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Archive for November, 2010

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

*ill 001

*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

The Chess Collections Exhibition
Frame One :
The Dr Iwan Private Chess Collections
I.The Chess Champion Legendary Profile

II. The Vintage Chess ‘s Book Collections

III. The Caricature Of Chess Collections

IV.The Chess Promotional Label

lV.The Vintage Chess Grandmaster Profile

Frame Two:
The Chess Historic Collections

The history of chess spans some 1500 years. The earliest predecessors of the game originated in India, prior to the 6th century AD. From India, the game spread to Persia. When the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently spread to Southern Europe. In Europe, the game evolved into its current form in the 15th century. In the second half of the 19th century, modern tournament play began, and the first world chess championship was held in 1886. The 20th century saw great leaps forward in chess theory and the establishment of the World Chess Federation (FIDE). Developments in the 21st century include the employment of computers for analysis, which actually based back in the 70’s with the very first programmed chess games on the market. Also team consultations, and online gaming appeared in the mid 90’s.

PS THE COMPLETE EXHIBTION AT MY CYBERMUSEUM BLOG, PLEASE CLICK hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

the end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

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WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

*ill 001

*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

Pameran Keramik Langka Produksi De Hua

Frame satu : Pengantar
Pabrik keramik De Hua lokasinya di propinsi Fukien,dekat kota Changzhou(Tjiangtjioe) tanah kelahiran Kakek saya.
Tahun 2008 saya sempat mengunjungi kota tersebut dan melihat temple Kai Yuan yang sangat indah dan menyaksikan tanah kelahiran suku hokian termasuk wilayah kelahiran kakek saya (klik hhtp://www.uniquecollections.wordpress.com)sayang karena keterbatasan waktu tidak berhasil menemukan lokasi pabrik tersebut.
Artifact keramik De Hua yang bewarna putih dengan atau tanpa dekorasi ditemukan di Indonesia,keramik ini tergolong langka .
Silahkan melihat koleksi pribadi saya dibawah ini.
Salam dari penemu Cybermuseum blog
Dr Iwan Suwandy

Frame dua : De Hua Biru Putih

Frame tiga : De Hua Putih “Blanc de Chine”

Statue of Guan Yin, Ming Dynasty (Shanghai Museum)

Blanc de Chine (French for “Chinese white”) is the traditional European term for a type of white Chinese porcelain, made at Dehua in the Fujian province, otherwise known as Dehua porcelain or similar terms. It has been produced from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) to the present day. Large quantities arrived in Europe as Chinese Export Porcelain in the early 18th century and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere. It was also exported to Japan in large quantities.

Dehua porcelain, Wade-Giles romanization Te-hua, Chinese porcelain made at Dehua in Fujian province. Although the kiln began production some time during the Song period (960–1279), most examples of the porcelain are attributed to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The characteristic product of Dehua was the white porcelain known to the French as blanc de chine, which had the appearance of blancmange, or milk jelly. Figures of Buddhist deities, vases, and stoves with molded reliefs of plum blossom were common forms. Dehua ware was exported in large quantities to Southeast Asia and, starting in the 18th century, to Europe, where it .

The first Dehua Kiln, whose white porcelain became a representative genre of the Chinese porcelain industry, was a famous kiln that specialized in white porcelain making. Its sites spread about within the scope of today’s Dehua County, in East China’s Fujian Province.

Dehua County in central Fujian Province is known as one of the Three Porcelain Capitals in China, together with Jingdezhen in East China’s Jiangxi Province and Liling in Central China’s Hunan Province.

Dehua porcelain dates back to the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Solid and smooth, Dehua porcelain is resistant to both heat and cold. One type of “Jianbai” porcelain in particular has a sparkle and luster even more stunning than white jade, and its ivory-white color and superb workmanship make it a favorite of art lovers.

The body of its white porcelain was low in iron but high in potassium, while the color of the glazed surface was of a bright, smooth luster, as milky as frozen fat. It was thus often called “lard white” or “ivory white.” Dehua white porcelain used to be one of the major export varieties in various dynasties. In the West it was called the “Chinese white porcelain” or “Marco Polo porcelain.”

The most common objects of Dehua porcelain were a burner, cup, bottle, plate, tin, Zun (a kind of wine vessel), and Ding (an ancient cooking vessel), which were often decorated with appliqués (kinds of ornament) and stamps; the porcelain figurine was also remarkably exquisite. In fact, the masterpiece of Dehua porcelain was the white porcelain figure of Buddha.

Among Dehua porcelains, white Buddha figures, the most famous, represented the highest firing technique of Dehua kilns at that time. With a refined design and an elegant touch, the white porcelain of Dehua kilns became a representative genre of Chinese porcelain industry in that period and was reputed as the Bright Pearl of Porcelain in the World.

Although by the Song and Yuan dynasties (960-1368), Dehua porcelains were already being exported to other countries and regions, it was during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) that Dehua porcelain gradually developed its own techniques and styles and enjoyed great development.

In modern times, quite a few Dehua porcelains of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) have won gold prizes in expositions held both at home and abroad, such as Shanghai (East China), Taiwan Province, Japan, and Britain; in addition, Dehua porcelain is one of the main products of the national porcelain export, being exported to more than 80 countries and regions.

Keramik Yang ditemukan dari Kapal Karam Termasuk dari De Hua

Ceramics
The number of ceramic pieces of each type recovered from the Desaru ship is listed at the end of this section.

Type number & description
1: Lion dog dish
Large porcelain dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue and copper red, and depicts a lion dog playing with a brocade ball. Four bands of stylised Tibetan characters decorate the cavetto. The lion dog, or dog of fu, is the Buddhist guardian lion; it looks like a Pekinese dog with a brushy tail. It is often shown playing with a ball and ribbons. It appears in the Ming dynasty but also used in Qing dynasty. The base is unglazed.
Size: 27-29 cm diameter.
2 & 2.1: Flower dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemum blossoms amidst scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship, associated with a life of ease and retirement. The flower can be used as a tonic or cosmetic. It appears in decorations from the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) onwards.
2 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
2.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
3 & 3.1: Longevity dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue. It shows the Chinese character shou (for long life) at the centre with bands of a stylised Sanskrit character for om (sacred syllable) on the cavetto. The longevity mark promises a long happy life, full of good luck and happy circumstances.
3 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
3.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
4: Small flower dish
Small dish with rounded sides and a well-made low foot-ring. Probably manufactured at one of the Dehua kilns. The centre medallion is decorated in cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemums altering with various scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 17-19 cm diameter.

PS. PAMERANG LENGKAP LIHAT DI dR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM BLOG , silahkan klik hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com.

Selesai@hak cipta Dr iwan suwandy 2010

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WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

*ill 001

*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :The Germany (Deutschland) Historic Collections Exhibition

Pre-history

The earliest hominid fossils found in what is now Germany are Homo heidelbergensis (500,000 years old) and the Steinheim Skull (300,000 years old). The Neanderthals, named for Neander Valley, flourished around 100,000 years ago. The region was glaciated from 30,000 years ago to about 10,000 years ago. The Nebra sky disk, dated 1600 BC, is one of the oldest known astronomical instruments found anywhere. Northern Germany experienced the Nordic Bronze Age from 1700BC to 450BC and thereafter the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Differences between artifacts from northern Germany and those from southern Germany suggest the beginning of differentiation between the Germanic and Celtic peoples. In the 1st century BC, the Germanic tribes began expanding south, east, and west.[1]

Early history (56 BC to 260 AD)
Main article: Germanic peoples

Germanic tribes in 50 AD (not including most of Scandinavia)

Early Old High German runic inscription on the Pforzen buckle
Germany entered recorded history in June 56 BC, when Roman commander Julius Caesar crossed the Rhine. His army built a huge wooden bridge in only ten days. He retreated back to Gaul upon learning that the Suevi tribe was gathering to oppose him. The English word “Germany” is derived from the Latin Germania, a word first recorded in Caesar’s writings.[2]

Under Augustus, the Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus began to invade Germania (to the Romans, an area running roughly from the Rhine to the Ural Mountains), and it was in this period that the Germanic tribes became familiar with Roman tactics of warfare while maintaining their tribal identity. In AD 9, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius in the clades Variana (“Battle of the Teutoburg Forest”). Arminius later suffered a defeat at the hands of the Roman general Germanicus at the Battle of the Weser River or Idistaviso in AD 16, but the Roman victory was not followed up after the Roman Emperor Tiberius recalled Germanicus to Rome in AD 17. Tiberius wished that the Roman frontier with Germania be maintained along the Rhine. Modern Germany, as far as the Rhine and the Danube, thus remained outside the Roman Empire. By AD 100, the time of Tacitus’ Germania, Germanic tribes settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany. The 3rd century saw the emergence of a number of large West Germanic tribes: Alamanni, Franks, Chatti, Saxons, Frisians, Sicambri, and Thuringii. Around 260, the Germanic peoples broke through the Limes and the Danube frontier into Roman-controlled lands.[3]

Germania

Main article: Germania
Six great German tribes, the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards and the Franks took part in the fragmentation and the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The vandals were two tribes, Hasdingi and the Silingi. Several other tribes were also involved, the Alans and the Suebi in particular, but the Alans were an Iranian people steppe, not Germans. The six major tribes found major kingdoms. All of them disappeared with one exception, the Franks, which gave its name to Western Europe in languages such as Arabic. The diagram shows the fate of kingdoms, two of the Franks, two from Romania, and overthrown by Islam. The parts of Italy from the Lombards by the Romans who obtained naturally fell to the Franks (if then ceded to the pope) and North Africa, the Romans called up from the Vandals, then went to Islam. The Frankish kingdom is divided into the elements of the medieval history of Europe. Although Burgundy and Lorraine, now, as such, Switzerland and Monaco are gone modern pieces of the former and the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg are modern pieces of the latter.

Besides the German tribes, and was captured and damaged the Western Roman Empire, there were the tribes that stayed back in Germany proper. These were the Saxons, Alemanni, and the Thuringian Rugier. If the Rugier were Odoacer in 487, destroyed formed a new confederation of Germans in their place, the Bavarians. All of these strains in Germany were finally subdued by the Franks, the Alamanni in 496 and 505, the Thuringia in 531, the Bavarians after a certain point 553, and finally the Saxons of 804th When Germany finally separated as the East Franks, took over the old tribal identities as a new stem duchies.

The Stem Duchies & Marches
The Stem Duchies (tribal duchies) in Germany was mainly the areas of the old German tribes of the region. These strains were originally the Franks, the Saxons, the Alemanni, the Burgundians, the Thuringians, and the Rugians. In the 5th Century the Burgundians moved into Roman territory and would have been in 443 and 458 in the area, then Lower Burgundy. The area they had occupied in Germany, along with the Saxons, was occupied by the Franks. The Rugians which Odoacer destroyed in 487 formed a new confederation of Germans in their place, the Bavarians. All of these strains in Germany were finally subdued by the Franks, the Alamanni in 496 and 505, the Thuringia in 531, the Bavarians after a certain point 553, and then the Saxons, in a lengthy campaign of Charles himself, from 804. When Germany finally separated as the East Francia, took over the tribal areas of new identities as the subdivisions of the Empire, joining Lorraine (right Francia Media). For the ruler of this ancient Roman title dux (“the leader”) was adopted. It was originally a Roman frontier military commander used. In German, however, the corresponding title, Herzog, more like a translation of a Greek, , stratêlatês, “army” (stratos) “leader” (elaunein, “to lead”). Thus, the Old High German title of herizoho, from heri, “army,” and ziohan, “to lead.” This looks very much like a similar title, voivode, maybe a translation into Slavic languages.

The Franks
The Merovingian kings of the Germanic Franks conquered northern Gaul in 486 AD. In the 5th and 6th centuries the Merovingian kings conquered several other Germanic tribes and kingdoms and placed them under the control of autonomous dukes of mixed Frankish and native blood. Frankish Colonists were encouraged to move to the newly conquered territories. While the local Germanic tribes were allowed to preserve their laws, they were pressured into changing their religion.

Frankish Empire
Main article: Frankish Empire

Frankish Empire: Realm of Pippin III in 758 (blue), expansion under Charlemagne until 814 (red), marches and dependencies (yellow)

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire the Franks created an empire under the Merovingian kings and subjugated the other Germanic tribes. Swabia became a duchy under the Frankish Empire in 496, following the Battle of Tolbiac. Already king Chlothar I ruled the greater part of what is now Germany and made expeditions into Saxony while the Southeast of modern Germany was still under influence of the Ostrogoths. In 531 Saxons and Franks destroyed the Kingdom of Thuringia. Saxons inhabit the area down to the Unstrut river. During the partition of the Frankish empire their German territories were a part of Austrasia. In 718 the Franconian Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel made war against Saxony, because of its help for the Neustrians. The Franconian Carloman started in 743 a new war against Saxony, because the Saxons gave aid to Duke Odilo of Bavaria. In 751 Pippin III, mayor of the palace under the Merovingian king, himself assumed the title of king and was anointed by the Church. The Frankish kings now set up as protectors of the Pope, Charlemagne launched a decades-long military campaign against their heathen rivals, the Saxons and the Avars. The Saxons (by the Saxon Wars (772-804)) and Avars were eventually overwhelmed and forcibly converted, and their lands were annexed by the Carolingian Empire.

Middle Ages
Main article: Holy Roman Empire

The prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. (left to right: Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia)

Holy Roman Empire, 10th century

Marienburg (Malbork) castle of the Teutonic Knights

Holy Roman Empire, 14th century
In 768 the Frankish king died, leaving his kingdom to his two sons—Charles and Carloman.[4] When Carloman suddenly died in 771, Charles seized his brother’s lands and made them part of his own kingdom. During the next two years, Charles consolidated his control over his kingdom and became more commonly known as “Charles the Great” or “Charlemagne.” From 771 until his death in 814, Charlemagne extended the Carolingian empire into northern Italy and the territories of all west Germanic peoples, including the Saxons and the Bajuwari (Bavarians). In 800, Charlemagne’s authority was confirmed by his coronation as emperor in Rome. The Frankish empire was divided into counties, and its frontiers were protected by border marches. Imperial strongholds (Kaiserpfalzen) became economic and cultural centres (Aachen being the most famous[5]).

Between 843 and 880, after fighting between Charlemagne’s grandchildren, the Carolingian empire was partitioned into several parts in the Treaty of Verdun (843), the Treaty of Meerssen (870) and the Treaty of Ribemont[6] The German region developed out of the East Frankish kingdom, East Francia. From 919 to 936 the Germanic peoples (Franks, Saxons, Swabians and Bavarians) were united under Duke Henry of Saxony, who took the title of king. For the first time, the term Kingdom (Empire) of the Germans (“Regnum Teutonicorum”) was applied to a Frankish kingdom, even though Teutonicorum at its founding originally meant something closer to “Realm of the Germanic peoples” or “Germanic Realm” than realm of the Germans.[7]

PS THE FULL EXHIBTION LOOK AT Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM BLOG , please click hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
the end @copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2010

Read Full Post »

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

*ill 001

*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA”

Showcase :
The France Historic Collections Exhibition

History of France

This article is part of a series
——————————————————————————–

Ancient history
Prehistory of France
Celtic Gaul
Roman Gaul (50 BC–486 AD)
The Franks
Merovingians (481 AD–751 AD)
Middle Ages
Carolingians (751–987)
Direct Capetians (987–1328)
Valois (1328–1498)
Early Modern France
Valois-Orléans (1498–1515)
Valois-Angoulême (1515–1589)
House of Bourbon (1589–1792)
French Revolution (1789)
19th century
First Republic (1792–1804)
National Convention (1792–1795)
Directory (1795–1799)
Consulate (1799–1804)
First Empire (1804–1814)
Restoration (1814–1830)
July Revolution (1830)
July Monarchy (1830–1848)
1848 Revolution
Second Republic (1848–1852)
Second Empire (1852–1870)
Third Republic (1870–1940)
Paris Commune (1871)
20th century
French State (1940–1944)
Provisional Government
(1944–1946)
Fourth Republic (1946–1958)
Fifth Republic (1958–present)

——————————————————————————–

France Portal

v • d • e

The history of France goes back to the arrival of the earliest human being in what is now France. Members of the genus Homo entered the area hundreds of thousands of years ago, while the first modern homo sapiens, the Cro-Magnons, arrived around 40,000 years ago. A number of important archaeological sites have been discovered in the country, testifying to continuous habitation by modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

According to John T. Koch and others, France in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that also included Ireland, Britain, Spain and Portugal where Celtic languages developed.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

The first historical records appear in the Iron Age, when what is now France made up the bulk of the region known as Gaul to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Greek and Roman writers noted the presence of three main ethno-linguistic groups in the area, the Gauls, the Aquitani, and the Belgae. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were a Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the first millennium BC the Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. The Roman Republic annexed southern Gaul as the province of Gallia Narbonensis in the late 2nd century BC, and Roman forces under Julius Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul in the Gallic Wars of 58–51 BC. Afterward a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire.

In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. The Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, setting the stage for Frankish dominance in the region for hundreds of years. Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The medieval Kingdom of France emerged out of the western part of Charlemagne’s Carolingian Empire, known as West Francia, and achieved increasing prominence under the rule of the House of Capet, founded by Hugh Capet in 987. A succession crisis following the death of the last Capetian monarch in 1337 led to the series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet. The wars ended with a Valois victory in 1453, solidifying the power of the Ancien Régime as a highly centralized absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation, as well as recurring religious conflicts and wars with other powers. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution, which forever changed French and world history. The country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. Following Napoleon’s defeat in the Napoleonic Wars France went through several further regime changes, being ruled as a monarchy, then briefly as a republic, and then as a Second Empire, until a more lasting Third French Republic was established in 1870.

France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Russia, and their allies against the Central Powers. It was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, but was conquered by Nazi Germany within two months. The Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by the Axis Powers, while the south was controlled by the collaborationist Vichy government. Following liberation, a Fourth Republic was established; this was succeeded by the French Fifth Republic in 1958, the country’s current government. After the war decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while other parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments and collectivities. Since World War II France has been a leading member in the United Nations, the European Union and NATO, and remains a strong economic, cultural, military and political influence in the 21st century.

PS. THE COMPLETE EXHIBTION LOOK AT Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM, please click hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

the end@copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010

Read Full Post »

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

*ill 001

*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA”

Showcase :

The Cyprus Historic collections Exhibition

Republic of Cyprus
Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Greek)
Kypriakí Dimokratía
Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti (Turkish)

Flag Coat of arms

Anthem: Ýmnos eis tīn Eleutherían
(Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν)
Hymn to Liberty1

Location of Cyprus (dark green)– — [Legend]
Capital
(and largest city) Nicosia (Λευκωσία, Lefkoşa)
35°08′N 33°28′E / 35.133°N 33.467°E / 35.133; 33.467
Official language(s) Greek, Turkish [1]
Ethnic groups 77% Greek, 18% Turkish, 5% other (2001 est.)[2]
Demonym Cypriot, Greek Cypriot, Turkish Cypriot
Government Presidential republic
– President Dimitris Christofias
Independence from the United Kingdom
– Zürich and London Agreement 19 February 1959
– Proclaimed 16 August 1960
EU accession 1 May 2004
Area
– Total 9,248 km2 (167th)
3,571 sq mi
– Water (%) negligible
Population
– 1.1.2010 estimate 798,045 [3]
– Density 117/km2 (85th)
221/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
– Total $22.745 billion[4]
– Per capita $27,713[4]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
– Total $23.291 billion[4]
– Per capita $28,378[4]
Gini (2005) 29 (low) (19th)
HDI (2010) 0.810[5] (very high) (35th)
Currency Euro2 (EUR)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
– Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the Left
ISO 3166 code CY
Internet TLD .cy3
Calling code 357
1 Also the national anthem of Greece.
2 Before 2008, the Cypriot pound.
3 The .eu domain is also used, shared with other European Union member states.

Cyprus (pronounced /ˈsaɪprəs/ ( listen); Turkish: Kıbrıs, Greek: Κύπρος, Kýpros, IPA: [ˈcipros];, – officially the Republic of Cyprus Turkish: Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), (Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία, Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía, IPA: [cipriaˈci ðimokraˈtia]; – is a Eurasian island country in the Eastern Mediterranean,[6][7] south of Turkey and west of Syria and Lebanon. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of its most popular tourist destinations.[8] An advanced,[9] high-income economy with a very high Human Development Index,[10][11] the Republic of Cyprus was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004

PS THE COMPLETE EXHIBITION LOOK AT dR iWAN cYBERMUSEUM BLOG, please click hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com.[

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WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

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THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA”

Showcase :

The Malta Historic Collections Exhibition

Malta has been inhabited since it was settled around 5200 BC from the Italian island of Sicily.[1] Later came the arrival of the Phoenicians and the Greeks who named the island Μελίτη (Melite) meaning “honey sweet” in reference to Malta’s endemic variety of bee. The island was known as 𐤈𐤄𐤋𐤀𐤌 Maleth meaning ‘safe-haven’, by the Phoenicians.

Abbreviated Timeline
Further information: Timeline of Maltese history
about 5200 BCE: First settlers arrive on Malta, from the island of Sicily.[1]
about 3600 BCE to about 2500 BCE: The Temple building period starts, construction of the world’s oldest free standing buildings at Ġgantija Gozo, of the Mnajdra solar temple complex on Malta and several others.
Circa 700 BCE: A Greek colony is founded on the main island.
Circa 800-480: Phoenician colonization.
480 BCE: The Maltese Islands come under the control of Carthage.

218 BCE: Malta is incorporated into the Roman Republic.
60: Saint Paul is shipwrecked on an island identified by many Bible scholars as Malta.
395: Byzantine domination of Malta, following the final division of the Roman Empire.
870: The Aghlabid Arabs conquer Malta.
1091: Count Roger I of Sicily establishes Norman rule over Malta.
1127: Norman control over Malta is consolidated under Roger II of Sicily.
1194–1266: Malta and Sicily are ruled by the Swabians (House of Hohenstaufen), who establish the County of Malta whereby Counts rule Malta with some degree of autonomy [2].
1224: Expulsion of all remaining Muslims in Malta and Sicily.[3].
1266–1283: The Angevins rule Malta and Sicily.
1283–1530: The Crown of Aragon rules Malta and Sicily.
1397: Establishment of the Università, a form of government composed of local aristocrats.
1427: King Alfonso incorporates Malta to the Crown of Aragon (Kingdom of Sicily), abolishes the County of Malta, and promises never to grant Malta as a fief to any third party.

1530: In an effort to protect Rome from Turkish invasion, the then King of Sicily Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor grants the Maltese Islands to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in perpetual fief, ending four centuries as part of the Kingdom of Sicily.
1565: The siege by the Ottoman Empire.
1566: The founding of Malta’s new capital city, Valletta. A general strengthening of Malta’s fortifications is undertaken.
1798: Napoleon conquers Malta.
1799: The Maltese revolt against the French. Britain takes Malta under its protection, in the name of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
1802: The Peace of Amiens, mandates that Britain return Malta to the Knights of St John, but Britain chooses not to comply.
1814: Under the Treaty of Paris, subsequently ratified by the Congress of Vienna, Malta becomes a British Crown Colony.
1853–1856: During the Crimean War, Malta serves as a hospital base for wounded combatants, and acquires the nickname Nurse of the Mediterranean.
1914–1918: Throughout World War I, Malta resumes its role as the Nurse of the Mediterranean as the British ship many casualties to hospitals in Malta, especially following the failed Gallipoli campaign
PS.THE COMPLETE EXHIBTION LOOK AT Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM,please click hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
the end@copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

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Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

*ill 001

*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA”

SHOWCASE :
The Burma Collections Exhibition

Frame 0ne: Dr Iwan’s Burma Collections

PS The complete show at Dr Iwan Cybermuseum blog,plwase click hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
the end@copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010

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