The Kuomintang flag with Sun Yat Sen photo as the head of Chinese overseas Middle school “Ijazah” , was authentication by Embassy of the republic of China .Saigon. double circle official kuomintang symbol stamped ,with big red squared official choped .
(The rare chinese overseas school document with China kuomintang –cholon ‘s embassy stamped.
I have another collection with the Kuomintang embassy stamped from Haipong and cholon- rare showed item and will list detailed in my another book title “The Unique Vietnam’s Chinese overseas document.revenue and postal history collections” –auth)

(6) December,19th 1940
The Police de’abbonent of General Immobiliere de Saigonm104.Bd Charner sretificate with very rare overprint 36 on 30 cent’s Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal (the other one 25 cent) on the Police D’Ambnnemen a L’eau Potable, sign by Directeur de la du Generale Immobiliere de Saigon,

( two very rare revenue onerprint 36 on indochine Francaise Timbre fiscal 25 cent and 30 cent very intersting collection for showed, the abnnement polish of the famous Saigon’s Cathedral and Saigon’s General Immobiliere building.-auth)

3.1.2 CONCLUSION
A) BETWEEN 1925-1928

B) BETWEEN 1935-1937

3.2 VIETNAM’S INDOCHINE FRANCAISE
DURING WW II (1941-1945)

3.2.1 Before Japanese came

1)1941

(1)From 1941 to 1945 almost all of Indochina stamps were designed by vietnamese painters ans printed in Vietnam as well (D)

(2)Ho return to Vietnam and form the Viethminh to fight both Japan and Franch.(D)

(2)March.14th 1941
The Receipt of house rental paid, stamped Cantho Village du thoi than.
(D)

(3)Juil(July) 5th 1941
The rare vintage Chinese Certifacate of Registration at Cholon saigon, name Ly Chu Yen , writting in chinese character and Chinese Kuomintang (Star) emblem, with Light brown 20 cent Chinese Fiscal revenue design old chinese native building , Chinese consulate cholon saigon stamped .
( I found one complete certificate and one uncomplete half certificate without photo but the Chinese consulate stamped on revenue more clair. The very fine show piece. I have a visit at the Saigon(now Ho Chi Minh City)’s Consulate PR China ,to get fast one day visa two entree with four times cost than normal one weeks finish visa one entree, but the service very best, and I used that visa to see the Histroric Nguyen trai and Le loi Langson border between PR China –south autonon Quanshi’s province with the north area of Vietnam, they called the Freedom border -auth)

(4)August.30.1941
The rare Postal Recepisse(Reciept) “a remettre au depossant”, name and destination : Phan Ky Che Ban bien Place de Ai Section Rach –gia, send from CDS Cantho Cochinchine 30.8.41.

28) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine
(1)The picture of Hotel at “Baclieu”” Le pare et l’Hotet de I’Inspection”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon,Gravure Braun&Cie .Dornach(France).(P)
(2)The Vintage Picture Postcard Of CochinChine.”the picture of Potterie Canal of Cholon with the junks.”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon , Cholon 1634. gravure Braunn &Cie.Dornach(france).
(I have seen the canal during last visit in 2009,still many ships but no jung anymore -auth)(P)
(3) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine. The pisctur of la Douene Bentre.
The card was isuued by Photo Nadal Saigon, Bentre 1104,Gravure Braun & Cie.Dornach(France) (P)

33)1941
(1)June.30th 1941
The very rare Postal Recepisse no 671 postal cancel CANTHO-COCHINCHINE 9.30 , 30-6.1941.
Recipesse, remettre ao deposant,
(A rempiir per l’expediteur.)
Nom et adresse du destinatire (the destination address): Chan Ky chee Bon Bien
Rue : Pace de la Section a’ Rachgia.

(A remplir per l’agent des Postes.
Nature de L’object Valeur declare remboursement Poid.
(1) Voir notice e speciale au veran
(2) Coller 1e1 L’etiquette gommes du G-20

In The Back :
Notice Speciale
Si L’object ne porte pas de declaration de va-
Leur et n’est pas greve de remboursement biffer
Par deux forts traits de plume,Les emplacement
Reseves pour L’inscription de la valeur declaree
Ou du montant du remboursment.
Le delai se prescription des valeurs de toute
Nature confie’ens a’ La Poste est est d’un on.
La designation de L’expenditeur peut e’tre faite
Au moyen d’une griffe.
En vuebd’eviter le stationement au guichet,
Les expenditeurs sont prie’s d’affranchix regulie’re-
Ment leurs envois avant le depo’t.)
(The Best postal History postal cancel of Cantho Cocchinchine during WWII with Speciale notes in French , as the postal History of French hegomony and historic colonial in Cochinchina , also very impostant to the comparative study postal cancelled of the postal used covers in Indochina after the war, because two many fake falsifiaction bogus postal used covers, I will showed this very rare postal history, not put on my blog because someone will made falsification fake cancel on covers-auth)

(2)November.21.1941
The light green paper receipt of land’s house rental tax paid, sign by Nguoi than with red French liberty stamped of Cantho vIllage du Tan Buoi(D)
_

3.2.2 VIETNAM PROCTECTORATE DAI NIPPON (1942-1945)

__________________________________
1) 1942
____________________________________

(1)June.19th 1942
The red paper receipt of Land House tax paid,handwritten , signed Nguoi Than with very light red franch liberty square stamped of Cantho Village du Tan Buoi ( Rare document during WWII – Vietnam Francaise indochina as the Protectorate Dai Nippon , Vietnam still used the same stamped of Indochine cantho village-auth)
___________________________________
2)1943
_____________________________________
(1)August,4th 1943
The light pink paper receipt of land-house tax paid signed nguoi thanh with very very light franch liberty stamped of cantho village red stamped.
(Very rare document during WWII 1943 from The Indochine protectorat Dai Nippon village ‘s stamped still used -auth)

___________________________________
3)1944
____________________________________

(1) Vo Nguyen Giap forms Vietminh Army(D) and the vintage photo of him (P)

(2) By the end of 1944,US Forces under General Douglas MacArthur had fought their way through the Pacific and werereconquering the Phillipines. Rumor spread that bthey would debark in Indochina in their first assaut against the Asian continent.
General de Gaulle, determined to regain Indochina for France, feared that vthe Americans would favor the Vietnamese nationalist.
He parachuted Franch agents and arms into the area with orders to attack the Japanese as the US troops hit the beaches. Soon Saigon buzzed with talk of the forthcoming French Operation.

__________________________________
4) 1945-The end of WW II and Franch resettlement and Vietnam Independent war was begun.
____________________________________
A. Before Dai Nippon take over the Government.

1)January 1945

(1)January 4th 1945
The Very rare & veryfine condition Gia Dinh reciept 55$ and 9$32 from Li Van San (Nhan lanh cua M) for “Pr le compte de li r Nang & Ho-thi Dau (?) , ve thue dat nha/pho, so bo thue —,nam- 1944. (no revenue exist.)
Ngay 4-1-1945
Violet Gia Dinh –Binh Bhoa Ya ‘s square stamped design bird and chinmese char.
(Very rare extrafine village Bin Hoa ya of Gia Dinh province (after that Saigon-Cholon) ‘s document during Dai Toa Senso- Great East Asia War 1942-1945-, the latest dcument before the France administration was took over by Dai Nippon in March 1945-auth)

__________________________________
Move down march!!!!!!!
B. DAI NIPPON MILLITARY ADMINISTRATIN IN INDOCHINE PROTECTORATE.FROM MARCH 1945 TO SEPTEMBER 1945.
___________________________________
1) March,9th.1945
(b)The Japanese lost no time in reacting .On the evening of March.9th 1945 , after strategically deploying their forces, they instructed the French govenor to place his army under their command.
(b) In Hanoi , they ceremoniously intrened the French soldiers who had surrendered without fighting. But in oother place ,those who resisted were wiped out to the man. They imprisoned several hundred French civilians , many of whom were totured to death by the same native jailers employed by the colonial adminis-tration to brutalize Vietnamese nationalist.
(c) Overnight , French power had cumbled, and the Japanese seemed to be doomed to defeat. Which Vietnamese faction would fill the void?.

Move up January 1945!!!!!
(a)When the influence of World war II affected the French Indochina, the French Government issued a catagory of notes in which the ame of the issuing organ, Le gouvernment General de I’Indochine, at time from 1940 onward . the paper quality became worse than before, the paper was carelessly presented in IDEO(imprimerie d’Extreme-Orient _far east Printing House ) Hanoi.

(b)During this period , there were still metalcurrency, the leads coins were moulded with a paddy ear on one side . Especially there were issued lead coins with a paddy cluster moulded on the back side. A popular saying in relation to currency was orally propagated to stir up among people the anti-French Resistence for Independece :” When the paddy grows on the lead, elephants tram papers, the Monk shall have to disappear soon”(D)

(c) Worried by the growing Japanese influence, the French encouraged their own youth groups. But the Vietminh quickly infiltrated them and also seeded its cadres in japanese-sponsored associations. So, with no more than five thousand members in early 1945, the vietminh has a web of activitits all cross Vietnam, ready to act as events unfolded(D-ibid stanley Karnow p-159)

_____________________________________
move up. March.!!!!!
(2) January ,31th.1945
The Diploma from Guberneur General Indochina sign under delegetion to Secretary General with Indochina Goveuneur general stamped , at hanoi 31 Jan 1945, during Indochina as Protectorate Dai Nippon. The complete diploma in france :

Republique Francaise
Diploma D’Etudes Primaires Superiures Indochinoises
La Gouverneur General de Indochine.
Vu les directs du 20 octobre 1910:
Vu le direct du 2 mai 1920 ,modifie par le decret du 18 october 1922,
Vu Le Reglement General de l’Instruction Publique en Indochine :
Vu Le process-verbal de l’examen subi par Mn Nguyen van Loi ne le 7 Juin 1925,
Par leguel la Commission de l’examen atteste que le Diplome d’Etudes primaires superieures.
A Thoibinh,Cantho a ete juge d’obtenir le (epreuve facultative ————–) avec La mention Passable—–
Delivre a Mr “Nguyen van Loi “ Le present diploma pour servir et valoir ce que de droit.

Enregistre saus le no.1191 La Directeur pi Fait a hanoi 31 Jan 1945
(Direction de l’Lnstruction deI’Instruction Le Gouverneur General
Publique) Publique en de I’Indochine,
Indochina PAR Delegation
Secretary General
du Gouvernerment General I’Indochina
Slautier.
(OD)

(The very rare historic document before the Dai nippon took over the French administration in 1945 , the last French administration during WWII-auth)

_____________________________________
B. DAI NIPPON MILITARY ADMINISTRATION IN VIETNAM March-August 1945
_____________________________________

(1)March.9th.1945

(a)Japanese took over the Government administration through out Indochina. (D)

(b) Phung Thuong, as a boy before WWII , he had felt no particular resentment against the French, whom he rarely saw. But the famine of 1945 arused his hostility to both the Japanese and the French, and Vietminh agents entered the villages, urging the peasant to organize. They evoked Ho Chi Minh, a name then unknown to Khang. Even so, he agreed to head a platoon of seventry peasant armed with machetes and scythes, with only tw musket among them . They fortified the villages, building staves in hole covered with foliage. One night, in ambitius eneavor , they had fired six of their seven bullets. (D)

(2)11th March 1945
Bao Dai proclaims the indepen-dence of Vietnam under Japanese auspices.
Bo Dai, the indolent puppet emperr, had been hunting during the Japanese cuop.(D)

3) April 1945
No collections and information-auth

4) May 1945
No collection and information-auth

5) June 1945
No collection and infornation-auth

6)July 1945
(1)The allied leaders had met in Postdam, a Berlin suburb, to plan the future. There they had devised a schemed to disarm the Japanese in vietnam- aminor item on their agenda- by dividing the country at the sixteenth parllel. The British would take the South, the Chinese Nationalist the north, it was a formula for catastrope.

(2)The British commander, General Douglas Gracey, was miscast. A colonial officer with limited political experience but a genuine affection for his Indian troops, he held the parenalistic view that “natives” should not defy Europeans. Officially, his was not to reason why, he had been plainly told by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the allied commander for Southeast asia ,to avoid Vietnam’sinternal problems and merely handle the Japanese. But Gracey, guidednby his prejudices , (D)

7)August 1945

(1) August.14th 1945
Ir Soekarno and Drs Mohamad Hatta (Indonesian National’s leader during Dai Nippon Military Adminis-tration in Indonesia) went by flight to Saigon and by road to Dalat , where they have a meeting with Marskal Tarauchi (the command of Dai Nippon Military Administration in Saout East Asia ) and they have The Indonesia Indepen-dence’s mandat (D)
( Read the detail history in Unique Collection’s. Blog(By Dr Iean S.) “ Indonesia Independent War document and Postal History“-auth)

(2) When and Where the DaiNippon surrender in Vietnam ?-auth

________________________________
C.TRANSITION PERIOD AFTER JAPANESE SURRENDER IN VIETNAM 1945.
__________________________________
1)August 1945

(1)ANNAM BECAME THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM INCLUDING TONKIN,ANNAM AND COCHINCHINE WITH HANOI AS THE CAPITAL.

(2)By the summer of 1945 , flood aggravated the already serious food shortage as the Red River dikes , neglected by local officials, burst in several spot. In Nothern Vietnam, poor in the best of circumstances, two million people out of a population of ten million starved to death.
Not far from Hanoi , a leathery old peasant by the name of Duong Van Khang recalled years afterward that so many of his fellow villagers died :” We didn’t have enough wood for coffins and buried them in bamboo mats.”

(3)Condition were no better in the cities. Dr Tran Duy Hung, mayor of Hanoi at the time, recollected the scene in an interview decade later.

(4) Starving peasant in several places attacacked French post and stromed Japanese granaties.

(5) With the news of Japan’s surrender in August, the uprising spread. Vietminh agent mved quickly to take advatage of the Turmoil. A villager recounted the events of that period in a district of Thai Binh province, in the Red River delta :
“The Village marketplace was jummed. A man in brown pants and a cloth shirt climbed onto a chair, and guards armed with machetes spears and sticks surrounded him. He delivered a speech, saying that the Japanese had capitulated to the allies, and that the time had come for Vietminh to seized power . I was just a teenager in ragged clothes, and I asked a schoolmate, “ Now that we’ve seized power, who will be the mandarin?” He replied :”Get this.the mandarin is just apeassant-really ordinary”

(6) The Vietminh leader the marched to the district headquaters; the procession behind him swelled as nearby villagers joined in. The local chief had fled. The Vietminh leader seated himself in the district chief’s chair t dramatize his new authority. The next day, Vietminh agents put a village official on trial before five thousand peple assembled on a soccer field.
They read the charges. He had been an accmplice of the Japanese pirates. He had forced the peasants to pull up their rice and plant jute and peanuts, enriching himself even though the people were miserable and dying. He admitted that he had worrked for the Japanese but claimed that he was just carrying out orders. But they announced that his crime was very serious because he had opposed the revolution and helped the enemy. So They sentenced him to death and shot him right there.
This really fired up the people. They went after the henchmen of the Japanese, dragging them out of their housees, making them lower their heads and beating them. That finished their prestige, and the fervor of the massed kept rising.(D)

(7) August.16th 1945
To keep pace with the momentum, Ho Chi Minh summned sixty comrades to Tran Tao, a village in Thai nguyen province, North of Hanoi.
The time had come to grab power and greet the allies on the arrival. Ho formed a National Liberation Comittee with himself as president, calling it “The equivallent of a provisional government “ appealing for a general insurrection, he proclaimed in classic revolutionary style “ The oppresed the world over are wresting back theirindependent. We should not lag behind.(D)
Clad in coarse khaki uniforms or black pajamas, the first Vietminh detachments entere Hanoi on August 16, raking over publics buildings as Japanese troops stood by.
The emperor ‘s delegate, a symbol of imperial authority, resigned to a Vietminh-run committee of citizens which promptly announced its seizure of power from a balcony of the Hanoi opera house, a model of French gingerbread architecture.

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1.2. ANCIENT VIETNAM AFTER EUROPEAN CAMES (BEFORE FRENCH) 1.2.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY 1.2.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONONLOGY LITERATURE 1.2 ANCIENT VIETNAM AFTER EUROPEAN CAME (BEFORE FRENCH ) 1.2.1.THE VIETNAM DYNASTY BEFORE FRENCH CAME. 1)LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1407-1780) a).Early Le’ (1428-1778) @LE LOI (1428-1443) b)Restored Le’(1553-1788) *Mac Dynasty (1527 -1592) c.THE LE-MAC FIGHTING(1527-1592) d.Northern and Southren Dynasty (1533-1592) *Trinh-Nguyen War (1627-1673) (1)Northern Dynasty * Trinh Trang (2) Southern Dynasty * Vin Tho (1655-1661) * Thien Minh ( 1739-1766) 2). TAY SON DYNASTY.1788-1802) *Quang Trung ( 1788-1792) * Canh Thinh ( 1792-1801) 3) UNITED DAI VIET(1802-1885) ( Emperor of Dai Viet) a) Before French came * Gia Long (1802-1820) * Minh Mang(1820-1841) * Thieu Tri (1848-1847) * Tu Duc (1848-1883) b) After French came * Kien Phuc(1883-1884) * Ham Nghi (1884-1885) 1.2.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.) 1) LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780) (1)1428 Both Trinh and Nguyen families were descended from close friends and aides to the hero-Empero Le Loi who freed Vietnam from Chinese rule and strated the Le Dynasty in this year. (2)1450 By this year, the Muslims had occupied Spain and Portugal for seven centuries , and to Henry , a militant Catholic mystic, their destruction was a sacred duty. He fought them in Africa as a youth, but gradually shaped a geopolitical strategy that also offered commercial advantages; by opening sea lanes to Asia, he would contain Islam, promote Christainity in the East and futher trade. Accordingly, he perfected the Portuguese fleet and established Euro’s first maritime academy to train sailors scientifically.(ibid S.Karnow) (3)1454 Pope Nicholas V endorsed Henry’s enterprise with a bull granting Portugal the exclusive franchise in Asia to “ bring under submission …the pagans of the countries not yet inflicted with the plague of Islam and give them knowledge of the name of Christ (ibid.S.Karnow) ( Christian were too late because the Islam had gave the “ light” to off the “darkness’s wolrd To Asia countries especially Malay straits , Sumatra and Java with the teaching of reading’s , writting ‘s , hygienie’s and islamic only one god,s phillosiphy , everybodies fill the had came out from the darkness to the more lighted lifes, only at the very far island like Flores and Eastren Timor the Portugeus were succeeded – auth) (4) 1494 After Colombus had discovered America, the Portugeuse reconfirmed their Asian domain in a treaty with Spain that recognized Spain ‘s prerogative to exploit the Western Hemisphere , during the century a head, Portugal would explode out of Europe in a spectacular busrt of energy. (5) 1498 Vasco de Gama, the greatest Portuguese explorer, led an armada of four ships around the cape of Good Hope, landing on the westren coast of india. (6) 1503 Vasco de Gama’s pioneer journey to India, the portugeuse couldnot be stopped. They consolidated Goa as the capital of the Indian territories, then pushed eastward to capture Malacca, the gateway to the China Sea, fanning out from that pivotal Malayan port to assert their presence nearly everywhere in Asia. They journeyed to the distant Molucca island in quest of spices, secured commercial concessions in Burma and Siam , and even sailed to forbidding Japan. Bold Portugeuse were probably the earliest Europeans to gaze at Ankor , the fantastic ruins of the vast Cambodians local rulers as mercenaries.(Ibid Stanley Karnow) (7)1520 BY 1520 A SUCCESSION OF WEAK OR EVIL KINGS had brought the country into a state of civil war (Le Dynasty’s Civil war for as allies against the usurper Mac Bang Dong. In theory , they both (Tri & Nguyen families) were fighting reality, Emperor was a figureheadwith little or no power. (8) 1525 The prime in the period from this yeare onwards, was Nguyen Kim his daughter married the young head of the Trinh family Trinh Kiem . (9) 1530 Around this year , the rebels were forced into exile in Lan Xang ( now Laos) . (10)1535 The first European sailled to Vietnam to plant a durable settlement there was Antonio Da Faria, who in this year found a suitable site for a harbour at Faifo, a costal village fifteen miles south Tourane (now Danang). Da Faria, had hoped to make it a major Portuguese enclave, like Goa and Malacca, but Faifo never flourished. The Portuguese left a permanent souvenir of their presence there, the name of Cocchi-china. They labelled that area deriving of “Gauchi” from “Giao Chi” the Chinese characters for Vietnam, and adding “China” to distinguish it from “Cochin” , another of their colonies in India. Later , the French, to potray Vietnam as disunified, reffered only to the southed third of the country as “CochinChine” and called the center Annam ( Annam still same with vietnamese char. Means Pacified and Northern Tonkin derived from Dong Kinh an old chinese named of that area, dong mean North -auth) (11) 1545 When the rebels gathered new army and capture some southern province in this year. Nguyen Kiem was assasinated and his son-in-law, Trinh Kiem took control over the Royal army 13 years later. (12)1557 The Portuguese built a base at Macao , on the southern edge of China (remains until XXth centuried and then back to PRC authority as the autonomy area-auth) (13) 1558 Trinh Kiem, the son-in-law of nguyen Kien, took control over the Royal army. He gave the rulership over the southern most province of Quang Nam to Nguyen Huang to the son of Nguyen Kim and his wife’s brother. The ill-will between the two families dates from around this time. (14) 1559 For the next 55 years, Nguyen Huang ruled Quang Nam. He gradually asserted his control over the province and extended his control south into the remaining Champa lands. Periodically, he sent military forces north to help the Trinh in their long fight against the Mac Dynasty. (15)1570 In this year Trinh Kiem died and was succeeded by his second son Trinh Tu’ng. (16) 1572 Trinh Tung was a very vigorous leader and he captured Hanoi from the Mac King in this year. (17) 1592 The Mac king (Mac Mau Hiep) recaptured the Hanoi city in this year after control 20 years by Trinh Tung. In this year Tung, again captured Hanoi and executed theMc King in this year. (18) 1593 Nguyen Hoa’ng went personally to the court, he brought money and an army to help destroy the remaining Mac armies. Once the Mac were defeated, the Trinh became increasingly unhappy with the independence of Nguyen Hoang who ruled as an independent prince in the south . (19)1600 For reasons that are unclear in this year the old Nguyen ruler broke relations with the Trinh court and gave himself the title Vuong ( Prince or King). (20) 1603 Scarcely a century after their dramatic expansion, the Portuguese began to lose their graps in Asia, partly of their own avarice, corruption and msimanagement, and partrly because their fortunes were declining in Europe.(D) (21)1613 Nguyen Hoang finally died in this year and the new leader of the Nguyen, Nguyen Phuc Nguyen, continued his father’s policy ofdefiance. Nguyen Phuc Nguyen also initited friendly relations with the Europeans who were now sailing into the area. A foreign tradingpost was set up in Hoi An. (22) 1615 In this year the Nguyen were producing their own bronze cannons with the aid of Portuguese engineer. (23) 1620 In this year Nguyen Phuc officially refused to send taxes to the court in Hanoi. A formal demand was made to the Nguyen to submit to the authority of the court. (24) 1623 In this year Trinh Tung died and was succeeded by his son Trinh Trang. Now Trang made a formal demand for submission and again Nguyen Phuc Nguyen refused. The Tri- Nguyen War between North and South Vietnam (1627-1673) (1)1627 (a)Finally in this year open warfare broke out between the Trinh and Nguyen. (b)For four month A large Trinh army battled against the Nguyen army but unable to defeat them. The result of this war was that Vietnam had effectively been partitioned into Northen and Southern region, with the Trinh controlling most of the north and the Nguyen most of the south, the deviding line was the Gianh River in Quang Binh Province. This border was very close to the Seventient paralel ( in actually the Ben Hai River located just to the Swouth in Quang Tri Provinces, witch was imposed as the border between North Vietnam and South Vietnam during the Partition of Vietnam, (c)The Tri-Nguyen war begun and Vietnam was then torn by a civil war between regional factions, the TRINH in the North and the Nguyen in the south . European sold weapons to both sides- a risky business, sine supplying one camp antagogized the other. But they could not brutally subdue the Vietnamese as they had more passive Asians, like the Malays and Javanese. Whatever their own differences, all Vietnamese hate foreigners, and their sophisticated administrative structure, modeled on China’s, could effectively mobilize resistance against westren intruders. Besides, the Europeans were too preoccupied with fighting among themselves to mount campaigns of the kind that would have been requairred for conquest (ibid S,Karnow) (b) Rhodes , who born in the southern French town of Avignon, once a papal seat, he arrived in vietnam under Portuguese tutelage in 1627, when he was twenty –eight. At first he recoiled the language, which sounded to himlkike “twittering birds”, but within six months, he was fluent enough to preach in Vietnamese- and he later mastered Japanese, Chinese, Hindustani and Persian, And offcourse , he revolutionized the Vietnamese tounge with his streamlined alphabet. Impressed by his linguistic skill, the Jesuit hierarchy assigned Rhodes to Hanoi, where he wooed the nothern emperor Trinh Trang with such gift as an intricated clock and gilded volume on mathemetics. The delighted monarch allowed him to stayed .(D) (c) While the Trinh ruled over a much more popupous teritory. The Nguyen were able to take advantage of their geography was favorable yo them, as the flat placed of European weapons and hire European military expert and suitable for large organized armies is very narrow at the mountains nearly reach to the sea. After first assault, the Nguyen built north of Hue near city of Dong Ho’i. Nguyen defended these lines against numerous Trinh. History from this time was that the great military engineer was a Vienamese general who given the credit in Vietnam for succesfull desing of the Nguyen walls. Against the Walls the Trinh mustered an army of 10.000 men and 500 elephants, and 500 large ships. The initial attacks on the Nguyen wall was unsuccessful, because the Nguyen to get around the wall. 2) 1629 (1) 1629 After two years of the Rhodes allowed to stay at North Vietnam, according to his own careful records, he delivered six sermons a day and baptized 6.700 Vietnamese, including eighteen nobles. But the emperor and his counselors reacted against Christian subversion, their supicions kindled by the court concubines, who denounched the Christian injunction against polygamy to thewir position. 3) 1630 (1) Christian were banished from the North in 1630, Rhodes retreated South, only to discover that the rival Nguyen dysnasty had equally hostile. 3) 1633 In this year the Trinh tried an amphibious assault on the Nguyen to get around the Wll, The Trinh first won the battle of Nhat Le. 4)1635 Around this year, the Trinh copied the Nguyen andsought military aid from the Europeans. Trinh Trang hired ships for the Royal army. 5)1642 -1643 The Trinh army attacked the Nguyen wall. With the aid of army broke through the first wall but failed to break through the second at the sea, the Trinh, with their …and woekende Book were defeated by the Nguyen fleet with their Portuguese ships. 6) 1648 Trinh Trang staged yet another offensive in this year, but at the battle of Truong Duc, The Royal arny was back because the new Le’ king died around this time, perhapsas a result of defeat. This now left the door open for the offensive. 7) 1653 The Nguyen launched their own invasion of Vietnam in this year. The Nguyen Army attacked north Duang Binh Province was captured then Ha Thinh province tell to the Nguyen army in the following forces made attacks into Nghe An province. Under a new Trinh Lord, tha capable Tring Tac defeated it. The Nguyen were fatally weakened by a divission between their two top generals. 8)1655 (1)1655 Vin –tho ascended the throne, during his reign issued 1 phan cast coins “Vin Tho Thong Bao” (Uncommon coins during the Tri-Nguyen war-auth) 9)1656 The Nguyen army was driven back all the way to their originals walls. 10) 1660 Rhodes was death. 11) 1661 Trinh Trang tried to break the walls of the Nguyen , but like so many attacked before it failed to break through the wall. 12) 1664 (1) 1664 The Vatican finally accepted Rhodes program , though he died before it wentr into action . In this year, French religious leaders and their bussiness backers formed the society of Foreign leaders to advance Christianity in Asia. (b) by no coincidence, French business leaders and their religious backers created the East India Company to increase trade. Their similar aspirations were apparent in their cooperation. A commercial firm established in Rouen at the time paid transportation for missionaries to Vietnam in exchange for their services there as sales agents and bookkeepers. And Francois Pallu, afounder of Missionary association, pledge to give the East India Company “as many promoters…as there will be bishops, priests and believers in Vietnam” Observing this cozy relationship in Vietnam , an English competitor reported home that French had arrived “ but we cannot make out whether they are here to seek trade or to conduct religious propaganda”. Their objective , of course, was to do both, But they accomplihed little during most of the eighteenth century, since Vietnamese emperors continued to harass or restrict foreign’s mission-aries and merchants. Back in French, mprever, the idea of acquiring overseas teritoriesw enthralled neither the public nor government officials. Thet focysed on other concerbs, such as France ‘s domestic, economic and social problem s and its conflicts with England in Eurpre and America. But the imperial dream was kept alive by a handful of determined individuals and groups which in present-day Yargon, would be called vested interest. In Paris, they were constantly drafting blueprints for the conquest of Vietnam, while irrepressible adventures in Asia connected schemes that would prove to be fruitless, One was Pierre Poivre, The son of a prominent Lyons silk tycoon.( ibid S.Karnow) 13) 1672 Finally in this year , the Trinh army made a last effort to conquer the Nguyen, The attacking army was under the command of Trin Can, while the defending army was under the command of Nguyen Phuc Tan’s son Prince Mguyen Phuc Thuan. The attack like all the previous attack on the nguyen walls failed. This time the two sides agreed to a peace . With mediation supplied by government of the Kngxi emperor, the Trinhand the Nguyen finally agreed to end the fighting by making the Linh River the boeder between their land. Lthough the guyen nominally accept the Le’ king as the ruler of Vietnam, the rality was, the Nguyen ruled the south and the Trinh ruled the north, Thisdivision continued for next 100 years,The boerder between the Trinh and Nguyen was srongly guarded but peaceful. 14)1673 The Tri-Nguyen war was overed. _______________________________ After the Tri-Nguyen War, 1674- ______________________________ 1) 1676 Other European powers raced for Asia wealth. The Dutch took over the Spice Islands of Indonesia and the English would dominate India. In this year, the French Latecomers to scene establishe a station at Pondicherry, on the east coast of India south of Madras, but Europeans made little headway in Vietnam. 2) 1677-1738 Not yet information 3) 1739 Thien Minh ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Thien Minh Thong Bao” ( Very rare coins ,but this coins used very long 1739-1766, why??? may be there were War ??, please comment –auth) 4) 1740-1749 Not yet informations 5)1750 In the middle of eighteenth century , Poiver started out as a missionary in Vietnam, then switched to commerce and obtaineda license from the southern Nguyen rulers to open a trading post at Tourane (now Danang city).(D) When the operation collapsed for lack of enthusiasm in France, he blamed local Vietnamese Mandarin for swandling him and decided to punish them. 6)1751 no info 7) 1752 In this year Emperor Quang-Trung ascended the throne. Coin minted under Emperor Quang-Trung (1752-1792) to celebrate his glorious victory over the Qing (chinese) dynasty troops in the Lunar year of the Cock (ky-Dau) 1789. 8)1767 Not yet information 9)1768 in this year, Poivre teamed up with Charles Hector d’Estaing, ( an Aristocratic buccaneer whose in-direct descendent to Valery Giscard d’Estaing , became president of France in 1974-auth) Spoil for action, Hector d’Estaing had earlier been deterred by a storm from mounting an elobrate attack on the palace at Hue , the ancient imperial capital in central Vietnam. He and Poivre proposed to muster a con tigent of three thousand troops, seize Tourane and drive inland to invade the country The plan was carried out a century later, but at the time it fizzled and D’Estaing transferred his energies to the American War of Independence, in which he distinguished himself by blockading the English fleet outside New York Harbor. He died on the guillotine during the French revo-lution .(ibid S.Karnow) 8) 1769-1771 Not yet informations 9) 1772 (1)1772 The Tayson insurrection, which erupted in 1772 against the Nguyen rulers………………….. 10) 1773-1786 Not yet information 11) 1787 In 1787, Monsignor Tierre Joseph Georges Pigneu de Behaine, bishop aof Adran, returned to France after two decades of extraordinary ad-ventures in a remote Asian Land, then know to Europe as Cochin-china. He dazzled the countiers at Versailles, the barouque palace of Louis XVI. His pious demeanor, flavored by a touch of oriental mysery, intriqued the ladies, and his infallible politeness even disarmed potential revals for royal favors. But he was upstaged by a child whom he had brought with him Nguyen Canh , the seven –year- old son of a pretender to the throne of Vietnam . The little prince dressed in red and gold brocade, an incongrous Hindu turban atop his head, the little prince exuded exotic charm. Queen Marie Antoinette bestowed her patronage on the boy by permitting him to play with the Dauphin-the heir apparent- and a court musician composed a hym to honor the “illustrious infant (look at His vintage pictures-auth)(D) Her personal hairdesser celebrated the visitors with a chic new coiffure, Le Chignon a’ la cochinoise , and a court poet acclaimed Pigneu as successor to the legendary mission-ary Saint Francis Xavier. Pigneau had a deeper purpose, he had come to France to lobby for an ambitious scheme the creation, under French auspices, of a Christian empire in Asia, he propelled France toward the conquest of Vietnam a hundred years later. Other Europeans had preceded Pigneu to South East Asia . Indeed , for a mixture of motives. Westren expansion in Asia had been gaining momentum since the fifteenth century. The riches of the East , real and fabled, tantalized Europe. Traveller like Marco Polo had returned with breathless tales of Burmese temples “Covered with gold a full finger thick” and Indian Shores whose “ Sands sparkled and glittere with a gems and precious ore” but no Asian treasure matched its pepper, nutmeg, clove and other spices essential to preserve food, especially in the warmer climates of Southern Europe. Unlike sils and jewels, which only the affluent could afford, spices were in universal demand, and they tield profits of a thousandfold or more on European Market. Importing them from Asia, though, was a dangerous business.Marchants braved storms , pirates and cruel competitors to transport their cargoes , and many perished in the effort, “Where wouldn’t they go for pepper!” wrote Joseph Conard in evocation of their memory “ For a bag of pepper they could cut each other’s throats without hesitation, and would forswear their souls…The bizarre obstinacy of that desire made them defy death in a thousand shapes : the unknown seas, the Loathsome… diseases; wounds, capicity, hunger, pestilence and despair. It made the,m great! By heaven! It made them heroic; and it made them pathetic,too, in their craving for trade with the inflexible death levying its toll on young and old.(D&P) 12)1788 Quan Trung issued 1 phan cast coins “ Quan Trung Thong Bao” ( common coins-auth) 13) 1789 The coin minted during Emperor Quan Trung in this year to celebrate his glorious victory over the Chinese Qing troops in the lunar year of the Cock (Ky-Dau) ( I have found this special coin in Ho Chi Minh city at my last visit July 2009, the tin coin with the Cock impress design, no one know about this , the first report by Nguyen Bao Tung, please comment because I never seen Tung collec-tion, auth) 14) 1790-1791 Not yet information 15)1792 Canh Tinh ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Canh Tinh Tong Bao” ( common coins-auth) 16) 1793-1801 Not yet information. __________________________________ 4) UNITED DAI VIET DYNASTY (1802-1885) ___________________________________ 1) 1802-1819 :Gia long reign (1) 1802 (a)Reunification decree or Hung-Quoc Khan-Niem by emperor Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty that ruled Vietnam people from this year to 1945. (b) Gia Long ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coin “ Gia Long Thong Bao (common coin-auth) (2) 1803-1819 Not yet informations 2) 1820-1840: Minh Mang reign (1) 1820 Minh Mang ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coin “ Minh Mang Thong Bao”(common coin, the character Mang like the picture of “House”, in Bali Indonesia the traders called House’s Coins, rare in Indonesia but many in Vietnam-auth) (2)1833 A Coin minted under the Minh-Mang reign to commemorate the solemn inauguration of the Noon Gate or Ngo-Mon of the imperial Palace in Hue. (reported by Nguyen Bao Tung, if someone have this coin please show us- auth) (3) 1841 Minh-mang died in this year, and Vietnam policies toward Cambodia lost some of their momentum. Nibh-mang after all had been a firm believer in Vietnam’s civilizing mission. 3) 1841- Thieu Tri reign (1) 1841 Thieu Tri ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Thieu Tri Thong Bao” ( common coins, many found in Indonesia –auth) (2) Minh-mang son Thieu-tri(1841-1848) was less committed to this. He began his reign looking for solution to the Cambodians problem, that would acceptable to the Vietnamese elite and to the Cambodian as well, if not necessarily to Siamese. Distance, distrust, and the ongoing momentum of the war, however, as well as the ambiguity of Vietnam long term objecttives in Cambodia, kept the fighting going until 1847. For several years, Siamese and Vietnamese troops, aided by rival Cambodian factions, fought each other and devasted the landscape in a ferocious pattern not to be duplicated until us, no rice was planted in much of the country, and the population reverting to seminomadism, survived to a large extend by eating leave and roots. It took yhr country several decade to regain its balance and momentum. (2)1846 Negotiation calculated to save face for two exhausted armies and for rhe rival monarchies in Hue and Bangkok lasted until until 1846, when Siam and Vietnam agreed to withdraw from Cambodian territory and to accept Duang as Cambodian’s King . The treaty heralded the resumption os Siamese influence at the Cambodian court and the end of Vietnam’s civilizing mission. (3)October 1848 Duang was crowned in Udong at this day on an astrologically suspicious day, in the presence of represen-tatives sent from Bangkok and Hue, but the Siamese, who took Cambodian’s regalia back with them to Bangkok, had clearly become the dominant force in Cambodia polities even though their army had left the country. Comunicated with the French court, transmitting a letter to Emperor Napoleon III that offered his homage in exchange for the emperor’s friendship. The present that accompanied the letter- four elephant tusks, two rhinoceros horns, and quantities of sugar and white paper- were lost en route, and Napoleon’s reply, if there ever was one, has also disappeared. (Three years later a French official named Montigny came to Cambodia to negotiate a full-scale commercial treaty , but Duang backed off, because he knew that Montigny had dis cussed the treaty with Siam court which disapproved of it, When a French missionary later urged Duong to accept France as an ally, the kind replied :” What do you want me to do ? I have two masters already, who always have an eye fixed on what I am doing. They are my neighbors, and France is far away” In 1860 when Duang died in this year, his elder son, Norodom, suc-ceeded him. Over the next few years, the new monarch still un-crowned .-auth) 4) 1848- Tu Duc reign (1)1848 Tu Duc ascended the throne , during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Tu Duc Thong Bao” ( common coins-auth)

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I. 1. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR
“ BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME”

1.1.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY

1.1.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONOLOGY

1.1.3 ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR

LITERATURE

___________________________________
1.1 VIETNAM WAR BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME.
___________________________________________

1.1.1.THE ANCIENT DYNASTY
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE)

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY)

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC)

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD)

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD)

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)
*The 12 Lord Rebellion (966-968)

b) 10-13 th CENTURY OF INDEPENDENCE

* EARLY LE’ DYNASTY ( 981-1009)
@ LE HOANG ( (O981-1009)

*LY’ DYNASTY(1009-1025)
@ LY CONG UAN (1009-1025)

*TRA’N DYNASTY (1225-1400)

6) very short time dynasty before Fourth Chinese dominations
* HO’ DYNASTY (1400-1407)

5)Long Time dynasty after Fourth/last time Chinese (Ming) domination

LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780)
*EARLY LE’ (1428-1788)
*RESTORED LE’1533-1788
# MAC DYNASTY 1527-1592
@ THE LE-MAC FIGHTING (1527-1592)
# SOUTHERN & NOTHERN DYNASTY
1533-1592
#TRINH-NGUYEN WAR 1627-1673

b) China domination

1) SECOND DOMINATION(43-544)

*TRUNG NU VUONG (40-43)
*LADY TRIUE’S REBELLION (240)
*TRIEU THI THRINH (248)
* 1st LY DYNASTY
@ LY BAN (541-544)

2)THIRD DOMINATION(602-905)
*MAI HAC DE’OR MAI THUC LOAN (722)
*PHUNG HUNG(791-798)
*NGO QUYEN(939-964)
*DINH BO LINH(968-980)
3)FOURTH DOMINATION (1407-1427)
* LATER TRA’N DYNASTY (1407-1413)
* LAM SON REBELLION(1418-1427)

C) AUTONOMY (905-938)
*KHUC FAMILY(906-930)
*DUONG DINH NGE’(931-947)
*KIE’U CONG TIEN(937-938)

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago).

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC)

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty.

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself.

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD)

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD)

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC.

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination)

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”.

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?)

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence.

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth)

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth)

a. PRA REBELLION

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380)

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti .

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south.

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) .

(4) 104-86 BC

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti.

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth)

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth)

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams.

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion .

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination.

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs.

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report.

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2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD.

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide .

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide.

b) The Third Chinese domination 602-905.

1) Though the Chinese conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted.

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information

3) Phung Hung (791-798)

Not yet information

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history.

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”.

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict.

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times.

c) Fourth Chinese domination(1407-1427)

1)Later Tran dynasty (1407-1413)

(1)1418
Le Loi and Nguyen Trai (Lam Son rebellion ) resistent war against Ming dynasty Invation.

b.Vietnam Independent ‘s Kingdom

1)Trung Sister *40-43)

2) Early Ly dynasty (544-602)

3) Autonomy (905-939)
* Khuc Family (906-930)
* Duong Dinh Nghe’(931-937)
* Kie’u Co’ng Tien (937-938)

4)Ngo dynasty (966-968)
* The 12 Lord rebellion (966-968)
The emperor of NGO dynasty couldn’t subdue the dozen local armies chief and never recognation from Chinese.

5) Dinh dynasty (968-980)
The emperor of Dinh dynasty more ephemera and defeated the warlord and pacified Chinese with tribute.
6) Early Le’ dynasty (980-1009)
The emperor of early Le’ dynasty, Le Hoan He was a very successful king.
He defeated a Chinese inavtion in 980 and after that attack Champa.

7) Ly’ dynasty (1009-1225)
Ly’ dynasty defeated emperor of early Le dynasty in 1009 after he come back from attacked Champa.

8)Tra’n dynasty (1225-1400)

9) Ho’ dynasty (1400-1407)

10) Later Le’ dynasty (1420-1780)
* Early Le’(1428-1788)

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2.2.2. Chronology of Ancient Vietnam Rebellion/Resistent war AD.
___________________________________

1)First Rebellion in 40 AD

(a)Lady Trung Trac, avenging the murder of her dissident husband by a Chinese commander, let the first major Vietnamese insurrection against China.

(b)She and her sister, Trung Nhi, mustered other restive nobles and their vassal, including another women, Phung Thi Chinh, who supposedly gave birth to a baby in the middle of the battle yet continued to fight with the infant strapped to her back.

(c) They vanquished the Chinese in A.D. 40 and with the Trung sisters as Queen., set up an independent state that stretched from Hue into southern China.

(d) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed in this year and the Trung sisters commited suicide- in aristocratic style- by throwing themselves into river.
( The Vietnamese still venerate them at temples in Hanoi, Sontay and elsewhere and the communistacclaim them as Pioneer nationalist. Madame Ngho Dinh Nhu, sister-in-law of South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem, erected a statue in Saigon in 1962 to commerate their patriotism- and also to promote herself as their reincar-nation, read more at chapter Saigon Regime -1955-1963 auth)

2)The Second Rebellion in 248 AD

a)Another women , Trieu Au, revolt against China in A.D. 248 , a generation after the collapse of Han Dynasty.

b)She wearing golden armor and riding an elephant as she led a thousand men into battle.

c)Gloriously defeated at the age of twenty-three, she committed suicide rather than suffer the shame of surrender.
( like the Trung sisters, she is remenbered by a temple, and by her words of defience :” I want to rail against the wind and the tide, kill the whales in the sea, sweep the whole country to save the people from slavery, and I refuse to be abused”
These femine exploits, doubtless inflates in popular legend, illustrate the unique status of women in Vietnam society.
In contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in Asia and even in Europe, emancipated only recently, they could traditionally inherit land , serve as trustees of ancestral cuts and share their husband’s property(Stenley Karnow)
(In Indonesia the same Lady’s emancipation hero in Aceh where the Tsunami tragedy, “Cut Nya Dinh”, I have ever seen her momunent and House at Bandar Acheh ex Kutaraja or the King city , this province very famaous due to Tsunami and GAM rebellion, now became autonom islamic province Aceh Darusalam -auth)

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3) The Warlods rebellions in 938 -968

(a)Historian distinguish fifteen dynasties in Vietnamese history. Four were were the short lived independent government that revolt against Chinese rule before 939.
The next three also had very short careers, numbering in all eight kings over a seventy-year period.

(b) The Ngo Dynasty (939-968)
The first of these, the NGO (939-968), was unable to subdue a dozen local military chiefs and never secured recognition from China.

(c)The Dinh dynasty (968-979) was even more ephemeral, but it defeated thewarlords and pacified the Chinese with tribute. The new Emperor Dinh Bo Linh ascended the throne and called his state “Dai Co Viet” the Kingdom of watchfull hawk,
The son of an official, he organized the peasant army commanded by the urban intelectual.
His dynasty lasted only in one decade but he won the chinese recognation of the Vietnamese ‘s independent in exchange for regular payment tributes.
The tributes arrangement which was the typical chinese relations with the other state in South East Asia.
( the same with Indonesia state , but emperor srivijaya during Yuan Dynasty didn’t want to send the tribute and made the “tattoo” cross scar the Yuan Envoy Ming Tse, and the Emperor Kublai Khan send the army to punish the Kingdom os Singasari’s King , read at The Travelling’s Unique collections in this blog-auth)

(d) The early Le Dynasty(979-1009)
This dynasty had a very successful king named Le Hoan He. He defeated a Chinese invasion in 981 and in the following year he attacked Champa, killed its King, sacked the Champ capital Indrapura and came home with an enormous amount of booty His successor. However , was dethroned by the first monarch of the Ly dynasty,

________________________________
4) The two centuries stabled Ly dynnasty (1009-1225)
_________________________________

(a) The Ly dynasty replaced the warlord with a Chinese-style civil service was stable enough to last over twocenturies

(b)The Ly monarch called their country Dai Viet, but the Chinese name of Annam (The Pacified South) was used everywhere else. The country prospered and the goverment encouraged cultural process by vigorously promoting literature, art and Mahayana Buddhism .
But DaiViet growth was always threatened by external wars.
___________________________________
5) The Vietnam-Champa war (1044-1069) and Second Chinese invation, four years war (1057-61)
___________________________________

(a)Long feud with Champa was renewed the Champs moved the capital south to Vijaya to keep it out of Vietnam .

(b) 1044
in this year the vietnamese sacked Vijaya and killed the Champ king again 1061.

(c)1057
A 2nd Chinese invation was defeated at four years war from this years until 1061

(d)1069
Vijaya was sacked a second time in this year . This time the Cham king, Rudrayarman III was chased into Cambodia, captured and deported to Dai Viet had surrender the three provices taken in 790 to regain his freedom,

(e) 1120
The Champs made two attempts to recover the lost provinces but didn’t suceed.

(f) 1132
The second Champs attempts to recover the lost province but another war with the Khmers at the same time reduced Champa to impotence.
Then Cambodian monarch pursued the same role in the Vietnamese-Cham scrap and the three disputed province ended up under Khmer.
The Khmer victories finished off the Ly Dynasty which was already in decline.

(g) Mid 12th century
Champa was independent again, and wanted a rematch over the disputed border province.
They went to Vietnam by default when the Khmer withdrew from that area in the mid 12th century.
This time however, the feud barely got strated when the Mongol empire appeared on scene.
Vietnam and Champa quickly put aside their squabble to meet the Mongol threat.

(h The Mongol attacked and took Hanoi three times ( in1257, 1284, and 1287) but the combination of vietnamese army and Cham navy infl icted unacceptable losses each time.
Eventually theMongols gave up and evacuated the country .

(i) The Vietnamese general who defeated the Mongols Tran Hung Dao is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese History.

(j)1306
Once Kublai Khan was gone, the king of Champa tried to make the new friendship permanent by asking for a Vietnamese princess in marriage. After negotiations that dragged on until 1306,
the Vietnamese said they would allow the marriage if Champa give up the provinces of Quang Tri and Hue. Suprisingly, the Cham king, Jaya Sinhavarman III, accepted.
But he died less than a year after the wedding, and his successor started a new war to take back the two province.

(k) 1312
This Time the nothrern kingdom won again, by 1312 the Cham king was a prisoner in Hanoi, and Champa paid tribute to Dai Viet.

(l)1326
In this year, after several rebellions and an appeal to China, Champa regained her independence.

(m)1363.
The Champs tried to take back Hue in this year but failed.

(n) 1371
Then came Chu Bong Nga (1360-90) Champ’s most outstanding king.
The series of well-planned raid she made against Dai Viet kept theVietnamese in a state of terror during the reign.
In this year, he even pillaged Hanoi. All the disputed territory came under Champa’s rule.

(o) 1398
As soon as he was dead, however, the Vietnamese conquered every-thing as far as Da Nang and in this year.
The capital was moved from Hanoi to Thanh Hoa so that the king could be closer to the action.Then a crisis at home hail the Vietnamese progress.

(p) 1407
A general named Ho Qui Ly usurped the throne.
He was a capable and bold reformer, but the suppoters of the Tran dynasty called in Chinese aid, and in 1407 a Chinese army removed the usurper instead of re-establishing Tran rule, China’s new rulers, The Ming dynasty, made the country a Chinese province,it didn’t work, the Chinese imposed their language and customs soseverely that the Vietnamese revolted almost immediately.

(q) 1418
In this year the rebels found a capable leaders named Le Loi, a wealthy landowner from Thanh Hoa. His guerrilla campaign was succesful,

(r) 1428
ten years after the Le Loi guerilla, the Chinese abandoned Hanoi.( Complete strory read another chapter Lang Som rebellion by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai-auth)
Le Loi proclaimed himself king, changed his name to Le Thai To, and founded the second Le dynasty.
After the war , the Vietnamese sent gift earing emissaries to China to apologized for the” irresponsible behavior” of their guerillas who had ambushed the Chinese ( they also sent embassies to apologized for Vietnamese victories in the 10th and 13th centuries).
This was in accord with the teachings of Confucius, preserving harmony and saving the Chinese from too much loss of face.
The Chinese always appreciated that thev Vietnamese, even when independent.

(s) 1441
In this year, the feud with Champa started up one more time ,

(t) 1446
In this year , after five years war, the Vietnamese occupied Vijaya,but for long, for the Chams soon recovered it.

(u) 1460
It was Le Thanh Tong (1460-97) Vietnam’s greatest king, who ended the conflict once .

(v) 1471
Emperor Le Thanh Tong conquer-ing of Campa in this year. The Land was given to masses of landless soldiers and peasant.
The Champs coverted to the Shite branch of Islam and withdrew to the area between Cam Ranh Bay and Saigon, but they were never given a chance to establish their kingdom,
(By 1697 Saigon itself had become a Vietnamese city and In 1720 the remaining Chams migrated into Cambodia and Siam to escape Vietnamese persecution.
The last king of yhe Chams died in 1822, and there are only 150.000 Chams left to day. Some Vietnamese believe that the problems their country has suffered in the twentieth century are divine retribution for whattheir ancestors did to Champa-auth).

__________________________________
6) Kublai Khan Invaded Vietnam in 13th centuries.
___________________________________

(a)The Mongol emperor invaded Vietnam tree times, pushing south to control the spice routes of the Indonesian Archipelago.(read Meng Chi affairs-auth).

(b)The Vietnamese, commanded by the illustrious Tran Hung Dao, repulsed each offensive . Like outnumbered Vietnamese officers before and since, he relied on mobile method of warfare, abandoning the cities, avoiding frontal attacks, and harassing his enemies until, confused and exhausted, they were ripe for Final attack.

(c)In the last great battle, which took place in the Red River valley in 1287.

(d)The Vietnamese routed three hundred thousand Mongol troops.
In a victory poem, a Vietnamese general affirmed that “ this ancient land shall live forever”
(Seven centuries later, the Vietminh commander, General Vo Nguyen Giap, evoked Tran Hung Dao’s memory as he launched an operation against the French in the same area- S.Karnow,p-113)

_________________________________
THE TRAN DYNASTY (1225-1400)

(1)1225

(a)After many yeqrs in the civil state, it was replaced with the Tran dynasty.
The tran dynasty pursued the same policies that worked during the Ly dynasty.

(b) Porcelein Village during Tran dynasty
According to the Bautrang and Giang Cao village’s descended records, during the Tran Dynasty , three Thai hoc sinh degree scholars ( an academic degree in the feudal education) were sent by the King to China as envoys.
These scholars were Hua Ving Kieu ( Bat Trang village) , Dao Tri Tien (Tho Ha Village) and Luu Phuong Tri ( Phu Lang village) .
On the way home , as three passed Thien Chu area , a big storm came. They were forced to stop to rest.
There they found the Kai Feng pottery plandt , thus, the scholar learned pottery production techni-ques.
When returned home, they educated their fellow villagers in ceramics.
Each scholar had a distinct syle, which led to the spesific styles of their villages.
Bat Trang produced white enamelled pottery, Phu Lang produced brown enamelled pottery, and Tho Ha produced brown enamelled that drips from the center.
One of Bat Trang pottery ‘s features is its white clay with Kaolin ( Hoa Vin Kieu from Bat Trang village knowed the Chinese secrete of the petunse or kaolin that made the strong porcelain, the finished products are decorated with simple or complex pattern
(I have found very rare blue-white big tea cup porcelain with the simple decoration near same with the rare Yuan dynasty tea cup .
Before someone told me that the chinese potters came to Vietnam , and the vietnamese learned from them ,this were the wrong information when I found the Heritage magazine july/August 2007 at the Vietnam air flight from Ho Chi Minh city to Saigon. the photo of that rare Tran dynasty cup, near same with an early blue-white Annamese cup on the internet’s auction , as the front cover of the subchapter Ancient Vietnam war before european came, I also have the Brown Jar with the ear like string and incised flower from Phu Lang village, this Jar very popular list the book of Annamese ancient Pottery, put in the Adan Malik Museum, and Rockefeller Museum, if someone preferred to looked at that unique and beautiful Jar , please aasked in the comment – auth)
Many new enamel materials and color have been invented and used profieciently by Bat Trang pottery makers. Unlike many other pottery center with development of the trade Bat Trang villagers has adopted favorably. It is not only a production center but also now a popular tourist destination that attracts hundreds of visitors a day. The products in Bat Trang diversified from simple bowls, dishes, cups, and pots to eleborated dragon styled lamps on sophisticated statues. Economically Bat Trang has grown to be the few rich handicraft village nationwide. (Pham Cao Quy & Ca’t Tuong ,Ceramic Travel, Heritage magazine,page 15-16, july/August .2007)

(c)Many valuable documents and pictures of religious building under the Tran Dynasty were found and put in the museum.
This compartement introducing the striking development of the Dai Viet in 13th-14th centuries inmany fields ( economy, politics, culture , arts) .
It is in this period when the feudal state in Vietnam became a prosperous and powerful kingdom in the region.
( The information about Bat Trang early simple decoration Blue-white porcelains from the Ceremic travels by Pham Cao Quy and Ca’tr Tuo’ng was true, I will write nex time Ceramic Travel in Indonesia to found the situs where many foreign’s Ceramic artifact were found, the area near the Ceramic port like China city near Medan, Palembang during Sung-Ming and Qing dynasty era, Banten Lama near Bantam ancient port during last Ming dynasty era, Tuban,, Mojopahit east Java , Ketapang and Maya-Karimata island west Borneo at the Sung. late Yuan and early Ming dynasty era-auth)
Many Tran dynasty artifacts are preserved and exhibited of the Vietnam Museum of History. Including pictures and artifacts of famous historical sites Pho Minh Pagoda and Tower (Nam Dinh), Kiep Bac Temple (Hai Duong), Binh Son Tower (Vinh Phuc), Van Ban Bell (Hai Phong), Da Boi Shield (Thai Binh).
There are also exhibits to these victorious resistance wars against Yuan-Mongolian aggresors and the policies and socio-economic development, state apparatus consolidation, and the construction of dyke system.(source Baotanglichau vn)
In this museum also exhibit
(1) the Collection of folk and royal ceramics bearing characteristic styles of the Tran’s Dynasty especially brown-pattern ceramic articles.
These constitutes an original part of the Vietnamese ancient ceramics, with many beautiful and precious samples of various types bowls, plates, saucers, basin, jars, jugs etc. Richly decorated with decorative pattern ( dragon, birds, fish, lotus, flowers, bodhi leaves)

(2)Terracota artifactural materials and ornament (paving tiles decorated with lotus or chrysanthenum, roof-tiles with dragon , phoenixes, bodhi leaves ). These the evidence of the continuance development under the Tran Dynasty.(Museum Vietnam History of Tran Dynasty

(d) The Long established dynasty after the Mongolian invaded.

(2) 1225

(a)The Tran,s dynasty which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriege between one of its nembers and the last Ly monarch, an eight-old princess.
Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400) the country prospered and flourished as the Tran rulers carried out extensive Land reform, improved public adnministration , and encourage the study of chinese literature.

(b) The Tran however, are best remembered for their defense of the country agains the Mongols and the Cham by 1225, theMongolia controle most Nothern China and Manchuria and were eying southern China ,Vietnam and Champa.

(3)1257 and 1284
The Mongol armies of Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam,sacking the capital Thang Long( rename Ha Noi in 1831) on each occasion, only to find that the Vietnamese under theleadership of General Tran Hung Dao drove shortage of supplies , the climate , and the Vietnamese strategy of harasment and scorchedearth tactic foliled the first two invation.

(4)1287
The third Mongol invasion of 300.000 men and avast fleet was also defeated by the Vietnamese under the leadersih of Generan Tran Hung Dao.
Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat aninvading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River ( located in northen Vietnam present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung andQuang Ninh province) and then with a smallVietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. Trapped or impaled by iron-tipped stakes, as the entire Mongol fleet of 400 craft was sunk, capture or burned by Vietnamese fire arrows. The Mongolsarmy retreat to China, harassed enroute byTran Hung Dao’s troops.

(5) 1312
The fourteen century was marked by wars with Champa, which Tran reduced to a feudatory state by 1312.

(6) 1326
Champa freed itself again by 1326 .

(7)1360
under the leadership of Champ hero Che Bong Nga, staged a series of attacks on Vietnam between 1360 and 1390,

(8) 1371
Sacking Than Long in 1371 . The Vietnamese again gainedthe the upper hand following the death of CheBong Nga and resumed their southward advance at Champa’s expense. Despite their erlier success, the quality of Tran rulers had declined marked by the end of the fourteenth century, opening the way for explotation of the pheasantry by the feudal landlord class, which caused anumber of insurrections .

______________________________

7) HO DYNASTY (1400- 1407 )
______________________________

a)1400
General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself the founder of the short –lived Ho dynasty(1400-1407).
He instituted a number of reforms that were the rental of excess land by the state to landless peasants, proclaimed printed in Vietnamese rather than Chinese, and free schools in provincial capitals. Threatened of by the reforms, some ofthe landowners appealed to China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to intervene.

b)1407
Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming asserted Chinese control in 1407,

c)1407-1427
Nguyen Trai rebellion against chinese Ming invasion( The complete history in The Ming Invation below ,source the Nguyen Trai book ,I have found in Hanoi book’s fleamarkets in 2007-auth)

.______________________________
8) The Ming Invation Vietnam
in 15th Century.
____________________________________

a) Prologue
Exhausted by their campaigns against Champa, the Vietnamese again fell prey to China, now unified under the Ming dynasty, whose brief rule over Vietnam was probably the harshest in its history.
(1) Chinese gauleiters forced Vietnamese peasants to mine for gold and other ores, cut rare woods and grow spices, all to be exported to china along with elephent tusks, rhinoceros horns, pearls and precious stones.
(2)They drastically imposed Chinese culture, confiscated Vietnamese literature and compelled schools to teach in Chinese, suppressed Vietnam cults and permitted only the worship of Chinese gods.
(3)They decreed Chinese dress for Women, prohibited men from cutting their hair and even outlawed betel nut, the Vietnamese equivalent of chewing gum.
(4)They created an administrative grill, issuing Identity cards to families, partly to control them and partly to streamline tax collection
( Until the end of the Vietnam liberation war in 1975, the Identity card and land tax collections still keep by the Vietnamese, especially the chinese overseas, that is why we can made the exciting document , revenue fiscal , and postal history collections-auth)

b) The Ming occupation

(1)The Ming occupation inevitably provoked an issurrection . Vietnam’s savior this time ,Le Loi and his adviser, the poet Nguyen Trai , set the Vietnamese strategy in an assay
(Vietnam Communist Vietminh doctrine of insurgency similar with the Nguyen Trai strategy, Subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it sated:”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel”

(2)1418
Le Loi proclaimed himself the prince of Pacification (in vietnamese “Annam”-auth), he raised the banner of revolt.

(3) 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong.

(4) 1428
The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth)

c)There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth)

(1)*Stenley Karnow version (Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997)

(a)The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman.

(b)In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?”

(c)1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth)

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”

(d) 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope:

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors,

(e) 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth)

(2)Hanoi’s Version
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980)

(a) Biography

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi.

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher.

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan.

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty.

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi.

(b) Basic History

1)During Childhood

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement.

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education.

2) During youth

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought.

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom.

3) During manhood

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century.

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China.

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?”

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life.

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province.

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism.

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts.

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers.

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth)

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two.

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds.

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth)

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price.

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam.

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse.

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader.

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain.

(1) 1417

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta.

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth)

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests.

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser.

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth)

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d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
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(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions.

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An.

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung .

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements.

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy.

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat.

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth)

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son.

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters.

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites.

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed together with all members of his family.
Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu)

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth)

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c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
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(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour.

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below)

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch :

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ?

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food.

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo:

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks.

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier.

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem :

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem :

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison :

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame”

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem :

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
What use are palaces and coaches ?
Water and vegetables are quite enough
Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals;
But each is searching fr what he drestres
Life lasts one hundred years at most
And all of us turn again to dust and grass
Friend , Listen to my mountain song.

However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem

My country, all I have to give you is my heart
Torments inside me have chased away all repose,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn.

(10) The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”
( Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428)

(a) It was said :
To ensure peace for the people. Such is the essence of humanity and peace,
To eliminate violence, such is the primary aim of our soldiers
Our country Dai Viet has lng since been
Land of old culture,
With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,
Different from of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan
We had know both days of gretness and times of decline,
But never had lacked heroes
That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions

(b)And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa d at ham Tu.
And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang
Proof remain of those exploits,
In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho
Provoked anger and reseentment.

(c)The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.
And tratitors sold the country for money and honours,
The people were burnt on the flames of barbarity
Or buried in the tombs of disasters.
To decieve Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations;
For twenty years they hilled and oppressed.
Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,
Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty
Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others int fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand,
Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared.
Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans.

(d)The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied;
Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built;
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak.

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes.

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil.

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies.

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains.

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned.

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered.

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest.

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed.

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth)

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