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Archive for February, 2011

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :
The Driwan Masterpiece Uniquecollection Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya koleksi unik masterpiece Dr Iwan)

SHOWCASE :
THE LIMITED EDITION JJ STOKES RUGBY(FOOTBALL) TRADE CARD

FRAME ONE:
THE LIMITED 795 CARDS, AUTOPHONEX TEST ISSUE TRAD CARD
( Dr IWAN COLLECTIONS)
FRONTSIDE


BACKSIDE

FRAME TWO:
THE JJ STOKES BIOGRAPHY


J. J. Stokes Date of birth: October 6, 1972 (1972-10-06) (age 38)
Place of birth: San Diego, California
Career information
Position(s): Wide receiver
College: UCLA
NFL Draft: 1995 / Round: 1 / Pick 10
Organizations
As player:
1995-2002
2003
2003 San Francisco 49ers
Jacksonville Jaguars
New England Patriots
Playing stats at DatabaseFootball.com

Jeral Jamal Stokes (born October 6, 1972) is a former National Football League wide receiver. Stokes last played in the NFL in December 2003 for the New England Patriots.

Contents
1 High school
2 College career
3 NFL career
4 Outside the NFL

High schoolStokes began his football career at Point Loma High School in San Diego, CA, where he was part of a gifted team that included fellow wide-receiver Brett Callan, quarterback Dan White (later a UA star), and future-NFL lineman La’Roi Glover. The team was coached throughout Stokes’ four years by local legend Bennie Edens.

College careerWhile at UCLA, Stokes earned Pac-10 first-team honors as a sophomore. His breakout season came in his junior year when he was named the Conference’s Offensive Player of the Year. Stokes’ junior season was rewarded with a top ten finish in the balloting for that year’s Heisman Trophy, being the only junior recognized. Stokes’ junior season ended with first-team All-American recognition by The Sporting News, AP, UPI, and Kodak. Stokes’ senior year began as the nation’s leading Heisman contender but was quickly sidetracked by a severe upper thigh contusion suffered in the season’s first game. Stokes still holds UCLA school records for receiving touchdowns in a season (17 in 1993), receiving touchdowns in a career (28), receiving yards in a game (263 vs. USC in 1992) and receptions in a game (14 vs. Wisconsin, 1994 Rose Bowl), among others.

On October 9, 2009, Stokes was inducted into the UCLA Athletics Hall of Fame.

NFL careerStokes was selected with the tenth overall pick of the 1995 NFL Draft by the San Francisco 49ers, who traded up to the No. 10 spot in the first round to select Stokes as the successor to the team’s Hall of Fame receiver Jerry Rice.

After a slow start to his rookie season, the former Bruin, ultimately netting 38 receptions for 517 yards and four touchdowns, the last of which was tossed by Rice. During the 1996 season, Stokes suffered a broken hand and missed most of the season, leading to the emergence of the 49ers’ third round pick in the 1996 NFL Draft, wide receiver Terrell Owens. In 1997, with Rice sidelined with a torn ACL, Stokes and Owens formed a formidable tandem for quarterback Steve Young, with Stokes hauling in 58 passes for 733 yards and four touchdowns. Once Rice returned, Stokes’ production did not falter as he would achieve career highs in receptions (63), yards (770) and touchdowns (eight). Stokes was also the recipient of linebacker Bill Romanowski spitting in his face during a Monday Night Football game in December 1997.[1] Along with the rest of the team, Stokes’ production dropped in 1999 as a result of Young’s retirement. The 49ers released him in 2003 and he was initially signed by the Jacksonville Jaguars before going to New England. Stokes was rarely used in the Patriots offense, only contributing 15 catches for 154 yards during the 2003 campaign. New England released him and activated fullback Larry Centers near the end of the season.[2]

Outside the NFLHe currently works as a radio host for the ESPN radio affiliate based out of Modesto, California. Stokes nephew, Je’Ron Stokes, is currently a Wide-Receiver for the University of Michigan.

FRAME THREE:
THE SAN FRANSISCO 49ers RUGBY CLUB HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

San Francisco 49ers
Current season
Established 1946
Play in Candlestick Park
San Francisco, California
Headquartered in the Marie P. DeBartolo Sports Center
Santa Clara, California

Helmet Logo

League/conference affiliations
All-America Football Conference (1946–1949)

Western Division (1946–1949)

National Football League (1950–present)

National Conference (1950–1952)
Western Conference (1953–1969)
Coastal Division (1967–1969)
National Football Conference (1970–present)
NFC West (1970–present)

Current uniform

Team colors Primary:[1]
Scarlet
49ers Gold (Metallic)
Mascot Sourdough Sam
Personnel
Owner(s) Jed York[2]
Chairman Denise DeBartolo York and John York
CEO Jed York
President Jed York
General manager Trent Baalke
Head coach Jim Harbaugh
Team history
San Francisco 49ers (1946–present)

Team nicknames
Niners, The Red And Gold, Bay Bombers, and The Team of the Eighties, The 49er Empire
Championships
League championships (5)
Super Bowl Championships (5)
1981 (XVI), 1984 (XIX), 1988 (XXIII), 1989 (XXIV), 1994 (XXIX)

Conference championships (5)
NFC: 1981, 1984, 1988, 1989, 1994

Division championships (17)
NFC West: 1970, 1971, 1972, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 2002

Playoff appearances (23)
AAFC: 1949
NFL: 1957, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1981, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002

Home fields
Kezar Stadium (1946–1970)
Candlestick Park (1971–present)
a.k.a. 3Com Park at Candlestick Point (1995–2002)
a.k.a. San Francisco Stadium at Candlestick Point (2002–2004)
a.k.a. Monster Park (2004–2008)


49ers team headquarters in Santa Clara

The San Francisco 49ers (often referred to as the Niners) are a professional American football team based in the San Francisco Bay Area. They are currently members of the Western Division of the National Football Conference (NFC) in the National Football League (NFL). The team plays its home games in San Francisco, California, while the club’s headquarters and practice facility are located in nearby Santa Clara. The 49ers began play in 1946 as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference (AAFC) and joined the NFL in 1950 after the AAFC merged into the older league. The team was the first NFL franchise to win five Super Bowls. San Francisco is second only to the Pittsburgh Steelers in Super Bowl wins (6) and tied with the Dallas Cowboys with 5 each. Their five league titles (which include the pre-NFL and pre-Super Bowl periods) place them in a four-way tie for fifth behind the Green Bay Packers (13), the Chicago Bears (9), the New York Giants (7), and the Steelers (6). The 49ers are also the only team to win more than one Super Bowl without losing any.

The 49ers teams of the 1980s and early 1990s were a great dynasty given their five Super Bowl triumphs in that span, including four in the 1980s. The Niners won 10 or more games for 16 straight seasons.[3] Particularly notable seasons are the 1984 and 1989 teams. Three-time Super Bowl MVP Joe Montana, perennial Pro Bowler Ronnie Lott, all-time highest career quarterback rating holder Steve Young, and career touchdown leader Jerry Rice played for the 49ers during this period.[citation needed] Additionally, some of the most memorable plays (including “The Catch”) and games (such as Super Bowl XXIII) were played by this team.

The name “49ers” comes from the name given to the gold prospectors who arrived in Northern California around 1849 during the California Gold Rush.[citation needed]

The team is the oldest major professional sports team in California, as well as the first. Major League Baseball would not come for a few more years when the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants would move to Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively. The Philadelphia Warriors and Minneapolis Lakers would move to California in the sixties, and the Oakland Seals and Los Angeles Kings would become the first NHL teams in the state in 1967.

Contents
1 Franchise history
1.1 1957
1.2 1958–1969
1.3 1970–72
1.4 1973–78
1.5 1979–80
1.6 1981: ‘The Catch’ and first Super Bowl championship
1.7 1982–83
1.8 1984–87
1.9 1988–89: Back-to-back Super Bowls
1.10 1990–93
1.11 1994: The fifth Super Bowl victory
1.12 1995–98
1.13 1999–2003
1.14 2004–2007
1.15 2008
1.16 2009
1.17 2010
1.18 2011-Present
1.19 Move to Santa Clara
2 Logo and uniforms
3 “Rivalries”
3.1 L. A. / St. Louis Rams
3.2 Oakland Raiders
3.3 Dallas Cowboys
3.4 New York Giants
3.5 Green Bay Packers
3.6 Arizona Cardinals
3.7 Seattle Seahawks
4 New stadium
5 Season-by-season records
6 Record vs. opponents
7 Players
7.1 Current roster
7.2 Pro Football Hall of Famers
7.3 Retired numbers
7.4 49ers in the Bay Area Sports Hall of Fame
7.5 49ers Hall of Fame
7.6 Forty-Niner Ten Year Club

Franchise history

Main article: History of the San Francisco 49ers

The San Francisco 49ers were the first major league professional sports franchise based in San Francisco, and one of the first professional sports teams based on the West Coast of the United States[citation needed].The Cleveland Rams moved to Los Angeles the same year, 1946. The franchise’s first touchdown was scored by Len Eshmont. The 49ers have won five NFL championships – all Super Bowls. They were the first team to win five Super Bowls (Super Bowls XVI, XIX, XXIII, XXIV, and XXIX) and are the only team among those who have played multiple Super Bowls to never have lost one[citation needed]. They are considered “The Team of the Eighties”, winning four Super Bowls in the decade[citation needed]. Prior to the ’80s, the 49ers had never won an NFL championship. They did not win a division title until 1970. During the 1980s, they failed to make the playoffs only twice — in 1980, and again in the strike-shortened 1982 season[citation needed].

1957

Main article: 1957 San Francisco 49ers season

In 1957, the 49ers would enjoy their first sustained success as members of the NFL. After losing the opening game of the season, the 49ers won their next three against the Rams, Bears, and Packers before returning home to Kezar Stadium for a game against the Chicago Bears on October 27, 1957. The 49ers fell behind the Bears 17–7. Tragically, 49ers owner Tony Morabito (1910–1957) collapsed of a heart attack and died during the game. The 49ers players learned of his death at halftime when coach Frankie Albert was handed a note with two words: “Tony’s gone.” With tears running down their faces, and motivated to win for their departed owner, the 49ers scored 14 unanswered points to win the game, 21–17. Dicky Moegle’s late-game interception in the endzone sealed the victory. Victor Morabito (1919–1964) and Tony’s widow, Josephine V. Morabito (1910–1995) hired Louis G. Spadia as general manager.[citation needed]

On Nov. 3, 1957, the 49ers hosted the Detroit Lions, a game which has gone down in local lore as featuring arguably the greatest pass play (along with Dwight Clark’s “The Catch” in 1981). With 10 seconds remaining, 49ers ball on the Lions 41, Detroit leading 31–28, Y. A. Tittle threw a desperation pass into the end zone, right into the arms of high-leaping R. C. Owens. The play became famously known as the “Alley Oop”. Ironically, the two men covering Owens would later become 49ers coaches: Jack Christiansen (Head Coach), and Jim David.

The 49ers would end that season with three straight victories and an 8–4 record, tying the Detroit Lions for the NFL Western Division title, and setting up a one-game divisional playoff in San Francisco. The 49ers got off to a fast start, and in the third quarter led 27–7. The Lions, led by quarterback Tobin Rote, who earlier in the season had replaced an injured Bobby Layne, would mount one of the biggest comebacks in NFL history and defeat the 49ers, 31—27. Had they won the game, the 49ers would have hosted the NFL Championship game the following weekend against the Cleveland Browns. As it happened, the Lions wound up beating the Browns 59–14.

[edit] 1958–1969Also in the 1950s the 49ers famous “Million Dollar Backfield” was formed. The team’s backfield consisted of four future Hall of Fame members—quarterback Y. A. Tittle and running backs John Henry Johnson, Hugh McElhenny, and Joe Perry.

For most of the next thirteen years the 49ers would hover around .500, except for 1963 and 1964 when they went 2–12 and 4–10 respectively. Key players for these 49ers included running back Ken Willard, quarterback John Brodie, and offensive lineman Bruce Bosley.

During this time the 49ers became the first NFL team to use the shotgun formation. It was named by the man who actually devised the formation, San Francisco 49ers’ coach Red Hickey, in 1960. The formation, where the quarterback lines up seven yards behind the center, was designed to allow the quarterback extra time to throw. The formation was used for the first time in 1960 and enabled the 49ers to beat the Baltimore Colts, who were not familiar with the formation.

In 1961, primarily using the shotgun the 49ers got off to a fast 4–1 start, including two shutouts in back-to-back weeks. In their sixth game they faced the Chicago Bears, who, by moving players closer to the line of scrimmage and rushing the quarterback were able to defeat the shotgun and in fact shut out the 49ers, 31–0. Though the 49ers would go only 3—5—1 the rest of the way, the shotgun would eventually become a component of most team’s offenses and is a formation used by football teams at all levels.

In 1962 the 49ers had a frustrating season as they won only 6 games that year. They won only 1 game at Kezar Stadium while on the road they won 5 of 7 games.

After posting a losing record in 1963. Victor Morabito died May 10, 1964, at age 45. The 1964 season was another lost campaign.

According to the 1965 49er Year Book the co-owners of the team were: Mrs. Josephine V. Morabito Fox, Mrs. Jane Morabito, Mrs. O.H. Heintzelman, Lawrence J. Purcell, Mrs. William O’Grady, Albert J. Ruffo, Franklin Mieuli, Frankie Albert, Louis G. Spadia and James Ginella.

The 1965 49ers rebounded nicely to finish with a 7–6–1 record. They were led that year by John Brodie, who after being plagued by injuries came back to become one of the NFL’s best passers by throwing for 3,112 yards and 30 touchdowns.

In 1966, the Morabito widows named Lou Spadia, team president.

For the 1968 season the 49ers hired Dick Nolan as their head coach, who had been Tom Landry’s defensive coordinator with the Dallas Cowboys. Nolan’s first two seasons with the 49ers had gone much the same as the previous decade, with the 49ers going 7–6–1 and 4–8–2.

[edit] 1970–72
Former 49ers’ quarterback George Mira (1964-1968)The 49ers started out the 1970 season 7–1–1, their only loss a one-point defeat to Atlanta. After losses to Detroit and Los Angeles, the 49ers won their next two games before the season finale against the Oakland Raiders. Going into the game the 49ers had a half-game lead on the Los Angeles Rams and needed either a win or the Giants to defeat the Rams in their finale to give the 49ers their first ever divisional title.

In the early game the Giants were crushed by the Rams 30–3, thus forcing the 49ers to win their game to clinch the division. In wet, rainy conditions in Oakland, the 49ers dominated the Raiders, 38–7, giving the 49ers their first divisional championship, becoming champions of the NFC West.

The 49ers won their divisional playoff game 17–14 against the defending conference champion Minnesota Vikings, thus setting up a matchup against the Dallas Cowboys for the NFC Championship. In what would be the final home game for the 49ers at Kezar Stadium the 49ers kept up with the Cowboys before losing, 17–10, thus giving the Cowboys their first conference championship.

The 49ers sent five players to the Pro Bowl that season, including MVP veteran quarterback John Brodie, wide receiver Gene Washington, and linebacker Dave Wilcox. Nolan was also named NFL Coach of the Year for 1970.

Following the 1970 season the 49ers moved from Kezar Stadium to Candlestick Park. Despite being located on the outskirts of the city, Candlestick Park gave the 49ers a much more modern facility with more amenities that was easier for fans to access by highway.

The 49ers won their second straight divisional title in 1971 with a 9-5 record. The 49ers again won their divisional playoff game against the Washington Redskins by a 24-20 final score. This set up a rematch against the Dallas Cowboys in the NFC Championship Game, this time to be played in Dallas. Though the defense again held the Cowboys in check, the 49ers offense was ineffective and the eventual Super Bowl champion Cowboys beat the 49ers again, 14-3.

In 1971, eight 49ers made the Pro Bowl, including defensive back Jimmy Johnson and Gene Washington, both for the second year in a row, as well as defensive end Cedric Hardman, running back Vic Washington, and offensive lineman Forest Blue..

The 49ers won their third consecutive NFC West championship in 1972 with five wins in their last six games, making them the only franchise to win their first three divisional titles after the 1970 AFL-NFL merger. Their opponents in the divisional playoffs would once again be the Dallas Cowboys, making it the third consecutive year the teams faced each other in the playoffs.

Vic Washington took the opening kickoff 97 yards for a score, and the 49ers took a 21-6 lead in the second quarter. After the 49ers took a 28-13 lead in the 4th quarter, Tom Landry sent quarterback Roger Staubach, who was backing up Craig Morton, into the game. Staubach quickly led the Cowboys on a drive to a field goal, bringing the score to within 28-16, and as the game wound down it appeared that that would be all the Cowboys would get. However, the Cowboys would complete the comeback all in the last two minutes. Just after the two minute warning Staubach found Billy Parks for a touchdown to bring the score to 28-23. Needing an onside kick to have a realistic chance at a game-winning touchdown, Cowboys kicker Toni Fritsch executed a successful onside kick, with the ball going back to the Cowboys. With the 49ers on the ropes, Staubach completed the comeback with a touchdown pass to Ron Sellers giving the Cowboys a dramatic 30-28 victory and sending the 49ers to yet another crushing playoff defeat.

1973–78

The 49ers run at the top of the NFC West ended in 1973 with the 49ers falling to a 5-9 record, their worst since 1969. The team lost six of its last eight games, including games to the also-ran New Orleans Saints and Detroit Lions. In the final season of his career, longtime 49ers quarterback John Brodie split playing time with two other quarterbacks, most notably longtime backup Steve Spurrier. The team also suffered from not having a dominant running back, with Vic Washington leading the team with only 534 yards rushing.

In 1974 the 49ers drafted Wilbur Jackson from the University of Alabama to be the team’s primary back. Jackson enjoyed a fine rookie year, leading the 49ers with 705 yards rushing. He and fellow running back Larry Schreiber combined for over 1300 yards rushing. With Steve Spurrier injured and missing nearly the entire year, the 49ers did not have a regular quarterback but did put together a respectable 6-8 record. Following the season, longtime tight end Ted Kwalick left the 49ers to join the World Football League (he would join the Oakland Raiders upon the WFL’s dissolution.)

The 49ers dropped back down to 5-9 in what would be Dick Nolan’s final season as coach in 1975, the 49ers losing their final four games of the season. Wilbur Jackson was hurt much of the year and Delvin Williams led the 49ers in rushing with 631 yards rushing.

Following the 1975 season the 49ers traded for New England Patriots quarterback Jim Plunkett, former Heisman Trophy winner from nearby Stanford University (which was also the alma mater of John Brodie). Though Plunkett had shown promise with the Patriots, he had not won there and it was thought that he needed a change of scenery. Monte Clark was also brought on as 49ers head coach.

The 49ers were led by one of the best running games in the NFL in 1976. Delvin Williams emerged as an elite back, gaining over 1200 yards rushing and would make the Pro Bowl. Wilbur Jackson also enjoyed a resurgence, rushing for 792 yards. Once again Gene Washington was the teams leading receiver with 457 yards receiving and six scores.

The 49ers started the season 6-1 for their best start since 1970. Most of the wins were against second-tier teams, although the 49ers did shut out the Rams 16-0, in Los Angeles on Monday Night Football. In that game the 49ers recorded 10 sacks, including 6 by Tommy Hart. However, the 49ers lost four games in a row, including two against divisional rivals Los Angeles and Atlanta that proved fatal to their playoff hopes. Despite finishing the season with a winning record of 8-6, Clark was fired after just one season by general manager Joe Thomas, who would oversee the worst stretch of football in the team’s history.

Under coach Ken Meyer the 49ers would lose their first five games of the 1977 season, including being shut out twice. Though they would win five of their next six they would lose their last three games to finish the season 5-9. Playing in San Francisco proved not to revive Plunkett’s career as he had another disappointing season, throwing only 9 touchdown passes. Bright spots for the 49ers included defensive linemen Tommy Hart and Cleveland Elam, who made the Pro Bowl, and running backs Wilbur Jackson and Delvin Williams, who combined for over 1600 yards rushing. Gene Washington again led the team in receiving in 1977, which would be his final year with the 49ers.

The 1977 offseason was marked by a number of questionable moves by Joe Thomas that backfired badly. Thomas’s big offseason acquisition was running back O. J. Simpson from the Buffalo Bills. As with Plunkett two years previously, it was thought that rescuing Simpson from a bad situation and bringing him to the area of the country he had been raised would rejuvenate his career. To create playing time for Simpson, Thomas traded Delvin Williams to the Miami Dolphins for wide receiver Freddie Solomon. Thomas also released Jim Plunkett, giving up on him after two seasons. Finally, Thomas fired Meyer after only one season, and replaced him with Pete McCulley, his third coach in three seasons.

The 1978 season was a disaster for the 49ers, as they finished 2–14, their only wins coming against the Cincinnati Bengals and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Simpson indeed led the team in rushing, but with less than 600 yards. It had become apparent that Simpson’s knees and body were shot, and he was clearly near the end of his career. Wilbur Jackson also missed the entire season due to injury. Even worse for the franchise was that the first pick of the 1979 draft that they would have had was traded to the Bills as part of the O. J. Simpson deal. Thomas was fired following the season.

However some of the key players that would be part of the 49ers stunning rise to emergence would begin their 49ers career in 1978. Rookie quarterback Steve DeBerg, who would be Joe Montana’s first mentor, was the 49ers starting quarterback. Running back Paul Hofer and center/guard Randy Cross also started with the 49ers in 1978.

1979–80

The team was led in its turnaround from late 1970s doormat by new owner Edward J. DeBartolo Jr. and head coach Bill Walsh. The former head coach of Stanford University was known for stockpiling draft picks, making excellent draft selections, and patching roster holes by acquiring key free agents.

Bill Walsh was hired to be the 49ers head coach in the 1978 off-season. Walsh was a disciple of Paul Brown, and served as Brown’s offensive coordinator with the Cincinnati Bengals from 1968 to 1975. However, Brown did not appoint him as his successor upon his retirement, ironically choosing another assistant, former 49ers center Bill “Tiger” Johnson. Desiring head coach experience, Walsh looked to Stanford University in 1977. He had had some success there before the 49ers tapped him to be their replacement.

Walsh is given credit for popularizing the ‘West Coast offense’, which is not entirely true. The Bill Walsh offense was actually created and refined while he was an assistant coach with Bengals. The offense utilizes a short, precise, timed passing game as a replacement/augmentation of the running game. The offense is extremely difficult to defend against as it is content to consistently make 6-8 yard gains all the way down the field. (The true West Coast offense—more focused on the vertical, or downfield, passing game—was actually created by 1960s L.A. / San Diego coach Sid Gillman, and San Diego State coach Don Coryell, who also employed a version of it as head coach of the San Diego Chargers during a period where it garnered the nickname “Air Coryell”.)

In Walsh’s first draft, the 49ers had targeted Notre Dame quarterback Joe Montana as an early round pick. Montana had enjoyed a storied college career, leading the Fighting Irish to the 1977 national title and a number of dramatic comeback victories, the most stunning of all being his final game, at the 1979 Cotton Bowl Classic. Playing the University of Houston in an ice storm, and with Montana suffering from a bad flu, Notre Dame was down 34–13 in the third quarter. However, Montana led a magnificent rally that culminated with him throwing a touchdown pass on the game’s final play to give Notre Dame the 35-34 win.

Despite this, most scouts did not peg Montana as a top prospect. In addition to being relatively small for a quarterback (just over six feet) and slow, Montana’s arm strength was considered suspect. Though he did get credit for his moxie and intangibles, most thought of him as a system player surrounded by a great team.

In the 1979 draft, the Dallas Cowboys were placed just ahead of the 49ers. The Cowboys’ draft strategy through that time was to take the highest-ranked player on their draft board at the time of their selection, regardless of position. When the Cowboys’ turn came up in the third round, the highest rated player on their board was Montana. However, feeling that the quarterback position was in excellent long-term shape with Roger Staubach and Danny White, and desperately needing a tight end, the Cowboys went off their strategy and drafted Doug Cosbie. The 49ers took Montana. The 49ers other notable draft choice of the 1979 draft was wide receiver Dwight Clark in the 10th round. Walsh discovered the unheralded Clark while scouting quarterback Steve Fuller of Clemson University as Clark ran routes for Fuller during Walsh’s evaluation of the quarterback. Walsh’s serendipitous discovery of Clark would prove to be an early glimpse into the coach’s keen eye for talent.

As Walsh implemented his strategies and game plan, the 49ers had another year of losing, going 2-14. There were, however, a number of bright spots. Despite throwing more interceptions (21) than touchdowns (17), Steve DeBerg blossomed under Walsh, throwing for over 3600 yards and completing 60% of his passes. Freddie Solomon also had a good year, with over 800 yards receiving. The running game was patchwork, with Paul Hofer leading the team with 615 yards and O.J. Simpson, in what would be his final season, rushing for only 460 yards and being sidelined with injuries.

The 49ers got off to a strong start in 1980, winning their first three games of the season. However, the team, still not quite ready for the big time, would lose their next eight games in a row, although many of those games were close, and the 49ers acquitted themselves well. During the season Walsh alternated DeBerg and Montana at quarterback. Though DeBerg had played well for the 49ers, Walsh felt the team’s best chance to win in the long run was with Montana. He alternated the two QBs, giving Montana some experience while keeping opponents off guard. This strategy of alternating quarterbacks from game to game and during games is rare in football, although it had been employed by other successful teams in the past, specifically the Dallas Cowboys of the early 1970s who alternated Roger Staubach and Craig Morton, and the Los Angeles Rams of the early 1950s alternating Norm Van Brocklin and Bob Waterfield.

In all DeBerg started nine games, going 4-5 with 1,998 yards, 12 touchdowns and 17 interceptions. Montana started seven games, going 2-5 with 1,795 yards, 15 touchdowns, and nine picks; Montana also had a better completion percentage at 64.6 to DeBerg’s 57.9.

The highlight of the 1980 season, and a sign of good things to come, came in Week 14. The 49ers trailed the New Orleans Saints, who at the time were winless at 0-13, 35-7 at halftime. However, led by Joe Montana, the 49ers made (what was then) the greatest comeback in NFL history, coming back to tie the score in regulation and winning the game in overtime with a field goal by Ray Wersching to give the 49ers an incredible 38-35 victory. It was this game, which marked Montana’s first big NFL comeback win, that won Montana the quarterback job full time.

A number of key players emerged for the 49ers in 1980. Among them were Dwight Clark, who led the 49ers with 82 receptions and just under 1000 yards receiving, and running back Earl Cooper, who ran for over 700 yards.

1981:

‘The Catch’ and first Super Bowl championshipSee also: 1981 San Francisco 49ers season and The Catch (American football)
With the offense playing well consistently, Walsh and the 49ers focused on overhauling the defense in 1981. Walsh took the highly unusual step of overhauling his entire secondary with rookies and untested players, bringing on board Ronnie Lott, Eric Wright and Carlton Williamson and giving Dwight Hicks a prominent role. He also acquired veteran linebacker Jack “Hacksaw” Reynolds and veteran defensive lineman and sack specialist Fred Dean.

These new additions, when added to existing defensive mainstays like Keena Turner, turned the 49ers into a offensively and defensively balanced, dominant team. After a 1-2 start, the 49ers won all but one of their remaining games to finish with a 13-3 record, up to this point in time it was the team’s best regular season win-loss record in its history. Dean made the Pro Bowl, as did Lott (in his rookie season), and Hicks.

Led by Montana, the unusual offense was centered around the short passing game, which Walsh used as ball control. Both Dwight Clark and Freddie Solomon had excellent years receiving; Clark as the possession receiver, and Solomon as more of a deep threat. The 49ers running game, however, was among the weakest for any champion in NFL history. Ricky Patton led the 49ers with only 543 yards rushing. The 49ers’ most valuable running back, however, might have been Earl Cooper, whose strength was as a pass-catching back (he had 51 catches during the season).

The 49ers faced the New York Giants in the divisional playoffs and won, 38-24. This set up an NFC Championship Game match-up with the Dallas Cowboys, whom the 49ers historically could not beat during their earlier success and playoff run in the early 1970s.

As they had earlier in the season (beating the Cowboys 45-14), the 49ers played the Cowboys tough, but the Cowboys forced six turnovers and held the lead late. Unlike the playoff games of the ’70s, this would end differently. In a scenario not unlike the 1972 divisional playoff, the 49ers were down 27-21 and on their own 11 yard line with 4:54 remaining. As Montana had done for Notre Dame and the 49ers so many times before, he led the 49ers on a sustained drive to the Cowboys’ 6-yard line. On a 3rd-and-3 play, with his primary receiver covered, Montana rolled right and threw the ball off balance to Dwight Clark in the end zone, who leaped up and caught the ball to tie the game at 27, with the extra point giving the 49ers the lead. Other contributors on the final 89-yard drive included Solomon, Lenvil Elliott (RB), Earl Cooper (FB), Mike Wilson (WR), Charle Young (TE), Dan Audick (LT), John Ayers (LG), Fred Quillan (C), Randy Cross (RG), and Keith Fahnhorst (RT).

“The Catch”, as the play has since been named by sportscasters, reminded older 49er fans of the “Alley-oop” passes that Y.A. Tittle threw to lanky receiver R.C. Owens back in the 1950s. A picture of Clark’s leap in the air taken by Walter Iooss, Jr. appeared on the cover of that week’s Sports Illustrated and was also featured in an Autumn 2005 commercial for Gatorade.

Despite this, the Cowboys had one last chance to win. And indeed, on the first play of the next possession, Cowboys receiver Drew Pearson caught a pass from Danny White and got to midfield before he was pulled down by the jersey at the 49ers 44 yard line by Cornerback Eric Wright. Had Pearson not have been jersey-tackled, there was a good chance he would have scored a touchdown, as there were no 49ers downfield. On the next play, White was sacked by Lawrence Pillers and fumbled the ball, which was recovered by Jim Stuckey, giving the 49ers the win and a trip to their first ever Super Bowl against the Cincinnati Bengals, who were also in their first Super Bowl.

The 49ers would take a 20-0 halftime lead and hold on to win Super Bowl XVI 26-21 behind kicker Ray Wersching’s four field goals and a key defensive stand. Throughout the ’81 season, the defense had been a significant reason for the team’s success, despite residing in the shadow of the then-innovative offense. Montana won MVP honors mostly on the strength of leading the 49ers on a 92 yard, 12 play drive culminating in a touchdown pass to Earl Cooper. Thus did the 49ers complete one of the most dramatic and complete turnarounds in NFL history, going from back-to-back 2-14 seasons to a Super Bowl championship in just two years.

1982–83

Montana’s success in the playoffs, and his success in leading the 49ers on big comebacks, made him one of the biggest stars in the NFL, and arguably the best quarterback ever to play the game. Not only was he the face of the 49ers, but his easygoing and modest manner enabled his celebrity to transcend football. Additionally, it caused other teams to consider players who, although not physically gifted, nonetheless had certain intangibles and tendencies that made them great players who could come up big in the toughest of situations.

During their first Super Bowl run, the team was known for its short-range passing game and the play-making ability of quarterback Joe Montana. Later, they became proficient in all aspects of the game, featuring a dominant defense (always in the offense’s shadow) and a fast-scoring passing attack (with wide-receivers Jerry Rice and John Taylor).

The 1982 season was a bad one for the 49ers, as they lost all five games at Candlestick Park en route to a 3–6 record in a strike-shortened season. This would be the 49ers last losing season for the next 17 years. Joe Montana was the one highlight, passing for 2,613 yards in just nine games, highlighted by five straight games in which he broke the 300-yard barrier.

In 1983, the 49ers won their final three games of the season, finishing with a 10-6 record and winning their 2nd NFC Western Divisional Title in three years. Leading the rebound was Joe Montana with another stellar season, passing for 3,910 yards and connecting on 26 touchdowns. In the NFC Divisional Playoffs, they hosted the Detroit Lions. The 49ers jumped out in front early and led 17-9 entering the 4th quarter, but the Lions roared back, scoring two touchdowns to take a 23—17 lead. However, Montana would lead a comeback, hitting wide receiver Freddie Solomon on a game-winning 14-yard touchdown pass with 2:00 left on the clock to put the 49ers ahead 24—23. The game ended when a potential game-winning FG attempt by Lions kicker Eddie Murray missed. The next week, the 49ers came back from a 21—0 deficit against the Washington Redskins in the NFC Championship Game to tie the game, only to lose, after a questionable pass interference call, 24—21 on a Mark Moseley field goal that sent the Redskins to Super Bowl XVIII.

1984–87

In 1984, the 49ers had one of the greatest seasons in team history by finishing the regular season 15-1-0, setting the record for most regular season wins that was later equaled by the 1985 Chicago Bears, the 1998 Minnesota Vikings, and the 2004 Pittsburgh Steelers, and finally broken by the 2007 New England Patriots (with 16 regular season victories). Their 18 wins overall is also still a record, tied by the 1985 Bears and the 2007 New England Patriots. The 49ers’ only defeat in the 1984 season was a 20-17 loss to the Steelers; a late field goal attempt in that game by San Francisco kicker Ray Wersching went off the uprights and was no good. In the playoffs, they beat the New York Giants 21-10, shut out the Chicago Bears 23–0 in the NFC Championship, and in Super Bowl XIX the 49ers shut down a record-setting year by NFL MVP Dan Marino (and his speedy receivers Mark Clayton and Mark Duper), beating the Miami Dolphins 38-16. Their entire defensive backfield (Ronnie Lott, Eric Wright, Dwight Hicks, and Carlton Williamson) was elected to the Pro Bowl—an NFL first.

During the 1984 season,[4] fourteen 49ers players came together to record a 45 pop single entitled “We’re the 49ers.” The song, released as a 45 rpm single on Megatone Records, was produced and co-written by Narada Michael Walden.[5] It mixed elements of R&B, funk, and pop. Prominent 49ers who provided vocals include Roger Craig, Dwight Clark and Ronnie Lott (Joe Montana is noticeably absent, although he would join Lott, Clark and Riki Ellison to provide background vocals for the San Francisco band Huey Lewis and the News on two tracks from their 1986 album Fore!). While achieving some local airplay in San Francisco on radio stations like KMEL, it did not catch on nationally the way the Bears’ Super Bowl Shuffle would a year later.

In the 1985 season, Roger Craig became the first NFL player to gain 1,000 yards rushing and 1,000 yards receiving in the same season. The 49ers were not as dominant as in 1984, however, and they settled for a 10-6 record, a wild card berth and a quick elimination from the playoffs when the New York Giants beat them 17-3. In addition, 1985 marked the appearance of newly acquired rookie Jerry Rice who would continue with the 49ers throughout the 1990s.

When the 1986 season began, the 49ers were off and running with a 31–7 win over the Tampa Bay Buccaneers on opening day. But the win was costly; Joe Montana injured his back and was out for two months. Jeff Kemp became the starting quarterback, and the 49ers went 4–3–1 in September and October. Upon Montana’s return, the 49ers caught fire, winning 6 of the last 8 games, including a 24–14 win over the Los Angeles Rams, to clinch the NFC West title. However, the New York Giants defeated them again in the playoffs, 49–3. Montana was injured in the first half by a hit from the Giants’ Jim Burt.

During the strike-shortened 1987 season, the 49ers led the league with a 13–2 record but fell in their first playoff game to the Minnesota Vikings, 36–24—the third year in a row they lost in the first round. The loss to the Vikings was a stunning upset considering the 49ers that year were ranked #1 on both offense and defense, making them the odds-on favorite to win the Super Bowl. Note that 1987 marked the first of six seasons when the 49ers had two Hall of Fame quarterbacks on the roster: from 1987 through 1992, Montana’s backup (and frequent replacement) was Steve Young.

1988–89:

Back-to-back Super BowlsIn 1988, the 49ers at first struggled. At one point, they were 6–5 and in danger of missing the playoffs but rose to defeat the Washington Redskins on a Monday night game, eventually finishing the season at 10-6. They gained a measure of revenge by thrashing the Minnesota Vikings 34–9 in the first round. The 49ers then traveled to Chicago’s Soldier Field, where the chill factor at game time was 26 degrees below zero. The Las Vegas line at game time was “pick”, but it was the Bears famed 46 defense who got methodically picked apart by Joe Montana and Jerry Rice as the 49ers dominated the Chicago Bears 28-3 in the NFC Championship game.

The win over the Bears gave the 49ers their third trip to the Super Bowl: Super Bowl XXIII, located in Miami. Despite numerous trips deep into Cincinnati territory by the 49ers, the game was tied 3–3 at halftime. A late Cincinnati field goal put the Bengals ahead 16-13 with just over three minutes left on the clock. Following the kickoff, and a holding penalty, the 49ers took over on their 8 yard line with 3:08 left on the clock. Joe Montana began the final drive by stepping into the huddle and remarking to his teammates, during a television timeout, “hey, isn’t that John Candy,” as he pointed to the stands on the other side of the field. Harris Barton (offensive guard) was asked by Joe Montana and said if he wanted to go meet him. His calm demeanor reassured the 49ers, and he then engineered what some consider the greatest drive in Super Bowl history, as he drove the team 92 yards for the winning touchdown on a pass to John Taylor with only 34 seconds left. Final score: 20–16 49ers.

The following year, coach Bill Walsh retired, and his defensive coordinator and handpicked successor, George Seifert, took over head coaching duties. The 49ers then steamrolled through the league to finish 14–2 and gain homefield advantage throughout the playoffs. Their two losses were by a combined 5 points. In the first round, they crushed the Vikings, 41—13. In the NFC Championship game, they blew out the Los Angeles Rams 30-3 before crushing the Denver Broncos 55–10 in Super Bowl XXIV – setting a record for points scored and widest margin of victory in a Super Bowl. Montana himself set many Super Bowl records (some since tied or surpassed) en route to his third Super Bowl MVP. In winning the Super Bowl, the 49ers became the only team to win back-to-back Super Bowls under different head coaches. This 1989 championship squad is often regarded as one of the most dominant teams ever, winning all three playoff games by a combined 100 points.

1990–93
49ers wall of trophies at the Marie P. DeBartolo Sports Center.In 1990, the 49ers won their first ten games, and they eventually finished 14-2. They ripped through the season, and the coveted third consecutive Super Bowl victory seemed within reach. In the playoffs, the 49ers dispatched the Washington Redskins 28–10, setting up a conference championship game with the New York Giants. Despite not scoring a touchdown in the game, the Giants took advantage of a fourth-quarter injury to Montana and converted a faked punt attempt to thwart the 49ers attempt at a “three-peat.” The Giants kicked a last-second field goal after recovering a Roger Craig fumble in the final minutes of the game, winning 15-13 and going on to win Super Bowl XXV.

During their quest for a “three-peat” between 1988 and 1990, the 49ers set a league record with 18 consecutive road victories.

Joe Montana missed almost all of the following two seasons with a recurring elbow injury. Following the 1990 season, the 49ers left team stalwarts Roger Craig and Ronnie Lott unprotected and let them go to the Los Angeles Raiders via Plan B free agency.

In 1991, Steve Young injured the thumb on his throwing hand and later was sidelined with an injured knee. After 10 games, the 49ers had a record of 4-6. Backup quarterback Steve Bono helped the team win five of its next six games with Young sidelined. In the final game of the season, Monday Night versus the NFC’s no. 2 seed, Young returned and the 49ers embarrassed the Chicago Bears 52-14, finishing 10-6. However, the team missed qualifying for the playoffs by virtue of losing the head-to-head tiebreaker to the Atlanta Falcons, which had beaten the 49ers on a last-second Hail Mary pass earlier in the season. The 1992 and 1993 seasons saw a resurgent 49er team under the leadership of Steve Young, but a subpar defense could only take them to the NFC Championship game before falling to the Dallas Cowboys each time.

In 1992, Joe Montana came back after missing almost two full seasons due to an elbow injury in his throwing arm, and started the second half of a Monday night game versus Detroit on December 28, 1992. With the 49ers clinging to a 7–6 lead, Montana entered the game and looked as though he had not missed a single snap, completing 15-21 for 126 yards and 2 TDs, as the 49ers defeated the Lions 24-6. The 49ers finished the 1992 season with a 14-2 record and home field advantage in the playoffs. San Francisco defeated the Washington Redskins 20-13 in the divisional playoff game, but lost to the Dallas Cowboys 30-20 in the NFC Championship at Candlestick Park.

At the end of the 1992 season, partly fueled by media hype, the biggest quarterback controversy in football history was in full swing. After discussions with the owner and the coach, Montana asked for, and was granted, a trade to the Kansas City Chiefs prior to the 1993 season. Despite Eddie DeBartolo wanting Montana to stay and start, Montana realized that he and Young could not stay with the 49ers without a controversy. Montana was later quoted as saying, “If I had stayed and started, there would have been problems. If I had stayed and Steve Young had started, there would have been problems.”

The 49ers finished the 1993 season, the team’s first without Joe Montana on the roster, with a 10-6 record and no. 2 seed in the playoffs. San Francisco defeated the New York Giants 44-3 in the divisional playoff game, but lost to the Dallas Cowboys 38-21 in the NFC Championship at Texas Stadium.

1994: The fifth Super Bowl victoryIn 1994, the team spent large amounts of money on the addition of several star free agents from other teams, including Ken Norton, Jr., Gary Plummer, Rickey Jackson, Richard Dent, Charles Mann and Deion Sanders. Additionally, several rookie players made key contributions to the team, some becoming season-long starters such as defensive tackle Bryant Young, fullback William Floyd, and linebacker Lee Woodall. The 49ers had some tough times early in the season, including a 40–8 home loss to the Philadelphia Eagles, and a 24–17 loss to the Kansas City Chiefs, led by former 49ers quarterback Joe Montana. Following the Eagles game, a poll conducted on local sports radio station KNBR showed that an overwhelming majority of 49er fans wanted head coach George Seifert fired.

The game against the Eagles was a turning point for the 49ers despite the lopsided score. Young was benched in the 3rd quarter and was later seen livid on the sidelines, shouting profanities at head coach George Seifert. The following week in Detroit, the 49ers trailed the Lions 14-0. After throwing a pass, Young was hit, picked up, and driven into the ground by three Lions defenders. After the hit, Young was screaming with his face dark red in color. He crawled most of the way off of the field before refusing help from the trainers as he limped the remaining way off the field. He miraculously returned to the field one play later (NFL rules state that after trainers attend to an injured player, that player must leave the field for at least one play) to lead the 49ers to a 27-21 victory. The team rallied around Young to win 10 straight games, including a 21-14 victory over the two-time defending Super Bowl champion Dallas Cowboys. During that span the 49ers’ average margin of victory was nearly 20 points per game, a sustained dominance not seen since the 1985 Chicago Bears. Despite scoring only 8 points in one game and 14 in another the 49ers set a new record for total regular season and post season combined points scored. That record was later broken by the Minnesota Vikings in 1998 and the New England Patriots in 2007.

Even after those initial rough spots early in the season, the 49ers finished the season 13-3 and with homefield advantage throughout the playoffs. In their first game, they easily defeated the Chicago Bears, 44-15, setting up the third straight 49ers-Cowboys NFC Championship Game. The 49ers took advantage of three early Cowboys turnovers, taking a 21-0 lead in the first quarter. Taking a 31-14 lead into halftime after a perfect 29 yard pass from Young to Rice in the closing seconds, the game appeared to be far out of reach for the Cowboys. A 49er fumble on the opening kick of the 3rd quarter led to a Cowboy score, cutting the lead to 31-21. Later the 49ers responded with a Steve Young touchdown run, making it 38-21, before the Cowboys scored another touchdown in the final minutes for a final score of 38-28. The convincing win qualified the 49ers for their fifth Super Bowl appearance, and the first to be played by two teams from California. The 49ers steamrolled the San Diego Chargers 49-26, becoming the first team to win a record five Super Bowls. With a record 6 touchdown passes, Steve Young was named the game’s MVP. Their run of 5 Super Bowl wins in 14 seasons (1981–1994) solidified them as one of the all time greatest NFL teams.

1995–98

The 49ers made the playoffs in 1995, 1996, and 1997, being eliminated each season by the Green Bay Packers, including a 23-10 loss at Candlestick in the 1997 NFC Championship game. The time was marked by key injuries, including one to Jerry Rice that sidelined him for 14 games, and numerous injuries to Steve Young.

In 1998, Steve Young led the 49ers to a 12-4 record and their 16th straight winning season, all with 10 wins or more. Once again, the 49ers faced the Green Bay Packers in a thrilling NFC Wild Card game that went back and forth for its duration. Things looked bleak when the 49ers trailed 27-23 in the waning seconds. However, in one last moment of glory, Young hit Terrell Owens on a dramatic, game-winning 25-yard touchdown pass, dubbed by many as “The Catch II”, that put the Niners ahead at 30-27 with 0:03 left on the game clock. The Niners would go on to lose 20-18 to the eventual NFC Champion Atlanta Falcons in the NFC Divisional Playoffs.

1999–2003

In the late 1990s Eddie DeBartolo, Jr. was involved in a corruption investigation regarding Louisiana Governor Edwin Edwards and one of his Mississippi riverboat casinos. DeBartolo later pled guilty to a failure to report a felony charge in 1998. He was suspended from active control of the 49ers for one year. His sister, Denise DeBartolo York, and her husband, Dr. John York, took over operations of the team.

Eddie DeBartolo returned from his suspension in 1999, but a series of lawsuits over control of the family’s vast holdings led him to surrender controlling interest to the Yorks as part of a 2000 settlement. Denise York is now chairwoman of the board, while John York is CEO.

On the field, the 1999 version of the 49ers got off to a 3-1 start, then in a nationally televised Monday Night Football game against the Arizona Cardinals, Steve Young suffered a blindside hit from cornerback Aeneas Williams that would eventually convince him to retire. At the time it was believed the severe hit ended his career but Young later said in interviews he could have come back to play another season or two. After meeting with then GM Bill Walsh and being told about how the salary cap troubles would make the team non-competitive, Young chose to retire rather than risk his long-term health further for a likely losing club. Without their future Hall of Famer, the 49ers lost 11 of their last 12 games, and suffered their first losing season since 1982. Bobb McKittrick, 49ers offensive line coach since 1979, also died of cancer following the 1999 season.

In 2002 they produced the second-greatest comeback in playoff history when Jeff Garcia led the team back from a 24-point deficit to win 39-38 against the New York Giants. They lost their subsequent game to the eventual Super Bowl Champion Tampa Bay Buccaneers. This would be, to date, the last postseason appearance for the 49ers. Following the season, head coach Steve Mariucci — whose published statements about his degree of power in the organization had frayed already-strained relations with management—was fired by John York, despite a winning record. York has since said he made the correct decision to fire Mariucci, but could have handled it better; for instance, he admitted he should have made the announcement himself rather than hand that responsibility to general manager Terry Donahue. The replacement, former Seattle Seahawks and Oregon State University head coach Dennis Erickson was signed to a five-year contract. The hiring of Erickson was highly criticized by the fans and the media. During the coaching search, three defensive coordinators emerged as candidates for the job, but the offensive-minded Erickson was chosen despite the fact that Erickson’s offensive philosophy was very different from the West Coast Offense.

Although they finished the 2003 season with a losing record of 7–9, Erickson was retained as coach for the 2004 season. The 2003 season also marked the end for volatile wide receiver Terrell Owens with the San Francisco 49ers. Owens scored 85 touchdowns in 8 seasons for the 49ers, including 4 in the playoffs. But his on and off-field antics lead to the 49ers trading him to the Philadelphia Eagles during the offseason.

2004–2007
49ers running back Frank Gore in action against the St. Louis Rams in 2007On September 26, 2004, the Niners were shut out 34–0 by the Seattle Seahawks, their first shut-out loss in 420 regular season and 36 playoff games, a league record. The last shutout had been 27 years prior in 1977—they were defeated 7-0 by Atlanta at Candlestick Park. The 49ers had several chances to score in the fourth quarter, but an interception and a fumble recovery sealed their fate in this game.

The 49ers finished that season with a record of 2–14, and thus finished last in the NFC West division for the first time since 1979, ending what had been the NFL’s longest active streak for not finishing last in a division. It was also the worst record that season among the 32 NFL teams, securing them the right to the first pick in the NFL Draft. Erickson and the man who hired him, General Manager Terry Donahue, were fired.

After an extensive coaching search, the 49ers announced the hiring of Mike Nolan—defensive coordinator of the Baltimore Ravens—as their head coach for the 2005 season. He is the son of Dick Nolan, who led the team to three consecutive playoff appearances in the early 1970s. Among many NFL franchises, the general manager makes strategic, player and coaching personnel decisions; the 49ers hired a head coach without hiring a GM, indicating that Nolan will likely exert substantial control in all of these areas. In his inaugural draft as head coach, Mike Nolan selected with the first pick of the draft, future mega-bust quarterback Alex Smith of the University of Utah. It was a pick predicted by most, though many predicted the 49ers might select local product Aaron Rodgers of the University of California, Berkeley. Nolan had a strong personality, and he thought Smith to be cerebral, introspective, and non-confrontational. However, He could not have been more wrong. Smith went on to become the worst 49er QB in 3 decades. Nolan also evaluated Rodgers but did not believe that Rodgers’ attitude could co-exist with him.[6]

Tragedy struck the Niners on August 20, 2005, when OL Thomas Herrion died immediately following a preseason loss to the Denver Broncos at Invesco Field. Coach Mike Nolan had just finished addressing the players in the locker room when Herrion collapsed. He was taken to a local Denver hospital, where he died several hours later. An autopsy revealed that Herrion died of a heart disease, which had not been previously diagnosed.

In 2005, the 49ers finished 4th in the NFC West for the second year in a row, but were able to double their win total from 2004, ending the season with a 4–12 record. They ended the season on a high note with two consecutive wins; their first two game winning streak since 2003. Also, they swept their division arch-rival, the St. Louis Rams for the first time since 1998.

The 49ers finished the 2006 regular season with a 7–9 record and 3rd in the NFC West, their fourth consecutive losing season. The team displayed vast improvement, however. The most impressive victory of the season came in the last week vs. the Denver Broncos. The 49ers managed to come back from a 13–0 deficit and knock Denver out of the playoffs in an OT win (26–23). They also defeated division rival, and defending NFC Champion, Seattle Seahawks in both meetings on the season.

At the beginning of the 2006 season, the team made perhaps their most important decision, awarding the top running back spot to second year veteran Frank Gore from Miami. Gore ran for a franchise record of 1,695 rushing yards, which led the NFC, along with 8 TDs. He was awarded his first Pro Bowl appearance as a starter.

Before the beginning of the 2007 season, former coach Bill Walsh died of complications from leukemia. In the off-season, cornerback Nate Clements was signed as a free agent from the Buffalo Bills. Clement’s contract was worth $80 million for 8 years, the largest contract given to a defensive player in NFL history at the time. In the NFL Draft that year, the 49ers made another key addition to their defense, selecting middle linebacker Patrick Willis with the 11th overall pick. Willis was named the 2007 AP NFL Defensive Rookie of the Year.

The 49ers started that season 2–0, winning their first two games against the Arizona Cardinals and the St. Louis Rams. This marked the first time the 49ers started 2–0 since 1998. In the fourth game of the season, against the Seattle Seahawks, QB Alex Smith suffered a separated shoulder on the third play of the game, an injury that would severely hamper his play and ultimately lead to an early end to his 2008 campaign after having shoulder surgery. Chiefly due to QB Trent Dilfer’s struggles and Alex Smith’s injury, the 49ers lost 8 straight games from week 3 through week 12, ending the year with a disappointing 5–11 record.

[edit] 2008In the 2008 offseason, the 49ers signed Quarterback Shaun Hill to what was to be a three-year deal. They added free agents Justin Smith, Isaac Bruce, and J. T. O’Sullivan. Questions were raised about the future of Alex Smith, whose first three seasons had been plagued by inconsistent play, injuries, and not having had an offensive coordinator remain on the team for consecutive years. Head coach Mike Nolan and new Offensive Coordinator Mike Martz stated that a competition between Smith, Hill, and O’Sullivan would run through the first two preseason games of 2008, with the hope of naming a starter soon after. O’Sullivan was named the 49ers starter because of his familiarity with the Martz offense and after performing better than Smith or Hill in the first three preseason games.

On the night of October 20, 2008, after struggling through the beginning of the season, head coach Mike Nolan was fired. Assistant head coach Mike Singletary, a Hall of Fame linebacker with the Chicago Bears, was named as the interim head coach. Singletary proved to be a fan favorite when after his first game as head coach he delivered a memorable post game interview. Singletary said of their loss: “… right now, we’ve got to figure out the formula. Our formula. Our formula is this: We go out, we hit people in the mouth.”.[7]

The 49ers won their final game of the 2008 season, a 27-24 win at home over the Washington Redskins, to end their campaign with a final record of 7 wins and 9 losses.[8] After the game, Singletary was announced as head coach by Jed York, who had been appointed as team president just days before. Jed York is the oldest son of John York and Denise DeBartolo York (and nephew of former team owner Edward DeBartolo Jr.). The team had won five of its final seven games and went 5–4 overall under Singletary after Nolan’s dismissal.

[edit] 2009On April 25, 2009, the 49ers selected Texas Tech WR Michael Crabtree with the 10th pick in the first round of the 2009 NFL Draft. This was the only pick on the first day of the draft for the 49ers. After selecting Crabtree, they traded their 2nd round pick along with a 4th round pick to the Carolina Panthers. From this trade they received an additional first round pick in the 2010 NFL Draft. Other selections for the 49ers during the 2009 draft included Glen Coffee, Scott McKillop, Nate Davis, Bear Pascoe, Curtis Taylor, and Ricky Jean-Francois.

The 2009 training camp was the first time since 2005 that the 49ers failed to have all drafted rookies signed and in training camp on time.[9] The tenth pick of the first round, WR Michael Crabtree, reached a contract agreement with the team on October 7, 2009, after having missed the first four games of the regular season.[10]

After an up and down season, featuring many close games, the 49ers posted an 8-8 record, the team’s first non-losing season since 2002. Despite missing the playoffs for the seventh straight season, several key players continued to show signs of improvement. Alex Smith regained his role as the 49ers’ starting quarterback, passing for more than 2,000 yards with 18 touchdowns, while Frank Gore collected his fourth consecutive season with 1,000 or more rushing yards, a 49ers record. Safety Dashon Goldson showed signs of potential in his first year as full-time starter, as he tallied 94 tackles, 4 interceptions, 3 forced fumbles, and 2 sacks. Vernon Davis, in particular, had a breakthrough year at tight end, earning Pro Bowl honors with 965 yards and 13 touchdowns (tying the NFL record for his position). 2010 saw 5 Pro-Bowl Players for the 49ers. Patrick Willis, Vernon Davis, Frank Gore, Justin Smith, and Andy Lee.

[edit] 2010In 2010, the 49ers selected Rutgers offensive tackle Anthony Davis, 11th overall, and Idaho offensive guard Mike Iupati, 17th overall, in the first round. The team also selected USC safety Taylor Mays with the 49th pick of the 2nd round. Other draft picks include LB Navorro Bowman, RB Anthony Dixon, TE Nate Byham, WR Kyle Williams, and DB Phillip Adams. On May 4, the team gave star LB Patrick Willis a five-year, $50 million contract extension through the 2016 season, with $29 million in guaranteed money.

The 49ers began the 2010 season with a 0-5 record, their worst start since 1979. The 49ers gained their first win of the 2010 season when they won at home against the Oakland Raiders in week 6.[11] After their first win they lost again to the Carolina Panthers by 3 points. They then won three out of the next four games (against Denver Broncos 24-16, St. Louis Rams 23-20 in overtime, 0-21 loss to Tampa Bay Buccaneers, win at Arizona Cardinals 27-6, loss at the Green Bay Packers 34-16 and a divisional win over the Seattle Seahawks 40-21, loss at San Diego 34-7, loss at St. Louis Rams 25-17) and finished 6-10 with a 38-7 drubbing of Arizona. The win against the Rams was significant because both teams are in the same division and the Rams led that division at the time of the contest a well as their win over Seattle because of their tie with the Rams. After losing to St. Louis on December 27, the San Francisco 49ers fired Mike Singletary as head coach and hired their Defensive Lines coach Jim Tomsula, to be interim Head Coach for the last game of the regular season; against the Arizona Cardinals, at home.

The 2010 San Francisco 49er’s finished 3rd in the NFC West with a record of 6-10. They have not made the playoffs for the past eight seasons leading back to 2002 when eliminated by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.

[edit] 2011-PresentAfter Singletary’s firing, searches led to Stanford Head Coach Jim Harbaugh, as well as former Denver Broncos Head Coach Josh McDaniels. On January 7, 2011, Jim Harbaugh signed a 5-year deal to become the new head coach.[12] Offensive Coordinator Mike Johnson, who was promoted on September 27, 2010 after replacing Jimmy Raye signed with the UCLA bruins as Offensive Coordinator.

In the 2011 Season the 49ers and Head Coach Jim Harbaugh will travel to Baltimore for a highly anticipated game against his older brother John Harbaugh, who is the head coach for the Baltimore Ravens, who compete in the AFC North.

[edit] Move to Santa ClaraThe 49ers sponsored Measure J, which appeared on the June 8, 2010 Santa Clara, California ballot, to build a new stadium as home for 49ers in that city. The measure passed with 58.2% of the total vote. This is seen as the first step for the 49ers relocation to a new venue to be built in Santa Clara, California

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MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :
The Driwan’s Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
Showcase:
The Original Dr Iwancybermuseum logo Collections .

Frame one:
INTRODUCTION (PENDAHULUAN)
1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion
2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.

3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and the iron red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.The Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future.
3.I hove all the collectors from all over the world to honor my logo copyright,please donnot copy.
Jakarta, February.27th 2011
The founder of Cybermuseum Blog
Dr Iwan Suwandy

Frame Two :
The Original Picture Of Driwancybermuseum Logo

1.The Original Photo at Driwancybermuseum
private home office

2.The Original Art photography of Driwancybermuseum’s logo(after digital restoration)

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SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

*ill 001

*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

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SHOWCASE :
The Driwan Masterpiece Collections

Frame One :
THE Driwan MASTERPIECE BASEBALL ARTIST PROOF TRADE CARD Unique collections

MO VAUGHN ,MPV BOSTON RED SOX,1996
Frontside

backside

Topps Proofs and other Sportscard Proofs
What exactly are proof cards?

Basically, a proof is created by a sports card company as a trial run to test, compare, and review card designs, photographs, new technology, color, and overall look and feel of the card before releasing it to the public.

A true proof card is not created for release to the general public, but instead are intended to be used only internally by the card company. Proof cards can be found in many various formats, depending on what the company is specifically wanting to review or test about the new card design. Some proof cards have blank backs with no printing, and others may have blank fronts.

Some sportscard proofs may have only one or two colors on the front. In this case, companies use what are known as “progressive proofs” to look for imbalances in color. A proofs might sometimes be printed on different card stock that the final product that is released to the public, and it may also have layers of acetate plastic that each contain one color, and when layered on top of each other it gives the appearance of what the final result will look like when the card is finished.

Most collectors of sportscard and trading card proofs are more interested in pre-1990 examples, because the technology used to create cards around that time really began to change a lot. Most card manufacturers began using computer design to create cards and no longer did they need to create the traditional acetate and “progressive proof” sets. Also in the mid 1990s, some card manufacturers began to create “artist’s proof” and “printers proof” insert cards that were randomly inserted into unopened packs. These cards were created specifically for retail sale to the public, and are not actually “proof cards” at all but rather more of a “parallel set” because as we know, true proof cards were not originally meant to be available to the public.

FRAME TWO : THE MO VAUGHN BIOGRAPHY

First baseman
Born: December 15, 1967 (1967-12-15) (age 43)
Norwalk, Connecticut
Batted: Left Threw: Right
MLB debut
June 27, 1991 for the Boston Red Sox
Last MLB appearance
May 2, 2003 for the New York Mets
Career statistics
Batting average .293
Home runs 328
Runs batted in 1,064
Teams
Boston Red Sox (1991–1998)
Anaheim Angels (1999–2001)
New York Mets (2002–2003)

Career highlights and awards
3× All-Star selection (1995, 1996, 1998)
Silver Slugger Award winner (1995)
1995 AL MVP

Maurice Samuel ‘Mo’ Vaughn (born December 15, 1967 in Norwalk, Connecticut), nicknamed “The Hit Dog”, is a former Major League Baseball first baseman. He played from 1991 to 2003. Vaughn was a three-time All-Star selection and won the American League MVP award in 1995.

Contents
1 Early life
2 Best years
3 Last season with the Sox
4 Anaheim and beyond
5 Post playing career
6 Hall of Fame candidacy

Early life

Vaughn played high school baseball at Trinity-Pawling School, an all-male boarding school for fine gentlemen in Pawling, NY. He then moved on to play baseball at Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey, along with seven-time All-Star Craig Biggio.

Best years

Vaughn became the center of the Red Sox’s line-up in 1993, hitting 29 home runs and contributing 101 RBIs. In 1995, he established a reputation as one of the most feared hitters in the American League when he hit 39 home runs with 126 RBIs and a .300 average. He also garnered 11 stolen bases. His efforts, which led the Red Sox to the playoffs (only to lose to the Cleveland Indians in the American League Division Series), were rewarded with the American League MVP award.

Vaughn had his career year with the Red Sox in 1996, batting an average of .326, playing in 161 games, with 44 home runs, and 143 RBIs. On May 30, 1997 playing a game against the Yankees, Vaughn went 4-for-4 with three solo homers in the Red Sox’s 10-4 win over the Yankees.

Vaughn continued to improve over the next several seasons, batting .315 or higher from 1996 to 1998 and averaging 40 home runs and 118 RBIs. The Red Sox lost in the American League Division Series in 1998, once again to the Cleveland Indians, although Vaughn played well, hitting two home runs and driving in seven runs in game one.

He was noted for “crowding the plate”; his stance was such that his front elbow often appeared to be hovering in the strike zone, which intimidated pitchers into throwing wide and outside.

Last season with the Sox

Though Vaughn’s powerful personality and extensive charity work made him a popular figure in Boston, he had many issues with the Red Sox management and local media; his disagreements with Boston Globe sports columnist Will McDonough and Red Sox general manager Dan Duquette were particularly acute. As an outspoken clubhouse leader, Vaughn repeatedly stated that the conservative Sox administration did not want him around. Incidents in which he allegedly punched a man in the mouth outside of a nightclub and crashed his truck while returning home from a strip club in Providence led to further rifts with the administration. Vaughn formed a formidable middle of the lineup with shortstop Nomar Garciaparra. The two combined for 75 home runs in 1998, Vaughn’s final year with the club.

Vaughn hit a walkoff grand slam in the ninth inning of Opening Day at Fenway Park against the Seattle Mariners in 1998. Despite this auspicious start, the season was filled with acrimony, as Vaughn and the Sox administration sniped at each other throughout the year. After the Cleveland Indians knocked Boston out of the playoffs in the first round, Vaughn became a free agent. Almost immediately, he signed a six-year, $80-million deal with the Anaheim Angels,[1] the highest contract in the game at that time. The Red Sox made little effort to retain him.

Anaheim and beyond
While he hit well for Anaheim when he played—he hit 30-plus home runs and knocked in over 100 runs in both 1999 and 2000—Vaughn was plagued by injuries in 1999 and didn’t play a single game in the 2001 season. He started his Anaheim career by falling down the visitor’s dugout steps on his first play of his first game, badly spraining his ankle. Vaughn was nevertheless seen as a viable middle of the line-up producer before the 2002 season and was traded back home to the New York Mets on December 27, 2001 for Kevin Appier.

Following Vaughn’s departure from Anaheim, Angels closer Troy Percival took a shot at him saying “We may miss Mo’s bat, but we won’t miss his leadership. Darin Erstad is our leader.” This prompted the normally mild-mannered Vaughn to go off on a profanity-laced tirade, saying that Percival and the Angels “ain’t done (expletive) in this game.” He remarked “They ain’t got no flags hanging at friggin’ Edison Field, so the hell with them.” Ironically, the Angels would go on to win the World Series that year and hang a World Series flag at Edison Field.

With the Mets, Vaughn was counted upon to be a key component in a revamped lineup that featured imports Roger Cedeño, Jeromy Burnitz, and Roberto Alomar. Vaughn got off to a slow start in 2002, was lampooned in local papers and on sports talk radio shows, and was clearly not in the same shape he was during his signature seasons in Boston – he weighed 275 pounds during his first season in New York. A late surge in September that saw him hit one of the most prodigious home runs in Shea Stadium history (in the middle of the “Bud” Sign on the monstrous Shea scoreboard) was one of the few highlights in a mostly disastrous season for Vaughn. He played less than a month in 2003 before a knee injury permanently ended his career.

The decision to acquire Vaughn was solely that of then-Mets G.M. Steve Phillips. Vaughn had missed the entire 2001 season due to injury, but when the opportunity to acquire Vaughn presented itself, Phillips and a contingent of Mets’ brass (including then-manager Bobby Valentine) descended upon a small batting cage in Connecticut to see Vaughn hit off a tee. Phillips, convinced that Vaughn could immediately enter the Mets’ overhauled lineup and contribute without regard to his injury recovery, sent pitcher Kevin Appier (who had arguably been the Mets’ most consistent starter in 2001) to the Angels in exchange for the rights to Vaughn. The trade would eventually be a contributing factor to Phillips’ firing as general manager.

Post playing career
He currently owns and operates OMNI New York LLC which has bought and rehabilitated 1,142 units of distressed housing in the New York metropolitan area. The company also manages these properties to provide low cost housing using government tax credits. He recently purchased the Noble Drew Ali Plaza in Brownsville, Brooklyn for $21 million, and plans to add massive security upgrades and renovate it.[2] He has also been involved in refurbishing the Whitney Young Manor in Yonkers, New York, a development first constructed by a company owned by his hero Jackie Robinson. Besides the New York metropolitan area, his company is also involved in projects in Cheyenne, Miami and Las Vegas and has expressed an interest in Boston.[3]

In January 2009 it had been reported by WCVB-TV in Boston that Vaughn had recently committed to investing “$6 million in improvements to the 168-unit Sycamore Village complex that will include new appliances and exterior renovations. Vaughn said his company does not tolerate guns, dogs and criminal behavior. Planning Director Michael Sweeney said Omni’s purchase is a ‘major reinvestment’ in the city” of Lawrence, Massachusetts.

In July 2009 Vaughn was seen in Canada talking with many young baseball players, at a baseball camp in Vancouver BC. Vaughn was the main keynote speaker and instructor for the week long camp.

Mo Vaughn is currently the President of a trucking company out of Solon, OH.

Hall of Fame
candidacyVaughn became eligible for the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 2009. 75% of the vote was necessary for induction, and 5% was necessary to stay on the ballot. He received 1.1% of the vote and dropped off the ballot.

FRAME THREE :THE BOSTON RED SOX BASEBALL HISTORY
Boston Red SoxFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
“Red Sox” redirects here. For other uses, see Red Sox (disambiguation).
For current information on this topic, see 2011 Boston Red Sox season.
Boston Red Sox
Established 1901

Team logo
Cap Insignia

Major league affiliations
American League (1901–present)
East Division (1969–present)

Current uniform

Retired numbers 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 14, 27, 42
Colors
Red, midnight navy, white

Name
Boston Red Sox (1908–present)

Boston Americans (1901–1907)[1]

Other nicknames
The Sox, The BoSox, The Olde Towne Team

Ballpark
Fenway Park (1912–present)
Huntington Avenue Baseball Grounds (1901–1911)

Major league titles
World Series titles (7) 2007 • 2004 • 1918 • 1916 • 1915 • 1912 • 1903
AL Pennants (12) 2007 • 2004 • 1986 • 1975 • 1967 • 1946 • 1918 • 1916 • 1915 • 1912 • 1904 • 1903

East Division titles (6) 2007 • 1995 • 1990 • 1988 • 1986 • 1975

Wild card berths (7) 2009 • 2008 • 2005 • 2004 • 2003 • 1999 • 1998

Owner(s): John Henry, Tom Werner, and Larry Lucchino[2]
Manager: Terry Francona
General Manager: Theo Epstein

The Boston Red Sox are a professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts, and a member of the Major League Baseball’s American League Eastern Division. Founded in 1901 as one of the American League’s eight charter franchises, the Red Sox’s home ballpark has been Fenway Park since 1912. The “Red Sox” name was chosen by the team owner, John I. Taylor, around 1908, following previous Boston teams that had been known as the “Red Stockings”.

Boston was a dominant team in the new league, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series in 1903 and winning four more championships by 1918. However, they then went into one of the longest championship droughts in baseball history, called by some the “Curse of the Bambino” after its alleged beginning with the Red Sox’s sale of Babe Ruth to the rival Yankees in 1918, an 86-year wait before the team’s sixth World Championship in 2004. However, the team’s history during that period was hardly one of futility, but was rather punctuated with some of the most memorable moments in World Series history, including Enos Slaughter’s “mad dash” in 1946, the “Impossible Dream” of 1967, Carlton Fisk’s home run in 1975, and Bill Buckner’s error in 1986. Red Sox history has also been marked by the team’s intense rivalry with the New York Yankees, arguably the fiercest and most historic in North American professional sports.[3][4][5] Since 2003, the Red Sox have been perennial playoff contenders and have won two World Series, emerging as one of the most successful MLB teams of the last decade.

The Red Sox are consistently one of the top MLB teams in average road attendance, while the small capacity of Fenway Park prevents them from leading in overall attendance.[6] Every home game since May 15, 2003 has been sold out—an MLB record that has spanned over seven years.[7]

Contents
1 Nickname
2 History
2.1 1901–1919 2.1.1 Sale of Babe Ruth2.2 1939–19602.3 1960s2.4 1970s 2.4.1 1978 pennant race2.5 1986 season2.6 1988–19912.7 1992–20012.8 2002–present: Henry comes to Boston 2.8.1 20022.8.2 20032.8.3 2004: World Series Championship2.8.4 20052.8.5 2005–2006 off-season2.8.6 2006 season2.8.7 2007: World Series Championship2.8.8 2008
3 Current roster
4 Uniform
5 Spring training
5.1 City of Palms Park5.2 New spring facility
6 Rivalry with the Yankees
7 Radio and television
8 Retired numbers
9 Baseball Hall of Famers
9.1 Ford C. Frick Award recipients

NicknameThe name Red Sox, chosen by owner John I. Taylor after the 1907 season, refers to the red hose in the team uniform beginning 1908. Sox had been previously adopted for the Chicago White Sox by newspapers needing a headline-friendly form of Stockings, as “Stockings Win!” in large type would not fit on a page. The Spanish language media sometime refers to the team as Medias Rojas for Red Socks.

The nickname was first used for a baseball team by the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were members of the pioneering National Association of Base Ball Players. Managed by Harry Wright, Cincinnati adopted a uniform with white knickers and red stockings, and earned the famous nickname, a year or two before hiring the first fully professional team in 1869. When the club folded after the 1870 season, Wright was hired to organize a new team in Boston, and he did, bringing three teammates and the “Red Stockings” nickname along (Most nicknames were then only nicknames, neither club names nor registered trademarks, so the migration was informal). The Boston Red Stockings won four championships in the five seasons of the new National Association, the first professional league.

When a new Cincinnati club was formed as a charter member of the National League in 1876, the “Red Stockings” nickname was commonly reserved for them once again, and the Boston team was referred to as the “Red Caps”. Other names were sometimes used before Boston officially adopted the nickname “Braves” in 1912; the club eventually left Boston for Milwaukee and is now playing in Atlanta, Georgia.

The Red Sox logo worn on uniforms in 1908, announcing the team’s first official nicknameIn 1901, the upstart American League established a competing club in Boston. (Originally, a team was supposed to be started in Buffalo, but league ownership at the last minute removed the city from their plans in favor of the expansion Boston franchise.) For seven seasons, the AL team wore dark blue stockings and had no official nickname. They were simply “Boston”, “Bostonians” or “the Bostons”; or the “Americans” or “Boston Americans” as in “American Leaguers”, Boston being a two-team city. Their 1901–1907 jerseys, both home and road, simply read “Boston”, except for 1902 when they sported large letters “B” and “A” denoting “Boston” and “American.” Newspaper writers of the time used other nicknames for the club, including “Somersets” (for owner Charles Somers), “Plymouth Rocks,” “Beaneaters,” the “Collinsites” (for manager Jimmy Collins)”, and “Pilgrims.”

For years many sources have listed “Pilgrims” as the early Boston AL team’s official nickname, but researcher Bill Nowlin has demonstrated that the name was barely used, if at all, during the team’s early years.[8] The origin of the nickname appears to be a poem entitled “The Pilgrims At Home” written by Edwin Fitzwilliam that was sung at the 1907 home opener (“Rory O’More” melody).[9] This nickname was commonly used during that season, perhaps because the team had a new manager and several rookie players. John I. Taylor had said in December 1907 that the Pilgrims “sounded too much like homeless wanderers.”

The National League club in Boston, though seldom called the “Red Stockings” anymore, still wore red trim. In 1907, the National League club adopted an all-white uniform, and the American League team saw an opportunity. On December 18, 1907, Taylor announced that the club had officially adopted red as its new team color. The 1908 uniforms featured a large icon of a red stocking angling across the shirt front. For 1908, the National League club returned to wearing red trim, but the American League team finally had an official nickname, and would remain the “Red Sox” for good.

The name is often shortened to “Bosox” or “BoSox,” a combination of “Boston” and “Sox” (similar to the “ChiSox” in Chicago or the minor league “PawSox” of Pawtucket). Sportswriters sometimes refer to the Red Sox as the Crimson Hose[10] and the Olde Towne Team. Recently, media has begun to casually call them the “Sawx”, reflecting how the word is pronounced with a New England accent. However, most fans simply refer to the team as the “Sox” when the context is understood to mean Red Sox.[11]

HistoryMain article: History of the Boston Red Sox
1901–1919In 1901, the minor Western League, led by Ban Johnson, declared its equality with the National League, then the only major league in baseball. Johnson changed the name of the league to the American League, leading teams in his league to be christened with the unofficial nickname “Americans”. This was especially true in the case of the new Boston franchise, which would not adopt an official nickname until 1908.

The upstart league placed franchises in Baltimore, Maryland and Buffalo. After looking at his new league Ban Johnson decided that he would need a team in Boston to compete with the National League team there and so cancelled the Buffalo club’s franchise, offering one to a new club in Boston. Playing their home games at Huntington Avenue Grounds, the Boston franchise finished second and third before capturing their first pennant in 1903 and repeating the next year. Those teams were led by manager and star third baseman Jimmy Collins, outfielders Chick Stahl, Buck Freeman and Patsy Dougherty and pitcher Cy Young, who in 1901 won the pitching Triple Crown with 33 wins (41.8% of the team’s 79 games), 1.62 ERA and 158 strikeouts.[12] His 1901 to 1904 seasons rank among the best four-year runs ever.

Outside Huntington Avenue Grounds during the 1903 World SeriesIn 1903, Boston participated in the first modern World Series, beating the favored Pittsburgh Pirates, winners of the NL pennant by six and a half games, winning the best-of-nine series five games to three. Aided by the modified chants of “Tessie” by the Royal Rooters fan club and by its stronger pitching staff, the Americans managed to overcome the odds, and win the World Series.


Iconic photo of the Huntington Avenue Grounds before the first modern World Series gameThe 1904 club was almost as good as the previous team, but due to the surprise emergence of the New York Highlanders, the Boston club found itself in a tight pennant race through the last games of the season. A predecessor to what would become a storied rivalry, this race featured such controversial moves as the trade of Patsy Dougherty to the Highlanders for Bob Unglaub. The climax of the season occurred on the last, dramatic doubleheader at the Highlanders’ home stadium, Hilltop Park. In order to win the pennant, the Highlanders needed to win both games. With Jack Chesbro, the Highlanders’ 41-game winner, on the mound, and the score tied 2–2 with a man on third in the top of the ninth, a spitball got away from Chesbro and Lou Criger scored the go-ahead run on one of the most famous wild pitches in history.

The Huntington Avenue Grounds during a game.

Note building from which the famous 1903 “bird’s-eye” photo was taken.Unfortunately, the NL champion New York Giants declined to play any postseason series, fearing it would give their New York rivals credibility (they had expected the Highlanders to win), but a sharp public reaction led the two leagues immediately to make the World Series a permanent championship, starting in 1905. These successful times soon ended, however, as Boston lost 100 games in 1906. However, several new star players helped the newly renamed Red Sox improve almost immediately.

A season pass for the 1906 season.By 1909, legendary center fielder Tris Speaker had become a fixture in the Boston outfield, and the team worked their way to third place. However, the Red Sox would not win the pennant again until their 105-win 1912 season, finishing with a club record .691 winning percentage. Anchored by an outfield considered to be among the finest in the game—Tris Speaker, Harry Hooper and Duffy Lewis—and superstar pitcher Smoky Joe Wood, the Red Sox beat the New York Giants 4–3–1 in the classic 1912 World Series best known for Snodgrass’s Muff. From 1913 to 1916 the Red Sox were owned by Joseph Lannin, who signed Babe Ruth, soon the best-known and one of the best players ever. Another 101 wins in 1915 propelled the Red Sox to the 1915 World Series, where they beat the Philadelphia Phillies four games to one. Following the 1915 season, Tris Speaker was traded to the Cleveland Indians. His departure was more than compensated for, however, by the emergence of star pitcher Babe Ruth. The Red Sox went on to win the 1916 World Series, this time defeating the Brooklyn Robins. In 1918, Babe Ruth led his team to another World Series championship. This time over the Chicago Cubs.

Sale of Babe Ruth

Ruth pitching for the Red Sox in 1914

, at Comiskey Park in ChicagoHarry Frazee bought the Red Sox from Joseph Lannin in 1916 for about $500,000. A couple of notable trades involving Harry Frazee and the Yankees occurred before the Babe Ruth sale. On December 18, 1918, outstanding outfielder Duffy Lewis, pitcher Dutch Leonard (who’d posted a modern record 0.96 ERA in 1914.[13]), and pitcher Ernie Shore were traded to the Yankees for pitcher Ray Caldwell, Slim Love, Roxy Walters, Frank Gilhooley and $15,000.[14] As all three players were well-regarded in Boston — Lewis had been a key player on the 1910s championship teams, Shore had famously relieved Babe Ruth and retired 27 straight, and Leonard had only four years before setting a modern record for earned run average — this trade was regarded as a poor one in Boston. Then, on July 13, 1919, submarine-style pitching star Carl Mays was traded to the Yankees for Bob McGraw, Allan Russell and $40,000.[15] Mays would go on to have several good years for the Yankees, but had been a discipline problem for the Red Sox.

On December 26, 1919,[16] Frazee sold Babe Ruth, who had played the previous six seasons for the Red Sox, to the rival New York Yankees (Ruth had just broken the single-season home run record, hitting 29 in 1919.[17]) Legend has it that Frazee did so in order to finance the Broadway play No, No, Nanette. That play did not actually open on Broadway until 1925, but as Leigh Montville discovered during research for his book, The Big Bam: The Life and Times of Babe Ruth,[18] No, No, Nanette had originated as a non-musical stage play called My Lady Friends, which opened on Broadway in December 1919. My Lady Friends had, indeed, been financed by the Ruth sale to the Yankees.

During that period, the Red Sox, Yankees and Chicago White Sox had a détente; they were called “Insurrectos” because their actions antagonized league president Ban Johnson. Although Frazee owned the Boston Red Sox franchise, he did not own Fenway Park (it was owned by the Fenway Park Trust), making his ownership a precarious one; Johnson could move another team into the ballpark. His club was in debt, but Frazee felt the need to purchase its playing site (which he did in 1920). Further, providing the Yankees with a box office attraction would help that mediocre club, which had sided with him against Johnson and “the Loyal Five” clubs.[19] Finally, Ruth was considered a serious disciplinary problem, a reputation he amply confirmed while playing for the Yankees. Frazee moved Ruth to stabilize Red Sox finances and cut distractions. It was a straight sale, no players in return.

New York achieved great success after acquiring Ruth and several other very good players. Boston, meanwhile, did poorly during the 20s and 30s, and the sale of Babe Ruth came to be viewed as the beginning of the Yankees – Red Sox rivalry, considered the “Greatest Rivalry on Earth” by American sports journalists.[4][16]

BoSox logo from 1931–1932After deciding to get out of baseball, Frazee began selling many of his star players. In the winter of 1920, Wally Schang, Waite Hoyt, Harry Harper and Mike McNally were traded to the Yankees for Del Pratt, Muddy Ruel, John Costello, Hank Thormahlen, Sammy Vick and cash.[20] The following winter, iron man shortstop Everett Scott, and pitchers Bullet Joe Bush and Sad Sam Jones were traded to the Yankees for Roger Peckinpaugh (who would be immediately shipped to the Washington Senators), Jack Quinn, Rip Collins, Bill Piercy and $50,000.[21] On July 23, 1922, Joe Dugan and Elmer Smith were traded to the Yankees for Elmer Miller, Chick Fewster, Johnny Mitchell, and Lefty O’Doul, who was at the time a mediocre pitching prospect. Acquiring Dugan helped the Yankees edge the St. Louis Browns in a tight pennant race, and the resulting uproar helped create a June 15 trading deadline that went into effect the next year.[22] Perhaps an even more outrageous deal was the trade of Herb Pennock, occurring in early 1923. Pennock was traded by the Red Sox to the Yankees for Camp Skinner, Norm McMillan, George Murray and $50,000.[23]

Over an eight-year period from 1925 to 1932, the Red Sox averaged over 100 losses per season. One of the few bright spots on these teams was Earl Webb, who set the all-time mark for most doubles in a season in 1931 with 67. The BoSox’ fortunes began to change in 1933 when Tom Yawkey bought the team. Yawkey acquired pitcher Wes Ferrell and one of the greatest pitchers of all-time, Lefty Grove, making his team competitive once again in the late thirties. He also acquired Joe Cronin, an outstanding shortstop and manager and slugging first baseman Jimmie Foxx whose 50 home runs in 1938 would stand as a club record for 68 years. Foxx also drove in a club record 175 runs.[24]

1939–1960In 1939, the Red Sox purchased the contract of outfielder Ted Williams from the minor league San Diego Padres of the Pacific Coast League, ushering in an era of the team sometimes called the “Ted Sox.” Williams consistently hit for both high power and high average, and is generally considered one of the greatest hitters of all time. The right-field bullpens in Fenway were built in part for Williams’ left-handed swing, and are sometimes called “Williamsburg.” Before this addition, it was over 400 feet (120 m) to right field. He served two stints in the United States Marine Corps as a pilot and saw active duty in both World War II and the Korean War, missing at least five full seasons of baseball. His book The Science of Hitting is widely read by students of baseball. He is currently the last player to hit over .400 for a full season, batting .406 in 1941.[25] Williams feuded with sports writers his whole career, calling them “The Knights of the Keyboard,” and his relationship with the fans was often rocky as he was seen spitting towards the stands on more than one occasion.

With Williams, the Red Sox reached the 1946 World Series, but lost to the St. Louis Cardinals in seven games in part because of the use of the “Williams Shift,” a defensive tactic in which the shortstop would move to the right side of the infield to make it harder for the left-handed-hitting Williams to hit to that side of the field. Some have claimed that he was too proud to hit to the other side of the field, not wanting to let the Cardinals take away his game. His performance may have also been affected by a pitch he took in the elbow in an exhibition game a few days earlier. Either way, in his only World Series, Williams gathering just five singles in 25 at-bats for a .200 average.

The Cardinals won the 1946 Series when Enos Slaughter scored the go-ahead run all the way from first base on a base hit to left field. The throw from Leon Culberson was cut off by shortstop Johnny Pesky, who relayed the ball to the plate just a hair too late. Some say Pesky hesitated or “held the ball” before he turned to throw the ball, but this has been disputed.

Along with Williams and Pesky, the Red Sox featured several other star players during the 1940s, including second baseman Bobby Doerr and center fielder Dom DiMaggio (the younger brother of Joe DiMaggio).

The Red Sox narrowly lost the AL pennant in 1948 and 1949. In 1948, Boston finished in a tie with Cleveland, and their loss to Cleveland in a one-game playoff ended hopes of an all-Boston World Series. Curiously, manager Joseph McCarthy chose journeyman Denny Galehouse to start the playoff game when the young lefty phenom Mel Parnell was available to pitch. In 1949, the Red Sox were one game ahead of the New York Yankees, with the only two games left for both teams being against each other, and they lost both of those games.

Logo used by the BoSox in the 1950sThe 1950s were viewed as a time of tribulation for the Red Sox. After Williams returned from the Korean War in 1953, many of the best players from the late 1940s had retired or been traded. The stark contrast in the team led critics to call the Red Sox’ daily lineup “Ted Williams and the Seven Dwarfs.” Jackie Robinson was even worked out by the team at Fenway Park, however it appeared that owner Tom Yawkey did not want an African American player on his team at that time. Willie Mays also tried out for Boston and was highly praised by team scouts. Ted Williams hit .388 at the age of 38 in 1957, but there was little else for Boston fans to root for. Williams retired at the end of the 1960 season, famously hitting a home run in his final at-bat as memorialized in the John Updike story “Hub fans bid Kid adieu.” The Red Sox finally became the last Major League team to field an African American player when they promoted infielder Pumpsie Green from their AAA farm team in 1959.

1960sMain article: The Impossible Dream (1967)
The 1960s also started poorly for the Red Sox, though 1961 saw the debut of Carl “Yaz” Yastrzemski, Williams’ replacement in left field, who developed into one of the better hitters of a pitching-rich decade.

Red Sox fans know 1967 as the season of the “Impossible Dream.” The slogan refers to the hit song from the popular musical play “Man of La Mancha”. 1967 saw one of the great pennant races in baseball history with four teams in the AL pennant race until almost the last game. The BoSox had finished the 1966 season in ninth place, but they found new life with Yastrzemski as the team went to the 1967 World Series. Yastrzemski won the American League Triple Crown (the most recent player to accomplish such a feat), hitting .326 with 44 home runs and 121 RBIs. He finished one vote short of a unanimous MVP selection, as a Minnesota sportswriter placed Twins center fielder César Tovar first on his ballot.[26] But the Red Sox lost the series — again to the St. Louis Cardinals, in seven games. Legendary pitcher Bob Gibson stymied the Red Sox winning three games.

An 18-year-old Bostonian rookie named Tony Conigliaro slugged 24 home runs in 1964. “Tony C” became the youngest player in Major League Baseball to hit his 100th home run, a record that stands today. However, he was struck just above the left cheek bone by a fastball thrown by Jack Hamilton of the California Angels in August 1967. Conigliaro sat out the entire next season with headaches and blurred vision. Although he did have a productive season in 1970, he was never the same.

1970s
1960–1978 logoAlthough the Red Sox were competitive for much of the late 1960s and early 1970s, they never finished higher than second place in their division. The closest they came to a divisional title was 1972, when they lost by a half-game to the Detroit Tigers. The start of the season was delayed by a players’ strike, and the Red Sox further lost a game to a rainout that was never replayed, which caused the Red Sox to lose the division by a half-game. On October 2, 1972, they also lost the second to last game of the year to the Tigers, 3–1, when Luis Aparicio fell rounding third after Yastrzemski hit a triple in the third inning, Aparicio tried to scamper back to third but this created an out as Yastrzemski was already on third.

The Red Sox won the AL pennant in 1975. The 1975 Red Sox were as colorful as they were talented, with Yastrzemski and rookie outfielders Jim Rice and Fred Lynn, veteran outfielder Dwight Evans, catcher Carlton Fisk, and pitchers Luis Tiant and eccentric junkballer Bill “The Spaceman” Lee. Fred Lynn won both the American League Rookie of the Year award and the Most Valuable Player award, a feat which had never previously been accomplished, and was not duplicated until Ichiro Suzuki did it in 2001.[27][28] In the 1975 American League Championship Series, the Red Sox swept the Oakland A’s.

In the 1975 World Series, they faced the heavily favored Cincinnati Reds, also known as The Big Red Machine. Luis Tiant won games 1 and 4 of the World Series but after five games, the Red Sox trailed the series 3 games to 2. Game 6 at Fenway Park is considered among the greatest games in postseason history. Down 6–3 in the bottom of the eighth inning, Red Sox pinch hitter Bernie Carbo hit a three run homer into the center field bleachers off Reds fireman Rawly Eastwick to tie the game. In the top of the eleventh inning, right fielder Dwight Evans made a spectacular catch of a Joe Morgan line drive and doubled Ken Griffey at first base to preserve the tie. In the bottom of the twelfth inning, Carlton Fisk hit a deep fly ball which sliced towards the left field foul pole above the Green Monster. As the ball sailed into the night, Fisk waved his arms frantically towards fair territory, seemingly pleading with the ball not to go foul. The ball complied, and bedlam ensued at Fenway as Fisk rounded the bases to win the game for the Red Sox 7–6.

The Red Sox lost game 7, 4–3 even though they had an early 3–0 lead. Starting pitcher Bill Lee threw a slow looping curve which he called a “Leephus pitch” or “space ball” to Reds first baseman Tony Perez who hit the ball over the Green Monster and across the street. The Reds scored the winning run in the 9th inning. Carlton Fisk said famously about the 1975 World Series, “We won that thing 3 games to 4.”

1978 pennant raceIn 1978, the Red Sox and the Yankees were involved in a tight pennant race. The Yankees were 14½ games behind the Red Sox in July, and on September 10, after completing a 4-game sweep of the Red Sox (known as “The Boston Massacre”), the Yankees tied for the divisional lead.

On September 16 the Yankees held a 3 1⁄2 game lead over the Red Sox, but the Sox won 11 of their next 13 games and by the final day of the season, the Yankees’ magic number to win the division was one — with a win over Cleveland or a Boston loss to the Toronto Blue Jays clinching the division. However, New York lost 9–2 and Boston won 5–0, forcing a one-game playoff to be held at Fenway Park on Monday, October 2.

The most remembered moment from the game was Bucky Dent’s 7th inning three-run home run in off Mike Torrez just over the Green Monster, giving the Yankees their first lead.[29] Reggie Jackson provided a solo home run in the 8th that proved to be the difference in the Yankees’ 5–4 win, which ended with Yastrzemski popping out to Graig Nettles in foul territory with Rick Burleson representing the tying run at third. Although Dent became a Red Sox demon, the Red Sox would get retribution in 1990 when the Yankees fired Dent as their manager during a series at Fenway Park.[29]

1986 season
1979–2008 logoMain article: 1986 World Series
Carl Yastrzemski retired after the 1983 season, during which the Red Sox finished sixth in the seven-team AL East, posting their worst record since 1966. However, in 1986, it appeared that the team’s fortunes were about to change. The offense had remained strong with Jim Rice, Dwight Evans, Don Baylor and Wade Boggs. Roger Clemens led the pitching staff, going 24–4 with a 2.48 ERA, and had a 20-strikeout game[30] to win both the American League Cy Young and Most Valuable Player awards. Clemens became the first starting pitcher to win both awards since Vida Blue in 1971, and no starting pitcher has won the MVP award in either league since.[28]

The Red Sox won the AL East for the first time in 11 seasons, and faced the California Angels in the AL Championship Series. The teams split the first two games in Boston, but the Angels won the next two home games, taking a 3–1 lead in the series. With the Angels poised to win the series, the Red Sox trailed 5–2 heading into the ninth inning of Game 5. A two-run homer by Baylor cut the lead to one. With two outs and a runner on, and one strike away from elimination, Dave Henderson homered off Donnie Moore to put Boston up 6–5. Although the Angels tied the game in the bottom of the ninth, the Red Sox won in the 11th on a Henderson sacrifice fly off Moore. The Red Sox then found themselves with six- and seven-run wins at Fenway Park in Games 6 and 7 to win the American League title.

The Red Sox faced a heavily favored New York Mets team that had won 108 games in the regular season in the 1986 World Series. Boston won the first two games in Shea Stadium but lost the next two at Fenway, knotting the series at 2 games apiece. After Bruce Hurst recorded his second victory of the series in Game 5, the Red Sox returned to Shea Stadium looking to garner their first championship in 68 years. However, Game 6 would go down as one of the most devastating losses in club history. After pitching seven strong innings, Clemens was lifted from the game with a 3–2 lead. Years later, Manager John McNamara said Clemens was suffering from a blister and asked to be taken out of the game, a claim Clemens denied.[31] The Mets then scored a run off reliever and former Met Calvin Schiraldi to tie the score 3–3. The game went to extra innings, where the Red Sox took a 5–3 lead in the top of the 10th on a solo home run by Henderson, a double by Boggs and an RBI single by second baseman Marty Barrett.

After recording two outs in the bottom of the 10th, a graphic appeared on the NBC telecast hailing Barrett as the Player of the Game, and Bruce Hurst had been named World Series MVP. A message even appeared briefly on the Shea Stadium scoreboard congratulating the Red Sox as world champions. After so many years of abject frustration, Red Sox fans around the world could taste victory. With two strikes, Mets catcher Gary Carter hit a single. It was followed by singles by Kevin Mitchell and Ray Knight. With Mookie Wilson batting, a wild pitch by Bob Stanley tied the game at 5. Wilson then hit a slow ground ball to first; the ball rolled through Bill Buckner’s legs, allowing Knight to score the winning run from second.

While Buckner was singled out as responsible for the loss, many observers — as well as both Wilson and Buckner — have noted that even if Buckner had fielded the ball cleanly, the speedy Wilson probably would still have been safe, leaving the game-winning run at third with two out.

Many observers questioned why Buckner was in the game at that point considering he had bad knees and that Dave Stapleton had come in as a late-inning defensive replacement in prior series games. It appeared as though McNamara was trying to reward Buckner for his long and illustrious career by leaving him in the game. After falling behind 3–0, the Mets then won Game 7, concluding the devastating collapse and feeding the myth that the Red Sox were “cursed.”[32]

1988–1991The Red Sox returned to the postseason in 1988. With the club in fourth place midway through the 1988 season at the All-Star break, manager John McNamara was fired and replaced by Joe Morgan on July 15. Immediately the club won 12 games in a row, and 19 of 20 overall, to surge to the AL East title in what would be referred to as Morgan Magic. But the magic was short-lived, as the team was swept by the Oakland Athletics in the ALCS. Ironically, the MVP of that Series was former Red Sox pitcher and Baseball Hall of Fame player Dennis Eckersley, who saved all four wins for Oakland. Two years later, in 1990, the Red Sox would again win the division and face the Athletics in the ALCS. However, the outcome was the same, with the A’s sweeping the ALCS in four straight.

In 1990, Yankees fans started to chant “1918!” to taunt the Red Sox.[3][4][33] The demeaning chant would echo at Yankee Stadium each time the Red Sox were there. Also, Fenway Park became the scene of Bucky Dent’s worst moment as a manager, although it was where he had his greatest triumph.[29] In June, when the Red Sox swept the Yankees during a four-game series at Fenway Park,[16] the Yankees fired Dent as their manager.[29] Red Sox fans felt retribution to Dent being fired on their field.[29]

1992–2001Tom Yawkey died in 1976, and his wife Jean R. Yawkey took control of the team until her death in 1992. Their initials are shown in two stripes on the Left field wall in Morse code.[34] Upon Jean’s death, control of the team passed to the Yawkey Trust, led by John Harrington. The trust sold the team in 2002, concluding 70 years of Yawkey ownership.

In 1994, General Manager Lou Gorman was replaced by Dan Duquette, a Massachusetts native who had worked for the Montreal Expos. Duquette revived the team’s farm system, which during his tenure produced players such as Nomar Garciaparra, Carl Pavano and David Eckstein.[35] Duquette also spent money on free agents, notably an eight-year, $160 million deal for Manny Ramírez after the 2000 season.

The Red Sox won the newly realigned American League East in 1995, finishing seven games ahead of the Yankees. However, they were swept in three games in the ALDS by the Cleveland Indians. Their postseason losing streak reached 13 straight games, dating back to the 1986 World Series.

Roger Clemens tied his major league record by fanning 20 Detroit Tigers on September 18, 1996 in what would prove to be one of his final appearances in a Red Sox uniform. After Clemens had turned 30 and then had four seasons, 1993–96, which were by his standards mediocre at best, Duquette said the pitcher was entering “the twilight of his career.”[36] Clemens went on to pitch well for another ten years and win four more Cy Young awards.

Out of contention in 1997, the team traded closer Heathcliff Slocumb to Seattle for catching prospect Jason Varitek and right-handed pitcher Derek Lowe. Prior to the start of the 1998 season, the Red Sox dealt pitchers Tony Armas, Jr. and Carl Pavano to the Montreal Expos for pitcher Pedro Martínez. Martínez became the anchor of the team’s pitching staff and turned in several outstanding seasons. In 1998, the team won the American League Wild Card, but again lost the American League Division Series to the Indians.

In 1999, Duquette called Fenway Park “economically obsolete” and, along with Red Sox ownership, led a push for a new stadium.

On the field, the 1999 Red Sox were finally able to overturn their fortunes against the Indians. Cleveland took a 2–0 series lead, but Boston won the next three games behind strong pitching by Derek Lowe, Pedro Martínez and his brother Ramón Martínez. Game 4’s 23–7 win by the Red Sox was the highest-scoring playoff game in major league history. Game 5 began with the Indians taking a 5–2 lead after two innings, but Pedro Martínez, nursing a shoulder injury, came on in the fourth inning and pitched six innings without allowing a hit while the team’s offense rallied for a 12–8 win behind two home runs and seven RBIs from outfielder Troy O’Leary. After the ALDS victory, the Red Sox lost the American League Championship Series to the Yankees, four games to one. The one bright spot was a lopsided win for the Red Sox in the much-hyped Martinez-Clemens game.

2002–present: Henry comes to Boston2002Main article: 2002 Boston Red Sox season
In 2002, the Red Sox were sold by Yawkey trustee and president Harrington to New England Sports Ventures, a consortium headed by principal owner John Henry. Tom Werner served as executive chairman, Larry Lucchino served as president and CEO, and serving as vice chairman was Les Otten. Dan Duquette was fired as GM of the club on February 28, with former Angels GM Mike Port taking the helm for the 2002 season. A week later, manager Joe Kerrigan was fired and was replaced by Grady Little.

While nearly all offseason moves were made under Dan Duquette, such as signing outfielder Johnny Damon away from the Oakland A’s, the new ownership made additions after their purchase of the team, including trading for outfielder Cliff Floyd and relief pitcher Alan Embree. Nomar Garciaparra, Manny Ramírez, and Floyd all hit well, while Pedro Martínez put up his usual outstanding numbers. Derek Lowe, newly converted into a starter, won 20 games—becoming the first player to save 20 games and win 20 games in back-to-back seasons. The Red Sox won 93 games but they finished 10½ games behind the Yankees for the division and 6 behind the Angels for the AL wild card.

2003Main article: 2003 Boston Red Sox season
In the off-season, Port was replaced by Yale graduate Theo Epstein. Epstein, raised in Brookline, Massachusetts, and just 28 at the time of his hiring, became the youngest general manager in MLB history.

The Red Sox celebrate their clinching of the 2003 AL Wild Card with a victory over the Baltimore Orioles.The “Idiots” of 2004 arose out of the “Cowboy Up” team of 2003, a nickname derived from first baseman Kevin Millar’s challenge to his teammates to show more determination.[37] In addition to Millar, the team’s offense was so deep that 2003 batting champion Bill Mueller batted 7th in the lineup behind sluggers Manny Ramírez and the newly acquired David Ortiz.

GM Theo Epstein, noticing that Mueller was hitting very well in a limited role, traded Shea Hillenbrand to the Arizona Diamondbacks for Byung-Hyun Kim. Receiving much more playing time following the trade, Ortiz contributed significantly in the second half of the season. The trade ended up greatly benefiting the team, as the Red Sox broke many batting records[38] and won the AL Wild Card.

In the 2003 American League Division Series, the Red Sox rallied from a 0–2 series deficit against the Oakland Athletics to win the best-of-five series. Derek Lowe returned to his former relief pitching role to save Game 5, a 4–3 victory. The team then faced the Yankees in the 2003 American League Championship Series. In Game 7, Boston led 5–2 in the eighth inning, but Pedro Martínez allowed three runs to tie the game. The Red Sox could not score off Mariano Rivera over the last three innings and eventually lost the game 6–5 when Yankee third baseman Aaron Boone hit a solo home run off Tim Wakefield.

Some placed the blame for the loss on manager Grady Little[39] for failing to remove starting pitcher Martínez in the 8th inning after some observers believe he began to show signs of tiring. Others credited Little with the team’s successful season and dramatic come-from-behind victory in the ALDS. Nevertheless, Boston’s management decided a change was in order and did not renew Little’s contract. He was replaced by former Philadelphia Phillies manager Terry Francona.

2004: World Series ChampionshipMain article: 2004 Boston Red Sox season
During the 2003–04 offseason, the Red Sox acquired another ace pitcher, Curt Schilling, and a closer, Keith Foulke. Expectations once again ran high that 2004 would be the year that the Red Sox ended their championship drought. The regular season started well in April, but through mid-season the team struggled due to injuries, inconsistency, and defensive woes.

Management shook up the team at the MLB trading deadline on July 31 with a blockbuster four team trade. They traded the team’s popular yet often injured shortstop Nomar Garciaparra with outfielder Matt Murton to the Chicago Cubs. The Cubs sent Brendan Harris, Alex Gonzalez and Francis Beltran to the Montreal Expos, and minor leaguer Justin Jones to the Minnesota Twins. The Red Sox received first baseman Doug Mientkiewicz from the Twins, and shortstop Orlando Cabrera from the Expos.

In a separate transaction, the Red Sox traded minor leaguer Henri Stanley to the Los Angeles Dodgers for center fielder Dave Roberts. Following the trades, the club immediately turned things around, winning 22 out of 25 games and qualifying for the playoffs as the AL Wild Card. Players and fans affectionately referred to the players as “The Idiots,” a term coined by Johnny Damon and Kevin Millar during the playoff push to describe the team’s eclectic roster and devil-may-care attitude toward their supposed “curse.”

Boston began the postseason by sweeping the AL West champion Anaheim Angels in the ALDS. However, Curt Schilling suffered a torn ankle tendon in Game 1 when he was hit by a line drive. In the third game of the series, Vladimir Guerrero hit a grand slam off Mike Timlin in the 7th inning to tie the game. However, David Ortiz hit a walk-off two-run homer in the 10th inning to win the game. The Red Sox advanced to a rematch in the ALCS against the Yankees.

The series started very poorly for the Red Sox. Schilling, pitching injured, was routed for six runs in three innings and Boston ended up losing Game 1. In the second game, with his Yankees leading 1–0 for most of the game, John Olerud hit a two-run home run to put New York up for good. Following this, the Red Sox were down three games to none after a crushing 19–8 loss in Game 3 at home.

Up to this point, no team in the history of baseball had come back to win from a 3–0 series deficit. In Game 4, the Red Sox found themselves facing elimination, trailing 4–3 in the ninth with Mariano Rivera in to close for the Yankees. After Rivera issued a walk to Kevin Millar, Dave Roberts came on to pinch run and promptly stole second base. He then scored on an RBI single by Bill Mueller, sending the game into extra innings. The Red Sox went on to win the game on a two-run home run by David Ortiz in the 12th inning. Game 5 would last 14 innings, setting the record for the longest ALCS game ever played. Both sides squandered many opportunities, until Ortiz again sealed the win with a walk-off RBI single in the bottom of the 14th.

The Commissioner’s Trophy (2004 World Series)With the series returning to Yankee Stadium for Game 6, the comeback continued with Schilling pitching on a bad ankle. Three sutures being used to stabilize the tendon in Schilling’s right ankle bled throughout the game, making his sock appear bloody red. Schilling only allowed one run over 7 innings to lead the Red Sox to victory. In Game 7, the Red Sox completed their historic comeback owing to the strength of Derek Lowe’s pitching and Johnny Damon’s two home runs (including a grand slam in the second inning). The Yankees were defeated 10–3. Ortiz, who had the game winning RBIs in Games 4 and 5, was named ALCS Most Valuable Player. The Red Sox joined the 1942 Toronto Maple Leafs and 1975 New York Islanders as the only professional sports teams in history to win a best-of-seven games series after being down three games to none. The 2010 Philadelphia Flyers would also do it during their Cinderella march to the Stanley Cup Finals.

The Red Sox swept the St. Louis Cardinals in the 2004 World Series. The Red Sox began the series with an 11–9 win, marked by Mark Bellhorn’s game-winning home run off Pesky’s Pole. Game 2 in Boston was won thanks to another great performance by the bloody-socked Curt Schilling. Pedro Martínez (in his first World Series performance) shut out the Cardinals for seven innings and led Boston to a 4–1 victory in game 3, and Derek Lowe and the Red Sox did not allow a single run in game 4. The game ended as Edgar Rentería hit the ball back to closer Keith Foulke. After Foulke lobbed the ball to Mientkiewicz at first, the Red Sox had won their first World Championship in 86 years. Fox commentator Joe Buck famously called the play with: “Back to Foulke. Red Sox fans have longed to hear it: The Boston Red Sox are World Champions!”

Boston held the Cardinals’ offense to only three runs in the final three games and never trailed in the series. Manny Ramírez was named World Series MVP. To add a final, surreal touch to Boston’s championship season, on the night of Game 4 a total lunar eclipse colored the moon red over Busch Stadium. The city of Boston held a “rolling rally” for the team on October 30, 2004. Red Sox Nation packed the streets of Boston that Saturday to celebrate as the team rode on the city’s famous Duck Boats. The Red Sox earned many accolades from the sports media and throughout the nation for their incredible season. In December, Sports Illustrated named the Boston Red Sox the 2004 Sportsmen of the Year.

With the New England Patriots winning Super Bowl XXXVIII in February, Boston became the first city since Pittsburgh in 1979 to have both Super Bowl and World Series champions in the same year.[40]

2005Main article: 2005 Boston Red Sox season
After winning its first World Series in 86 years, the club re-signed Jason Varitek and named him team captain. The 2005 AL East would be decided on the last weekend of the season, with the Yankees coming to Fenway Park with a one-game lead in the standings. The Red Sox won two of the three games to finish the season with the same record as the Yankees, 95–67. However, a playoff was not needed. The Yankees had won the season series, 10–9, thus they won the division, and the Red Sox settled for the Wild Card. Boston was swept in three games by the eventual 2005 World Series champion White Sox in the first round of the playoffs.

2005–2006 off-season
A CowParade cow in Boston decorated to celebrate the Red Sox, 2006On October 31, 2005, general manager Theo Epstein resigned on the last day of his contract. On Thanksgiving evening, the Red Sox announced the acquisition of pitcher Josh Beckett and third baseman Mike Lowell from the Florida Marlins, while sending several prospects including Hanley Ramírez to the Marlins. Fan-favorite Johnny Damon broke the hearts of Red Sox Nation by signing a four-year, $52 million deal with the Yankees. The team filled the vacancy in center field left by Damon’s departure by trading for Cleveland Indians center fielder Coco Crisp. However, Crisp fractured his left index finger in April and would end up missing over 50 games in 2006. In January 2006, Epstein came to terms with the Red Sox and was once again named General Manager.

2006 seasonMain article: 2006 Boston Red Sox season
The revamped Red Sox infield, with third baseman Mike Lowell joining new shortstop Álex González, second baseman Mark Loretta, and first baseman Kevin Youkilis was one of the best-fielding infields in baseball. The Red Sox committed the fewest errors in the American League in 2006, and on June 30, Boston set a major league record of 17 straight errorless games. One of the brightest spots of the 2006 season was the emergence of new closer Jonathan Papelbon. Papelbon ended up setting a Red Sox rookie record with 35 saves and earning an All-Star appearance. Also, David Ortiz provided a late-season highlight when he broke Jimmie Foxx’s single season Red Sox home run record by hitting 54 homers. Down the stretch, the Red Sox wilted under the pressure of mounting injuries and poor performances. Boston would compile a 9–21 record in the month of August. Injuries to Jason Varitek, Trot Nixon, and Manny Ramírez severely hurt the offense. Also, injuries to Tim Wakefield, rookie Jon Lester (diagnosed with lymphoma), and Matt Clement left the rotation with major holes to fill. The Red Sox finished 2006 with an 86–76 record and third place in the AL East.

2007: World Series ChampionshipMain article: 2007 Boston Red Sox season

Pitchers (left — right) Josh Beckett, Jon Lester, Éric Gagné, pitching coach John Farrell and Curt Schilling, prior to a Red Sox game at Seattle in August 2007
2007 season final standingTheo Epstein’s first step toward restocking the team for 2007 was to pursue one of the most anticipated acquisitions in baseball history. On November 14, MLB announced that Boston had won the bid for the rights to negotiate a contract with Japanese superstar pitcher Daisuke Matsuzaka. Boston placed a bid of $51.1 million and had 30 days to complete a deal. On December 13, Matsuzaka signed a 6-year, $52 million contract.

Fan favorite Trot Nixon filed for free agency and agreed on a deal with the Indians. With an opening in right field, the Red Sox signed J.D. Drew on January 25, 2007 to a 5-year, $70 million contract. Free agent Shortstop Álex González was replaced by another free agent, Julio Lugo. Second baseman Mark Loretta also left via free agency for the Houston Astros, opening a spot for rookie Dustin Pedroia.

The Red Sox moved into first place in the AL East by mid-April and never relinquished their division lead. While Ortiz and Ramirez provided their usual offense, it was the hitting of Lowell, Youkilis, and Pedroia that anchored the club through the first few months. While Drew, Lugo, and Coco Crisp struggled to provide offense, Lowell and Youkilis more than made up for it with averages well above .300 and impressive home run and RBI totals. Pedroia started badly, hitting below .200 in April. Manager Terry Francona stuck with him and his patience paid off as Pedroia finished the first half over .300.

On the mound, Josh Beckett emerged as the ace of the staff and was 12–2 at the all-star break. His success was needed as Schilling, Matsuzaka, Wakefield and Tavarez all struggled at times. Meanwhile, the Boston bullpen, anchored by Papelbon and Hideki Okajima, was there to pick up the starters often. Papelbon served as the stopper, and the rise of Okajima as a legitimate setup man and occasional closer gave the Red Sox more options late in the game. Okajima posted an ERA of 0.88 through the first half and was selected for the All-Star Game.

By the All-Star break, Boston had the best record in baseball and held their largest lead in the American League East, 10 games over the Blue Jays and Yankees. In the second half, more stars emerged for the Red Sox as they continued to lead the AL East. Beckett continued to shine, reaching 20 wins for the first time in his career. At one point, veteran Tim Wakefield found himself atop the AL in wins and finished with a 17–12 record. Minor league call-up Clay Buchholz provided a spark on September 1 by pitching a no-hitter in his second career start. Another call-up, outfielder Jacoby Ellsbury, was thrust into the starting lineup while Manny Ramírez rested through most of September. Ellsbury played brilliantly during the month, hitting .361 with 3 HR, 17 RBI, and 8 stolen bases. Mike Lowell continued to carry the club, hitting cleanup in September and leading the team with 120 RBI for the season. Eventual 2007 Rookie of the Year Dustin Pedroia finished his outstanding first full season with 165 hits and a .317 average. The Red Sox became the first team to clinch a playoff spot for the 2007 season and the Red Sox captured their first AL East title since 1995.

Victorious Red Sox players being honored at the White House by President George W. Bush.The Red Sox swept the Angels in the ALDS. Facing the Indians in the ALCS, Josh Beckett won Game 1 but the Red Sox stumbled, losing the next three games. Facing a 3–1 deficit and a must-win situation, Beckett pitched eight innings while surrendering only one run and striking out 11 in a masterful Game 5 win. The Red Sox captured their twelfth American League pennant by outscoring the Indians 30–5 over the final three games, winning the final two games at Fenway Park.

The Red Sox faced the Colorado Rockies in the 2007 World Series. Beckett set the tone in game 1, pitching seven strong innings as the offense provided more than enough in a 13–1 victory. In Game 2, Schilling, Okajima, and Papelbon held the Rockies to one run again in a 2–1 game. Moving to Colorado, the Red Sox offense made the difference again in a 10–5 win. Finally, in Game 4, Jon Lester took Wakefield’s spot in the rotation and gave the Red Sox an impressive start, pitching 5⅔ shutout innings. The Rockies threatened, but thanks to World Series MVP Mike Lowell and aided by a home run by Bobby Kielty, Papelbon registered another save as the Red Sox swept the Rockies in four games, capturing their second title in four years.

2008Main article: 2008 Boston Red Sox season
Following their World Series victory, the Red Sox were forced to address a few personnel questions in the hopes of repeating as champion. The team re-signed free agents Mike Lowell, Curt Schilling, Tim Wakefield and Mike Timlin. The Red Sox also added veteran first baseman Sean Casey to back up Kevin Youkilis.[41]

Injuries to Schilling, Timlin, and Josh Beckett landed each pitcher on the disabled list before the season began, putting added pressure on young starters Jon Lester and Clay Buchholz. The Red Sox began their season by participating in the third opening day game in MLB history to be played in Japan, where they defeated the Oakland A’s in the Tokyo Dome. Boston played well to start the season, settling into a top position in the AL East. However, the surprise Tampa Bay Rays took over the top of the division with a sweep over the Red Sox in early July. From May 17–22, the Sox had a winning streak of seven games, their longest of the season.[42] On May 19, Lester threw the 18th no-hitter in team history, beating the Kansas City Royals 7–0. During the season, Lester emerged as an anchor in the Red Sox rotation, leading the team in starts and innings pitched while compiling a 16–6 record and a 3.21 ERA. Buchholz meanwhile struggled mightily in 2008 to a 2–9 record, ending up back in the minors. Injuries would take a toll on the Red Sox offense during the season. David Ortiz missed 45 games with an injured wrist,[43] Mike Lowell missed weeks with a torn hip labrum, and after a blistering performance in June, J.D. Drew aggravated a back injury that shelved him for much of the second half of the season. Down the stretch, outfielder Manny Ramirez — playing in the final year of his eight year contract — became a distraction to the team. His disruptive behavior included public incidents with fellow players in the dugout (shoving Kevin Youkilis), team employees (pushing the team’s 64 year old traveling secretary to the ground), criticizing ownership, and not playing due to laziness and nonexistent injuries. The front office decided to move the disgrunted outfielder at the July 31 trade deadline, shipping him to the Dodgers in a three-way deal with the Pirates that landed them Jason Bay to replace him in left field.[44]

All Star Kevin YoukilisWith Ramirez gone, and Bay providing a new spark in the lineup, the Red Sox found new life. Kevin Youkilis had career highs in home runs (29) and RBIs (115). Closer Jonathan Papelbon set a career high in saves with 41. Daisuke Matsuzaka improved on his 2007 performance and led the team in wins, finishing with an 18–3 record. However, it was Dustin Pedroia who emerged as not only a team leader, but an American League MVP candidate. Pedroia hit over .340 in the second half, finishing the year at or near the top in the AL in batting average, hits, runs, and doubles. Despite Boston’s 34–19 record following the trading deadline, the Rays held onto the AL East lead and captured their first division title in franchise history.

Boston still made the playoffs as the AL Wild Card. Behind the strong pitching of Jon Lester (two games started and no earned runs allowed), the Red Sox defeated the Angels in the ALDS three games to one. The Red Sox then took on their AL East rivals the Tampa Bay Rays in the ALCS. Down three games to one in the 5th game of the ALCS, Boston mounted the greatest single game comeback in ALCS history.[45] Trailing 7–0 in the 7th inning with elimination pending, the Red Sox came back to win the game 8–7.[46] They tied the series at 3 games apiece before losing Game 7, 3–1, thus becoming the eighth team in a row since 2000 not to repeat as world champions. The Red Sox led the American League last season in shutouts with 16, but only two were complete games by the starter

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Coca-ColaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
This article is about the beverage. For its manufacturer, see The Coca-Cola Company.
“Coca-Cola Classic” redirects here. For the NCAA football game, see Coca-Cola Classic (college football).
Coca-Cola
Type Soft drink
Manufacturer The Coca-Cola Company
Country of origin United States
Introduced 1886
Color Caramel E-150d
Flavor Cola, Cola Cherry, Cola Vanilla, Cola Green Tea, Cola Lemon, Cola Lemon Lime, Cola Lime, Cola Orange and Cola Raspberry.
Variants See Brand portfolio section below
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Virgin Cola
Parsi Cola
Qibla Cola
Evoca Cola
Corsica Cola
Breizh Cola
Afri Cola

The Las Vegas Strip World of Coca-Cola museum in 2003Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in the stores, restaurants, and vending machines of more than 200 countries.[1] It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company of Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply as Coke (a registered trademark of The Coca-Cola Company in the United States since March 27, 1944). Originally intended as a patent medicine when it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton, Coca-Cola was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coke to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century.

The company produces concentrate, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold territorially exclusive contracts with the company, produce finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. The bottlers then sell, distribute and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines. Such bottlers include Coca-Cola Enterprises, which is the largest single Coca-Cola bottler in North America and western Europe. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains to major restaurants and food service distributors.

The Coca-Cola Company has, on occasion, introduced other cola drinks under the Coke brand name. The most common of these is Diet Coke, with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Vanilla, and special editions with lemon, lime or coffee.

In response to consumer insistence on a more natural product, the company is in the process of phasing out E211, or sodium benzoate, the controversial additive used in Diet Coke and linked to DNA damage in yeast cells and hyperactivity in children. The company has stated that it plans to remove E211 from its other products, including Sprite and Oasis, as soon as a satisfactory alternative is found.[2]

Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 New Coke
1.2 21st Century
2 Use of stimulants in formula
2.1 Coca — cocaine
2.2 Kola nuts — caffeine
3 Production
3.1 Ingredients
3.2 Formula of natural flavorings
3.3 Franchised production model
4 Brand portfolio
4.1 Logo design
4.2 Contour bottle design
4.3 Coke Mini
5 Local competitors
6 Advertising
6.1 Holiday campaigns
6.2 Sports sponsorship
6.3 In mass media
7 Health effects
8 Criticism
9 Use as political and corporate symbol
10 See also
11 Notes
12 External links

History


Believed to be the first coupon ever, this ticket for a free glass of Coca-Cola was first distributed in 1888 to help promote the drink. By 1913, the company had redeemed 8.5 million tickets.[3]

This Coca-Cola advertisement from 1943 is still displayed in the small city of Minden, Louisiana.The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia by John Pemberton, originally as a coca wine called Pemberton’s French Wine Coca.[4][5] He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a European coca wine.[6]

In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, essentially a non-alcoholic version of French Wine Coca.[7] The first sales were at Jacob’s Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886.[8] It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents[9] a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health.[10] Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal.[11]

By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola — sold by three separate businesses — were on the market. Asa Griggs Candler acquired a stake in Pemberton’s company in 1887 and incorporated it as the Coca Cola Company in 1888.[12] The same year, while suffering from an ongoing addiction to morphine,[13] Pemberton sold the rights a second time to four more businessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey, C.O. Mullahy and E.H. Bloodworth. Meanwhile, Pemberton’s alcoholic[14] son Charley Pemberton began selling his own version of the product.[15]

John Pemberton declared that the name “Coca-Cola” belonged to Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. So, in the summer of 1888, Candler sold his beverage under the names Yum Yum and Koke. After both failed to catch on, Candler set out to establish a legal claim to Coca-Cola in late 1888, in order to force his two competitors out of the business. Candler purchased exclusive rights to the formula from John Pemberton, Margaret Dozier and Woolfolk Walker. However, in 1914, Dozier came forward to claim her signature on the bill of sale had been forged, and subsequent analysis has indicated John Pemberton’s signature was most likely a forgery as well.[16]

Old German Coca-Cola bottle openerIn 1892 Candler incorporated a second company, The Coca-Cola Company (the current corporation), and in 1910 Candler had the earliest records of the company burned, further obscuring its legal origins. By the time of its 50th anniversary, the drink had reached the status of a national icon in the USA. In 1935, it was certified kosher by Rabbi Tobias Geffen, after the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients.[17]

Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time on March 12, 1894. The first outdoor wall advertisement was painted in the same year as well in Cartersville, Georgia.[18] Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955.[19] The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1891. Its proprietor was Joseph A. Biedenharn. The original bottles were Biedenharn bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design that is now so familiar. Asa Candler was tentative about bottling the drink, but two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Tennessee, Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, proposed the idea and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar. Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899 Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca-Cola bottling company.[20] The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for the company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers.[21]

Coke concentrate, or Coke syrup, was and is sold separately at pharmacies in small quantities, as an over-the-counter remedy for nausea or mildly upset stomach.

New CokeMain article: New Coke

One of Coke’s ads to promote the flavor change.On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the formula of the drink with “New Coke”. Follow-up taste tests revealed that most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and Pepsi, but Coca-Cola management was unprepared for the public’s nostalgia for the old drink, leading to a backlash. The company gave in to protests and returned to a variation of the old formula, under the name Coca-Cola Classic on July 10, 1985.

21st CenturyOn February 7, 2005, the Coca-Cola Company announced that in the second quarter of 2005 they planned to launch a Diet Coke product sweetened with the artificial sweetener sucralose, the same sweetener currently used in Pepsi One.[22][23] On March 21, 2005, it announced another diet product, Coca-Cola Zero, sweetened partly with a blend of aspartame and acesulfame potassium.[24] In 2007, Coca-Cola began to sell a new “healthy soda”: Diet Coke with vitamins B6, B12, magnesium, niacin, and zinc, marketed as “Diet Coke Plus.”

On July 5, 2005, it was revealed that Coca-Cola would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the Arab League boycotted the company in 1968.[25]

In April 2007, in Canada, the name “Coca-Cola Classic” was changed back to “Coca-Cola.” The word “Classic” was truncated because “New Coke” was no longer in production, eliminating the need to differentiate between the two.[26] The formula remained unchanged.

In January 2009, Coca-Cola stopped printing the word “Classic” on the labels of 16-ounce bottles sold in parts of the southeastern United States.[27] The change is part of a larger strategy to rejuvenate the product’s image.[27]

In November 2009, due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products, Costco stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke.[28]

Use of stimulants in formulaWhen launched Coca-Cola’s two key ingredients were cocaine (benzoylmethyl ecgonine) and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the caffeine from kola nut, leading to the name Coca-Cola (the “K” in Kola was replaced with a “C” for marketing purposes).[29][30]

Coca — cocainePemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup, a significant dose; in 1891, Candler claimed his formula (altered extensively from Pemberton’s original) contained only a tenth of this amount. Coca-Cola did once contain an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass, but in 1903 it was removed.[31] Coca-Cola still contains coca flavoring.

After 1904, instead of using fresh leaves, Coca-Cola started using “spent” leaves — the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with cocaine trace levels left over at a molecular level.[32] To this day, Coca-Cola uses as an ingredient a cocaine-free coca leaf extract prepared at a Stepan Company plant in Maywood, New Jersey.

In the United States, Stepan Company is the only manufacturing plant authorized by the Federal Government to import and process the coca plant,[33] which it obtains mainly from Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia. Besides producing the coca flavoring agent for Coca-Cola, Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it sells to Mallinckrodt, a St. Louis, Missouri pharmaceutical manufacturer that is the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for medicinal use.[34]

Kola nuts — caffeineKola nuts act as a flavoring and the source of caffeine in Coca-Cola. In Britain, for example, the ingredient label states “Flavourings (Including Caffeine).”[35] Kola nuts contain about 2 percent to 3.5 percent caffeine, are of bitter flavor and are commonly used in cola soft drinks. In 1911, the U.S. government initiated United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola, hoping to force Coca-Cola to remove caffeine from its formula. The case was decided in favor of Coca-Cola. Subsequently, in 1912 the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act was amended, adding caffeine to the list of “habit-forming” and “deleterious” substances which must be listed on a product’s label.

Coca-Cola contains 46 mg of caffeine per 12 fluid ounces, while Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola and Diet Coke Caffeine-Free contain 0 mg.[36]

Production
Coca-Cola 375 mL 24 can pack (AU)IngredientsCarbonated water
Sugar (sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup depending on country of origin)
Caffeine
Phosphoric acid v. Caramel (E150d)
Natural flavorings[37]
A can of Coke (12 fl ounces/355 ml) has 39 grams of carbohydrates (all from sugar, approximately 10 teaspoons),[38] 50 mg of sodium, 0 grams fat, 0 grams potassium, and 140 calories.[39]

Formula of natural flavoringsMain article: Coca-Cola formula
The exact formula of Coca-Cola’s natural flavorings (but not its other ingredients which are listed on the side of the bottle or can) is a trade secret. The original copy of the formula is held in SunTrust Bank’s main vault in Atlanta. Its predecessor, the Trust Company, was the underwriter for the Coca-Cola Company’s initial public offering in 1919. A popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula.[40] The truth is that while Coca-Cola does have a rule restricting access to only two executives, each knows the entire formula and others, in addition to the prescribed duo, have known the formulation process.[41]

On February 11, 2011 Ira Glass revealed on his PRI radio show, This American Life, that the secret formula to Coca-Cola had been uncovered in a 1979 newspaper. The formula found basically matched the formula found in Pemberton’s diary.[42][43][44] [45]

Franchised production modelThe actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model. The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas. The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, and then carbonate it before putting it in cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants and food service distributors.[46]

The Coca-Cola Company owns minority shares in some of its largest franchises, like Coca-Cola Enterprises, Coca-Cola Amatil, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company (CCHBC) and Coca-Cola FEMSA, but fully independent bottlers produce almost half of the volume sold in the world. Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes.[47]

The bottling plant in Skopje, Macedonia, received the 2009 award for “Best Bottling Company”.[48]

Brand portfolioName Launched Discontinued Notes Picture
Coca-Cola 1886 The original version of Coca-Cola.

Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola 1983 The caffeine free version of Coca-Cola.
Coca-Cola Cherry 1985 Was available in Canada starting in 1996. Called “Cherry Coca-Cola (Cherry Coke)” in North America until 2006. Zero-calorie variant (Coca-Cola Cherry Zero) also currently available.
New Coke/”Coca-Cola II” 1985 2002 Still available in Yap and American Samoa
Coca-Cola with Lemon 2001 2005 Still available in:
American Samoa, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Denmark, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Réunion, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, and West Bank-Gaza

Coca-Cola Vanilla 2002 2005 Still available in:
Austria, Australia, China, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand (600 mL only) Malaysia, Sweden (Imported) and Russia. Was called “Vanilla Coca-Cola (Vanilla Coke)” during initial U.S. availability.

2007 It was reintroduced in June 2007 by popular demand
Coca-Cola C2 2003 2007 Was only available in Japan, Canada, and the United States.
Coca-Cola with Lime 2005 Available in Belgium, Netherlands, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Coca-Cola Raspberry June 2005 End of 2005 Was only available in New Zealand.
Coca-Cola Zero 2005
Coca-Cola M5 2005 Only available in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, Italy, Spain, Mexico and Brazil
Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla 2006 Middle of 2007 Was replaced by Vanilla Coke in June 2007
Coca-Cola Blāk 2006 Beginning of 2008 Only available in the United States, France, Canada, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Lithuania
Coca-Cola Citra 2006 Only available in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, New Zealand and Japan.
Coca-Cola Light Sango 2006 Only available in France and Belgium.
Coca-Cola Orange 2007 Only available in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland it’s sold unter the label Mezzo Mix.

Logo design

Detail on Elmira Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, Elmira, NY.The famous Coca-Cola logo was created by John Pemberton’s bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson, in 1885.[49] Robinson came up with the name and chose the logo’s distinctive cursive script. The typeface used, known as Spencerian script, was developed in the mid 19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period.

Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs.[50]

Contour bottle design
Earl R. Dean’s original 1915 concept drawing of the contour Coca-Cola bottle.
The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts.The equally famous Coca-Cola bottle, called the “contour bottle” within the company, but known to some as the “hobble skirt” bottle, was created by bottle designer Earl R. Dean. In 1915, the Coca-Cola Company launched a competition among its bottle suppliers to create a new bottle for the beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, “a bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was.”[51]

Chapman J. Root, president of the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T. Clyde Edwards, plant superintendent Alexander Samuelsson, and Earl R. Dean, bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Root and his subordinates decided to base the bottle’s design on one of the soda’s two ingredients, the coca leaf or the kola nut, but were unaware of what either ingredient looked like. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola. Instead, Dean was inspired by a picture of the gourd-shaped cocoa pod in the Encyclopedia Britannica. Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned back to the plant to show Mr. Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle. Chapman Root gave Dean his approval.[51]

Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold-making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning. Dean then proceeded to create a bottle mold and produced a small number of bottles before the glass-molding machinery was turned off.[52]

Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November, 1915. The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts. Dean resolved this issue by decreasing the bottle’s middle diameter. During the 1916 bottler’s convention, Dean’s contour bottle was chosen over other entries and was on the market the same year. By 1920, the contour bottle became the standard for the Coca-Cola Company. Today, the contour Coca-Cola bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet…”even in the dark!”.[53]

As a reward for his efforts, Dean was offered a choice between a $500 bonus or a lifetime job at the Root Glass Company. He chose the lifetime job and kept it until the Owens-Illinois Glass Company bought out the Root Glass Company in the mid-1930s. Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories.

Although endorsed by some[who?], this version of events is not considered authoritative by many[who?] who consider it implausible. One alternative depiction has Raymond Loewy as the inventor of the unique design, but, while Loewy did serve as a designer of Coke cans and bottles in later years, he was in the French Army the year the bottle was invented and did not emigrate to the United States until 1919. Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorian hooped dress.[54]

In 1944, Associate Justice Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca-Cola bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for defective products. Traynor’s concurring opinion in Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co. is widely recognized as a landmark case in U.S. law today.[55]

In 1997, Coca-Cola also introduced a “contour can,” similar in shape to its famous bottle, on a few test markets, including Terre Haute, Indiana.[56] The new can has never been widely released.

A new slim and tall can began to appear in Australia as of December 20, 2006; it cost AU$1.95. The cans have a distinct resemblance to energy drink cans. The cans were commissioned by Domino’s Pizza and are available exclusively at their restaurants.

In January 2007, Coca-Cola Canada changed “Coca-Cola Classic” labeling, removing the “Classic” designation, leaving only “Coca-Cola.” Coca-Cola stated this is merely a name change and the product remains the same. The cans still bear the “Classic” logo in the United States.

In 2007, Coca-Cola introduced an aluminum can designed to look like the original glass Coca-Cola bottles.

In 2007, the company’s logo on cans and bottles changed. The cans and bottles retained the red color and familiar typeface, but the design was simplified, leaving only the logo and a plain white swirl (the “dynamic ribbon”).

In 2008, in some parts of the world, the plastic bottles for all Coke varieties (including the larger 1.5- and 2-liter bottles) was changed to include a new plastic screw cap and a slightly taller contoured bottle shape, designed to evoke the old glass bottles.[57]

Coke Mini
200 mL “stubby” bottle widely available throughout China. These are sold in small shops for 1 yuan, and must be consumed on site in order to return the bottle.Coke mini is a 7.5 ounce can packaging of Coca-Cola that debuted in December 2009.[58][59][60] There are plans to also sell smaller cans of Sprite, Fanta Orange, Cherry Coca-Cola and Barq’s Root Beer.[61]

Local competitorsPepsi is usually second to Coke in sales, but outsells Coca-Cola in some markets. Around the world, some local brands compete with Coke. In South and Central America Kola Real, known as Big Cola in Mexico, is a fast-growing competitor to Coca-Cola.[62] On the French island of Corsica, Corsica Cola, made by brewers of the local Pietra beer, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. In the French region of Brittany, Breizh Cola is available. In Peru, Inca Kola outsells Coca-Cola, which led The Coca-Cola Company to purchase the brand in 1999. In Sweden, Julmust outsells Coca-Cola during the Christmas season.[63] In Scotland, the locally produced Irn-Bru was more popular than Coca-Cola until 2005, when Coca-Cola and Diet Coke began to outpace its sales.[64] In India, Coca-Cola ranked third behind the leader, Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thums Up. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Thums Up in 1993.[65] As of 2004, Coca-Cola held a 60.9% market-share in India.[66] Tropicola, a domestic drink, is served in Cuba instead of Coca-Cola, due to a United States embargo. French brand Mecca Cola and British brand Qibla Cola, popular in the Middle East, are competitors to Coca-Cola. In Turkey, Cola Turka is a major competitor to Coca-Cola. In Iran and many countries of Middle East, Zam Zam Cola and Parsi Cola are major competitors to Coca-Cola. In some parts of China Future cola is a competitor. In Slovenia, the locally produced Cockta is a major competitor to Coca-Cola, as is the inexpensive Mercator Cola, which is sold only in the country’s biggest supermarket chain, Mercator. In Israel, RC Cola is an inexpensive competitor. Classiko Cola, made by Tiko Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar, is a serious competitor to Coca-Cola in many regions. Laranjada is the top-selling soft drink on the Portuguese island of Madeira. Coca-Cola has stated that Pepsi was not its main rival in the UK, but rather Robinsons drinks.[citation needed]

Advertising
An 1890s advertisement showing model Hilda Clark in formal 19th century attire. The ad is titled Drink Coca-Cola 5¢. (US)
Coca-Cola ghost sign in Fort Dodge, Iowa. Note older Coca-Cola ghosts behind Borax and telephone ads.
Coca-Cola signboard in Lahore, Pakistan.
Coca-Cola sales booth on the Cape Verde island of Fogo in 2004.Coca-Cola’s advertising has significantly affected American culture, and it is frequently credited with inventing the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in a red-and-white suit. Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the 1930s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom, the motif was already common.[67][68] Coca-Cola was not even the first soft drink company to use the modern image of Santa Claus in its advertising: White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in 1923, after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915.[69][70] Before Santa Claus, Coca-Cola relied on images of smartly dressed young women to sell its beverages. Coca-Cola’s first such advertisement appeared in 1895, featuring the young Bostonian actress Hilda Clark as its spokeswoman.

1941 saw the first use of the nickname “Coke” as an official trademark for the product, with a series of advertisements informing consumers that “Coke means Coca-Cola”.[71] In 1971 a song from a Coca-Cola commercial called “I’d Like to Teach the World to Sing”, produced by Billy Davis, became a hit single.

Coke’s advertising is pervasive, as one of Woodruff’s stated goals was to ensure that everyone on Earth drank Coca-Cola as their preferred beverage. This is especially true in southern areas of the United States, such as Atlanta, where Coke was born.

Some of the memorable Coca-Cola television commercials between 1960 through 1986 were written and produced by former Atlanta radio veteran Don Naylor (WGST 1936–1950, WAGA 1951–1959) during his career as a producer for the McCann Erickson advertising agency. Many of these early television commercials for Coca-Cola featured movie stars, sports heroes and popular singers.

During the 1980s, Pepsi-Cola ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests demonstrating that, according to the commercials, “fifty percent of the participants who said they preferred Coke actually chose the Pepsi.” Statisticians were quick to point out the problematic nature of a 50/50 result: most likely, all the taste tests really showed was that in blind tests, most people simply cannot tell the difference between Pepsi and Coke. Coca-Cola ran ads to combat Pepsi’s ads in an incident sometimes referred to as the cola wars; one of Coke’s ads compared the so-called Pepsi challenge to two chimpanzees deciding which tennis ball was furrier. Thereafter, Coca-Cola regained its leadership in the market.

Selena was a spokesperson for Coca-Cola from 1989 till the time of her death. She filmed three commercials for the company. In 1994, to commemorate her five years with the company, Coca-Cola issued special Selena coke bottles.[72]

The Coca-Cola Company purchased Columbia Pictures in 1982, and began inserting Coke-product images in many of its films. After a few early successes during Coca-Cola’s ownership, Columbia began to under-perform, and the studio was sold to Sony in 1989.

Coca-Cola has gone through a number of different advertising slogans in its long history, including “The pause that refreshes,” “I’d like to buy the world a Coke,” and “Coke is it” (see Coca-Cola slogans).

In 2006, Coca-Cola introduced My Coke Rewards, a customer loyalty campaign where consumers earn points by entering codes from specially marked packages of Coca-Cola products into a website. These points can be redeemed for various prizes or sweepstakes entries.[73]

Holiday campaigns
Coca-Cola Christmas truck in Dresden, Germany.The “Holidays are coming!” advertisement features a train of red delivery trucks, emblazoned with the Coca-Cola name and decorated with electric lights, driving through a snowy landscape and causing everything that they pass to light up and people to watch as they pass through.[74]

The advertisement fell into disuse in 2001, as the Coca-Cola company restructured its advertising campaigns so that advertising around the world was produced locally in each country, rather than centrally in the company’s headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.[75] However, in 2007, the company brought back the campaign after, according to the company, many consumers telephoned its information center saying that they considered it to mark the beginning of Christmas.[74] The advertisement was created by U.S. advertising agency Doner, and has been part of the company’s global advertising campaign for many years.[76]


Keith Law, a producer and writer of commercials for Belfast CityBeat, was not convinced by Coca-Cola’s reintroduction of the advertisement in 2007, saying that “I don’t think there’s anything Christmassy about HGVs and the commercial is too generic.”[77]

In 2001, singer Melanie Thornton recorded the campaign’s advertising jingle as a single, Wonderful Dream (Holidays are Coming), which entered the pop-music charts in Germany at no. 9.[78][79] In 2005, Coca-Cola expanded the advertising campaign to radio, employing several variations of the jingle.[80]

Sports sponsorship
Special aluminum bottle designs, designed exclusively for the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games Torch Relay. Available in Canada.Coca-Cola was the first commercial sponsor of the Olympic games, at the 1928 games in Amsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since.[81] This corporate sponsorship included the 1996 Summer Olympics hosted in Atlanta, which allowed Coca-Cola to spotlight its hometown. Most recently, Coca-Cola has released localized commercials for the 2010 Olympics in Vancouver; one Canadian commercial referred to Canada’s hockey heritage and was modified after Canada won the gold medal game on February 28, 2010 by changing the ending line of the commercial to say “Now they know whose game they’re playing”.[82]

Since 1978, Coca-Cola has sponsored each FIFA World Cup, and other competitions organised by FIFA. In fact, one FIFA tournament trophy, the FIFA World Youth Championship from Tunisia in 1977 to Malaysia in 1997, was called “FIFA — Coca Cola Cup”.[83] In addition, Coca-Cola sponsors the annual Coca-Cola 600 and Coke Zero 400 for the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series at Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina and Daytona International Speedway in Daytona, Florida. Coca-Cola has a long history of sports marketing relationships, which over the years have included Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association and the National Hockey League, as well as with many teams within those leagues. Coca-Cola is the official soft drink of many collegiate football teams throughout the nation.

Coca-Cola was one of the official sponsors of the 1996 Cricket World Cup held on the Indian subcontinent. Coca Cola is also one of the associate sponsor of Delhi Daredevils in Indian Premier League.

In England, Coca-Cola is the main sponsor of The Football League, a name given to the three professional divisions below the Premier League in football (soccer). It is also responsible for the renaming of these divisions — until the advent of Coca-Cola sponsorship, they were referred to as Divisions One, Two and Three. Since 2004, the divisions have been known as The Championship (equiv. of Division 1), League One (equiv. of Div. 2) and League 2 (equiv. of Division 3). This renaming has caused unrest amongst some fans, who see it as farcical that the third tier of English Football is now called “League One.” In 2005, Coca-Cola launched a competition for the 72 clubs of the football league — it was called “Win a Player”. This allowed fans to place 1 vote per day for their beloved club, with 1 entry being chosen at random earning £250,000 for the club; this was repeated in 2006. The “Win A Player” competition was very controversial, as at the end of the 2 competitions, Leeds United AFC had the most votes by more than double, yet they did not win any money to spend on a new player for the club. In 2007, the competition changed to “Buy a Player”. This competition allowed fans to buy a bottle of Coca-Cola Zero or Coca-Cola and submit the code on the wrapper on the Coca-Cola website {www.coca-colafootball.co.uk}. This code could then earn anything from 50p to £100,000 for a club of their choice. This competition was favored over the old “Win A Player” competition, as it allowed all clubs to win some money.

Introduced March 1, 2010, in Canada, to celebrate the 2010 Olympics, Coca Cola will sell gold coloured cans in packs of 12 355 mL each, in select stores.[84]

In mass mediaCoca-Cola has been prominently featured in countless films and television programs. It was a major plot element in films such as One, Two, Three, The Coca-Cola Kid, and The Gods Must Be Crazy. It provides a setting for comical corporate shenanigans in the novel Syrup by Maxx Barry. And in music, in the Beatles’ song, “Come Together”, the lyrics said, “He shoot Coca-Cola, he say…”.

Health effectsSince studies indicate “soda and sweetened drinks are the main source of calories in [the] American diet”,[85] most nutritionists advise that Coca-Cola and other soft drinks can be harmful if consumed excessively, particularly to young children whose soft drink consumption competes with, rather than complements, a balanced diet. Studies have shown that regular soft drink users have a lower intake of calcium, magnesium, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin A.[86] The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of caffeine, which can cause physical dependence.[87] A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in older women (but not men).[88] This was thought to be due to the presence of phosphoric acid, and the risk was found to be same for caffeinated and noncaffeinated colas, as well as the same for diet and sugared colas.

A common criticism of Coke based on its allegedly toxic acidity levels has been found to be baseless by researchers; lawsuits based on these notions have been dismissed by several American courts for this reason. Although numerous court cases have been filed against The Coca-Cola Company since the 1920s, alleging that the acidity of the drink is dangerous, no evidence corroborating this claim has been found. Under normal conditions, scientific evidence indicates Coca-Cola’s acidity causes no immediate harm.[89]

Since 1980 in the U.S., Coke has been made with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as an ingredient. Originally it was used in combination with more expensive cane-sugar, but by late 1984 the formulation was sweetened entirely with HFCS. Some nutritionists caution against consumption of HFCS because it may aggravate obesity and type-2 diabetes more than cane sugar.[90] Also, a 2009 study found that almost half of tested samples of commercial HFCS contained mercury, a toxic substance.[91]

In India, there is a major controversy whether there are pesticides and other harmful chemicals in bottled products, including Coca-Cola. In 2003 the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a non-governmental organization in New Delhi, said aerated waters produced by soft drinks manufacturers in India, including multinational giants PepsiCo and Coca-Cola, contained toxins including lindane, DDT, malathion and chlorpyrifos — pesticides that can contribute to cancer and a breakdown of the immune system. CSE found that the Indian produced Pepsi’s soft drink products had 36 times the level of pesticide residues permitted under European Union regulations; Coca-Cola’s soft drink was found to have 30 times the permitted amount. CSE said it had tested the same products sold in the U.S. and found no such residues.[92] After the pesticide allegations were made in 2003, Coca-Cola sales in India declined by 15 percent. In 2004 an Indian parliamentary committee backed up CSE’s findings and a government-appointed committee was tasked with developing the world’s first pesticide standards for soft drinks. The Coca-Cola Company has responded that its plants filter water to remove potential contaminants and that its products are tested for pesticides and must meet minimum health standards before they are distributed.[93] In the Indian state of Kerala sale and production of Coca-Cola, along with other soft drinks, was initially banned after the allegations, until the High Court in Kerala overturned ruled that only the federal government can ban food products. Coca-Cola has also been accused of excessive water usage in India.[94]

The 2008 Ig Nobel Prize (a parody of the Nobel Prizes) in Chemistry was awarded to Sheree Umpierre, Joseph Hill, and Deborah Anderson, for discovering that Coca-Cola is an effective spermicide,[95] and to C.Y. Hong, C.C. Shieh, P. Wu, and B.N. Chiang for proving it is not.[96][97]

CriticismMain article: Criticism of Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola has been criticized for alleged adverse health effects, its aggressive marketing to children, exploitative labor practices, high levels of pesticides in its products, building plants in Nazi Germany which employed slave labor, environmental destruction, monopolistic business practices, and hiring paramilitary units to murder trade union leaders. In October 2009, in an effort to improve their image, Coca-Cola partnered with the American Academy of Family Physicians, providing a $500,000 grant to help promote healthy-lifestyle education; the partnership spawned sharp criticism of both Coca-Cola and the AAFP by physicians and nutritionists.[98]

Use as political and corporate symbol
Coca-Cola advertising in the High Atlas mountains in Morocco.
Coke dispenser flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1996. (US)The Coca-Cola drink has a high degree of identification with the United States, being considered by some an “American Brand” or as an item representing America. The identification with the spread of American culture has led to the pun “Coca-Colanization”.[68][99]

The drink is also often a metonym for the Coca-Cola Company.

There are some consumer boycotts of Coca-Cola in Arab countries due to Coke’s early investment in Israel during the Arab League boycott of Israel (its competitor Pepsi stayed out of Israel).[100] Mecca Cola and Pepsi have been successful alternatives in the Middle East.

A Coca-Cola fountain dispenser (officially a Fluids Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus-2 or FGBA-2) was developed for use on the Space Shuttle as “a test bed to determine if carbonated beverages can be produced from separately stored carbon dioxide, water and flavored syrups and determine if the resulting fluids can be made available for consumption without bubble nucleation and resulting foam formation”. The unit flew in 1996 aboard STS-77 and held 1.65 liters each of Coca-Cola and Diet Coke.[101]

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DMUC SHOWROOM
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SHOWCASE :
The Driwan Masterpiece Collections

Frame One :
THE Driwan MASTERPIECE Mc Donald Trade Card Collections

1. THE VERYRARE LIMITED EDITION (ONLY 26) MC DONALD TRADE CARD DURING THE OPENING OF MC DONALD IN JAPAN
(1) FRONTSIDE

(2) BACKSIDE

2. THE RARE LIMITED EDITION(ONLY 865) MCDONALD PHONE CARD $25.
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FRAME TWO :
THE MC DONALD HISTORY

McDonald’s
Type Public (NYSE: MCD)
Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
Industry Restaurants
Founded May 15, 1940 in San Bernardino, California;
McDonald’s Corporation, April 15, 1955 in Des Plaines, Illinois
Founder(s) Richard and Maurice McDonald McDonald’s restaurant concept;
Ray Kroc, McDonald’s Corporation founder.
Headquarters Oak Brook, Illinois, U.S.
Number of locations 32,000+ worldwide[1]
Area served Worldwide
Key people James A. Skinner
(Chairman & CEO)
Products Fast food
(hamburgers • chicken • french fries • soft drinks • coffee • milkshakes • salads • desserts • breakfast)
Revenue US$ 22.6 billion (FY 2008)[2]
Operating income US$ 6.51 billion (FY 2008)[2]
Net income US$ 4.31 billion (FY 2008)[2]
Total assets US$ 29.2 billion (Q2 2009)[2]
Total equity US$ 13.2 billion (Q2 2009)[2]
Employees 400,000 (2008)[3]
Website McDonalds.com
This box: view · talk · edit

McDonald’s Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the world’s largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving more than 58 million customers daily.[4] In addition to its signature restaurant chain, McDonald’s Corporation held a minority interest in Pret A Manger until 2008, was a major investor in the Chipotle Mexican Grill until 2006,[5] and owned the restaurant chain Boston Market until 2007.[6]

A McDonald’s restaurant is operated by either a franchisee, an affiliate, or the corporation itself. The corporation’s revenues come from the rent, royalties and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. McDonald’s revenues grew 27% over the three years ending in 2007 to $22.8 billion, and 9% growth in operating income to $3.9 billion.[7]

McDonald’s primarily sells hamburgers, cheeseburgers, chicken products, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, shakes, and desserts. In response to obesity trends in Western nations and in the face of criticism over the healthiness of its products, the company has modified its menu to include alternatives considered healthier such as salads, wraps and fruit.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Corporate overview
2.1 Facts and figures
2.2 Types of restaurants
2.3 Playgrounds
2.4 Redesign
2.5 Business model
2.6 Shareholder dividends
3 Controversies
3.1 Arguments in defense
3.2 Environmental record
4 Legal cases
5 Products
6 Headquarters
7 Advertising
7.1 Children’s advertising
7.2 Sports awards and honors
8 Global operations
9 Competitors

History
McDonald’s Logo used from 1968 to 2003. It still exists at some restaurants.
“Speedee”, the former mascot of McDonald’s before his replacement by Ronald McDonald.
Concept version of Ronald McDonald.Main article: History of McDonald’s
The business began in 1940, with a restaurant opened by brothers Richard and Maurice McDonald in San Bernardino, California. Their introduction of the “Speedee Service System” in 1948 established the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant. The original mascot of McDonald’s was a man with a chef’s hat on top of a hamburger shaped head whose name was “Speedee.” Speedee was eventually replaced with Ronald McDonald by 1967 when the company first filed a U.S. trademark on a clown shaped man having puffed out costume legs.

McDonald’s first filed for a U.S. trademark on the name McDonald’s on May 4, 1961, with the description “Drive-In Restaurant Services,” which continues to be renewed through the end of December 2009. In the same year, on September 13, 1961, the company filed a logo trademark on an overlapping, double arched “M” symbol. The overlapping double arched “M” symbol logo was temporarily disfavored by September 6, 1962, when a trademark was filed for a single arch, shaped over many of the early McDonald’s restaurants in the early years. The famous double arched “M” symbol in use today did not appear until November 18, 1968, when the company filed a U.S. trademark.

The first McDonald’s restaurants opened in the United States, Canada, Costa Rica, Panama, Japan, the Netherlands, Germany, Australia, France, El Salvador and Sweden, in order of openings.

The present corporation dates its founding to the opening of a franchised restaurant by Ray Kroc, in Des Plaines, Illinois, on April 15, 1955,[8] the ninth McDonald’s restaurant overall. Kroc later purchased the McDonald brothers’ equity in the company and led its worldwide expansion, and the company became listed on the public stock markets in 1965.[9] Kroc was also noted for aggressive business practices, compelling the McDonald brothers to leave the fast food industry. The McDonald brothers and Kroc feuded over control of the business, as documented in both Kroc’s autobiography and in the McDonald brothers’ autobiography. The site of the McDonald brothers’ original restaurant is now a monument.[10]

With the expansion of McDonald’s into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life. Its prominence has also made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics and consumer responsibility.

Corporate overviewFacts and figures
McDonald’s boasts its service to “99 billion customers”.McDonald’s restaurants are found in 119 countries[11] and territories around the world and serve 58 million customers each day.[4] McDonald’s operates over 31,000 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 1.5 million people.[11] The company also operates other restaurant brands, such as Piles Café.

Focusing on its core brand, McDonald’s began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s. The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald’s fully divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange.[12][13] Until December 2003, it also owned Donatos Pizza. On August 27, 2007, McDonald’s sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners.[14]

Types of restaurantsMost standalone McDonald’s restaurants offer both counter service and drive-through service, with indoor and sometimes outdoor seating. Drive-Thru, Auto-Mac, Pay and Drive, or “McDrive” as it is known in many countries, often has separate stations for placing, paying for, and picking up orders, though the latter two steps are frequently combined; it was first introduced in Arizona in 1975, following the lead of other fast-food chains. The first such restaurant in Britain opened at the Merry Hill Shopping Centre in the West Midlands in November 1986.[15]

In some countries, “McDrive” locations near highways offer no counter service or seating. In contrast, locations in high-density city neighborhoods often omit drive-through service. There are also a few locations, located mostly in downtown districts, that offer Walk-Thru service in place of Drive-Thru.

Specially themed restaurants also exist, such as the “Solid Gold McDonald’s,” a 1950s rock-and-roll–themed restaurant.[16] In Victoria, British Columbia, there is also a McDonald’s with a 24-carat (100%) gold chandelier and similar light fixtures.

To accommodate the current trend for high quality coffee and the popularity of coffee shops in general, McDonald’s introduced McCafé, a café-style accompaniment to McDonald’s restaurants in the style of Starbucks. McCafé is a concept created by McDonald’s Australia, starting with Melbourne in 1993. Today, most McDonald’s in Australia have McCafés located within the existing McDonald’s restaurant. In Tasmania, there are McCafés in every store, with the rest of the states quickly following suit. After upgrading to the new McCafé look and feel, some Australian stores have noticed up to a 60% increase in sales. As of the end of 2003 there were over 600 McCafés worldwide.

Some locations are connected to gas stations/convenience stores,[17] while others called McExpress have limited seating and/or menu or may be located in a shopping mall. Other McDonald’s are located in Wal-Mart stores. McStop is a location targeted at truckers and travelers which may have services found at truck stops.[18]

Playgrounds
McDonald’s in Panorama City, California designed for family-friendly imageSome McDonald’s in suburban areas and certain cities feature large indoor or outdoor playgrounds. The first PlayPlace with the familiar crawl-tube design with ball pits and slides was introduced in 1987 in the USA, with many more being constructed soon after. Some PlayPlace playgrounds have been renovated into “R Gym” areas.

Redesign
The Mc Donnald’s restaurant in Dudley Town,near Birmingham, during 2002. It is in the old red, gold and grey livery.
McDonald’s in Darlington, UK. This is an example of the new look of McDonald’s in Europe.In 2006, McDonald’s introduced its “Forever Young” brand by redesigning all of their restaurants, the first major redesign since the 1970s.[19][20]

The Mc Donald’s restraunt in Banbury’s Bridge Street in 2010. It is still in white paint outside and blue/grey/brown inside as it was since 2002.
The design includes the traditional McDonald’s yellow and red colors, but the red is muted to terra cotta, the yellow was turned golden for a more “sunny” look, and olive and sage green were also added. To warm up their look, the restaurants have less plastic and more brick and wood, with modern hanging lights to produce a softer glow. Contemporary art or framed photographs hang on the walls.

Business modelMcDonald’s Corporation earns revenue as an investor in properties, a franchiser of restaurants, and an operator of restaurants. Approximately 15% of McDonald’s restaurants are owned and operated by McDonald’s Corporation directly. The remainder are operated by others through a variety of franchise agreements and joint ventures. The McDonald’s Corporation’s business model is slightly different from that of most other fast-food chains. In addition to ordinary franchise fees and marketing fees, which are calculated as a percentage of sales, McDonald’s may also collect rent, which may also be calculated on the basis of sales. As a condition of many franchise agreements, which vary by contract, age, country, and location, the Corporation may own or lease the properties on which McDonald’s franchises are located. In most, if not all cases, the franchisee does not own the location of its restaurants.

The UK business model is different, in that fewer than 30% of restaurants are franchised, with the majority under the ownership of the company. McDonald’s trains its franchisees and others at Hamburger University in Oak Brook, Illinois.

In other countries, McDonald’s restaurants are operated by joint ventures of McDonald’s Corporation and other, local entities or governments.

As a matter of policy, McDonald’s does not make direct sales of food or materials to franchisees, instead organizing the supply of food and materials to restaurants through approved third party logistics operators.

According to Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser (2001), nearly one in eight workers in the U.S. have at some time been employed by McDonald’s. (According to a news piece on Fox News this figure is one in ten.) The book also states that McDonald’s is the largest private operator of playgrounds in the U.S., as well as the single largest purchaser of beef, pork, potatoes, and apples. The selection of meats McDonald’s uses varies with the culture of the host country.

Shareholder dividendsMcDonald’s has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years,[21] making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats.[22][23]

ControversiesAs a prominent example of the rapid globalization of the American fast food industry, McDonald’s is often the target of criticism for its menu, its expansion, and its business practices.

The McLibel Trial, also known as McDonald’s Restaurants v Morris & Steel, is an example of this criticism. In 1990, activists from a small group known as London Greenpeace (no connection to the international group Greenpeace) distributed leaflets entitled What’s wrong with McDonald’s?, criticizing its environmental, health, and labor record. The corporation wrote to the group demanding they desist and apologize, and, when two of the activists refused to back down, sued them for libel in one of the longest cases in British civil law. A documentary film of the McLibel Trial has been shown in several countries.

Despite the objections of McDonald’s, the term “McJob” was added to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary in 2003.[24] Defined as “a low-paying job that requires little skill and provides little opportunity for advancement”.[25] In an open letter to Merriam-Webster, Jim Cantalupo, former CEO of McDonald’s, denounced the definition as a “slap in the face” to all restaurant employees, and stated that “a more appropriate definition of a ‘McJob’ might be ‘teaches responsibility.'” Merriam-Webster responded that “we stand by the accuracy and appropriateness of our definition.”[26]

In 1999, French anti-globalisation activist José Bové vandalized a half-built McDonald’s to protest against the introduction of fast food in the region.[27]

In 2001, Eric Schlosser’s book Fast Food Nation included criticism of the business practices of McDonald’s. Among the critiques were allegations that McDonald’s (along with other companies within the fast food industry) uses its political influence to increase its profits at the expense of people’s health and the social conditions of its workers. The book also brought into question McDonald’s advertisement techniques in which it targets children. While the book did mention other fast-food chains, it focused primarily on McDonald’s.

McDonald’s is the world’s largest distributor of toys, which it includes with kids meals.[28] It has been alleged that the use of popular toys encourages children to eat more McDonald’s food, thereby contributing to many children’s health problems, including a rise in obesity.[29]

In 2002, vegetarian groups, largely Hindu and Buddhist, successfully sued McDonald’s for misrepresenting their French fries as vegetarian, when they contained beef broth.[30]

A midget PETA activist dressed as a chicken argues with a manager of the Times Square McDonald’s over the company’s animal welfare standards.People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), meantime, continues to pressure McDonald’s to change its animal welfare standards, in particular the method their suppliers use of slaughtering chickens.[31] Most processors in the United States shackle fully conscious birds upside down and run them through an electrically charged water tub before slitting their throats.[32] PETA argues that using gas to kill the birds (a method called “controlled atmosphere killing” or CAK) is less cruel.[33] Both CAK and “controlled atmosphere stunning”(CAS) are commonly used in Europe.[34]

Morgan Spurlock’s 2004 documentary film Super Size Me said that McDonald’s food was contributing to the epidemic of obesity in society, and that the company was failing to provide nutritional information about its food for its customers. Six weeks after the film premiered, McDonald’s announced that it was eliminating the super size option, and was creating the adult happy meal.

The soya that is fed to McDonald’s chickens is supplied by agricultural giant Cargill and comes directly from Brazil. Greenpeace alleges that not only is soya destroying the Amazon rain forest in Brazil, but soya farmers are guilty of further crimes including slavery and the invasion of indigenous peoples’ lands. The allegation is that McDonald’s, as a client of Cargill’s, is complicit in these activities.[35]

Arguments in defenseIn response to public pressure, McDonald’s has sought to include more healthy choices in its menu and has introduced a new slogan to its recruitment posters: “Not bad for a McJob”.[36] (The word McJob, first attested in the mid-1980s[37] and later popularized by Canadian novelist Douglas Coupland in his book Generation X, has become a buzz word for low-paid, unskilled work with few prospects or benefits and little security.) McDonald’s disputes the idea. In 2007, the company launched an advertising campaign with the slogan “Would you like a career with that?” on Irish television, outlining that their jobs have many prospects.

In a bid to tap into growing consumer interest in the provenance of food, the fast-food chain recently switched its supplier of both coffee beans and milk. UK chief executive Steve Easterbrook said: “British consumers are increasingly interested in the quality, sourcing and ethics of the food and drink they buy”. McDonald’s coffee is now brewed from beans taken from stocks that have been certified by the Rainforest Alliance, a conservation group. Similarly, milk supplies used for its hot drinks and milkshakes have been switched to organic sources which could account for 5% of the UK’s organic milk output.[38]

McDonald’s announced on May 22, 2008 that, in the U.S. and Canada, it would switch to using cooking oil for its french fries that contains no trans fats, and canola-based oil with corn and soy oils by year’s end for its baked items, pies and cookies.[39][40]

With regard to acquiring chickens from suppliers who use CAK or CAS methods of slaughter, McDonald’s says they need to see more research “to help determine whether any CAS system in current use is optimal from an animal welfare perspective.”[41]

Environmental recordIn April 2008, McDonald’s announced that 11 of its Sheffield restaurants have been using a biomass trial that had cut its waste and carbon footprint by half in the area. In this trial, waste from the restaurants were collected by Veolia Environmental Services and used to produce energy at a power plant. McDonald’s plans to expand this project, although the lack of biomass power plants in the U.S. will prevent this plan from becoming a national standard anytime soon.[42] In addition, in Europe, McDonald’s has been recycling vegetable grease by converting it to fuel for their diesel trucks.[43]

Furthermore, McDonald’s has been using a corn-based bioplastic to produce containers for some of their products. Although industries who use this product claim a carbon savings of 30% to 80%, a Guardian study shows otherwise. The results show that this type of plastic does not break down in landfills as efficiently as other conventional plastics. The extra energy it takes to recycle this plastic results in a higher output of greenhouse gases. Also, the plastics can contaminate waste streams, causing other recycled plastics to become unsaleable.[44]

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recognized McDonald’s continuous effort to reduce solid waste by designing more efficient packaging and by promoting the use of recycled-content materials.[45] McDonald’s reports that they are committed towards environmental leadership by effectively managing electric energy, by conserving natural resources through recycling and reusing materials, and by addressing water management issues within the restaurant.[46]

In an effort to reduce energy usage by 25% in its restaurants, McDonald’s opened a prototype restaurant in Chicago in 2009 with the intention of using the model in its other restaurants throughout the world. Building on past efforts, specifically a restaurant it opened in Sweden in 2000 that was the first to intentionally incorporate green ideas, McDonald’s designed the Chicago site to save energy by incorporating old and new ideas such as managing storm water, using skylights for more natural lighting and installing some partitions and tabletops made from recycled goods.[47]

When McDonald’s received criticism for its environmental policies in the 1970s, it began to make substantial progress towards source reductions efforts.[48] For instance, an “average meal” in the 1970s—a Big Mac, fries, and a drink—required 46 grams of packaging; today, it requires only 25 grams, allowing a 46% reduction.[49] In addition, McDonald’s eliminated the need for intermediate containers for cola by having a delivery system that pumps syrup directly from the delivery truck into storage containers, saving two million pounds of packaging annually.[50] Overall, weight reductions in packaging and products, as well as the increased usage of bulk packaging ultimately decreased packaging by 24 million pounds annually.[51]

Legal casesMain article: McDonald’s legal cases
McDonald’s has been involved in a number of lawsuits and other legal cases, most of which involved trademark disputes. The company has threatened many food businesses with legal action unless they drop the Mc or Mac from their trading name. In one noteworthy case, McDonald’s sued a Scottish café owner called McDonald, even though the business in question dated back over a century (Sheriff Court Glasgow and Strathkelvin, November 21, 1952). On September 8, 2009, McDonald’s Malaysian operations lost a lawsuit to prevent another restaurant calling itself McCurry. McDonald’s lost in an appeal to Malaysia’s highest court, the Federal Court.[52]

It has also filed numerous defamation suits. For example, in the McLibel case, McDonald’s sued two activists for distributing pamphlets attacking its environmental, labor and health records. After the longest trial in UK legal history, McDonald’s won a technical victory for showing that some allegations were untrue. The McLibel Case was also a massive public relations disaster for McDonald’s, as the judge also found that while more than half of what was on the pamphlet was truthful, much of the information simply the opinions of the activists and therefore non-prosecutable.

McDonald’s has defended itself in several cases involving workers’ rights. In 2001 the company was fined £12,400 by British magistrates for illegally employing and over-working child labor in one of its London restaurants. This is thought to be one of the largest fines imposed on a company for breaking laws relating to child working conditions (R v 2002 EWCA Crim 1094). In April 2007 in Perth, Western Australia, McDonald’s pleaded guilty to five charges relating to the employment of children under 15 in one of its outlets and was fined AU$8,000.[53]

Possibly the most infamous legal case involving McDonald’s was the 1994 decision in The McDonald’s Coffee Case.

In a McDonald’s American Idol figurine promotion, the figurine that represents “New Wave Nigel” wears something that closely resembles Devo’s Energy Dome, which was featured on the band’s album cover, Freedom of Choice. In addition to the figurine’s image, it also plays a tune that appears to be an altered version of Devo’s song “Doctor Detroit.” Devo copyrighted and trademarked the Energy Dome and is taking legal action against McDonald’s.[54]

Products
A McDonald’s Big Mac combo meal served with French fries and Coca-Cola.Main article: McDonald’s products
See also: McDonald’s products (international)
McDonald’s predominantly sells hamburgers, various types of chicken sandwiches and products, French fries, soft drinks, breakfast items, and desserts. In most markets, McDonald’s offers salads and vegetarian items, wraps and other localized fare. Portugal is the only country with McDonald’s restaurants serving soup. This local deviation from the standard menu is a characteristic for which the chain is particularly known, and one which is employed either to abide by regional food taboos (such as the religious prohibition of beef consumption in India) or to make available foods with which the regional market is more familiar (such as the sale of McRice in Indonesia).

Headquarters
McDonald’s Plaza, the headquarters of McDonald’sThe McDonald’s headquarters complex, McDonald’s Plaza, is located in Oak Brook, Illinois. It sits on the site of the former headquarters and stabling area of Paul Butler, the founder of Oak Brook.[55] McDonald’s moved into the Oak Brook facility from an office within the Chicago Loop in 1971.[56]

AdvertisingMain article: McDonald’s advertising
McDonald’s has for decades maintained an extensive advertising campaign. In addition to the usual media (television, radio, and newspaper), the company makes significant use of billboards and signage, sponsors sporting events ranging from Little League to the Olympic Games, and makes coolers of orange drink with their logo available for local events of all kinds. Nonetheless, television has always played a central role in the company’s advertising strategy.

To date, McDonald’s has used 23 different slogans in United States advertising, as well as a few other slogans for select countries and regions. At times, it has run into trouble with its campaigns.

Children’s advertisingMain articles: Ronald McDonald and McDonaldland
Sports awards and honorsSee Category:McDonald’s High School All-Americans
Global operationsSee also: List of countries with McDonald’s franchises

Countries with McDonald’s storesMcDonald’s has become emblematic of globalization, sometimes referred to as the “McDonaldization” of society. The Economist newspaper uses the “Big Mac Index”: the comparison of a Big Mac’s cost in various world currencies can be used to informally judge these currencies’ purchasing power parity. Scandinavian countries lead the Big Mac Index with four of the five most expensive Big Mac’s. Norway has the most expensive Big Mac in the world as of July 2008, whilse the country with the least expensive Big Mac is Malaysia.[citation needed]

Thomas Friedman once said that no country with a McDonald’s had gone to war with another.[57][Full citation needed] However, the “Golden Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention” is not strictly true. Exceptions are the 1989 United States invasion of Panama, NATO’s bombing of Serbia in 1999, the 2006 Lebanon War, and the 2008 South Ossetia war.

Some observers have suggested that the company should be given credit for increasing the standard of service in markets that it enters. A group of anthropologists in a study entitled Golden Arches East[58] looked at the impact McDonald’s had on East Asia, and Hong Kong in particular. When it opened in Hong Kong in 1975, McDonald’s was the first restaurant to consistently offer clean restrooms, driving customers to demand the same of other restaurants and institutions. McDonald’s have recently taken to partnering up with Sinopec, the second largest oil company in the People’s Republic of China, as it begins to take advantage of the country’s growing use of personal vehicles by opening numerous drive-thru restaurants.[59] McDonald’s reached a deal with the French fine arts museum, the Louvre, to open a McDonald’s restaurant and McCafé on its premises,by their underground entrance, in November 2009.[60]

.

Fast Food Nation, book by Eric Schlosser
MaDonal, a restaurant knock-off operating in Northern Iraq .
Maxime, McDuff & McDo, documentary film about the unionizing of a McDonald’s in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
McDonaldization, term used by sociologist George Ritzer to describe the process by which a society takes on the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant.
McDonald’s Video Game, a satirical game placing the player in the role of McDonald’s management.
Don Gorske, a McDonald’s enthusiast, has consumed over 20,000 Big Mac hamburgers. He appeared on Super Size Me, is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records, and has a movie called MacDaddy.
Super Size Me, a documentary by Morgan Spurlock.
McHappy Day
CompetitorsBurger King – Second largest burger chain
Subway (restaurant) – Largest single brand restaurant chain
Yum! – Largest multi-brand restaurant chain
the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

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THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Please Enter

DMUC SHOWROOM
(Driwan Masterpiece Uniquecollection Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :
The Driwan Masterpiece Collections

Frame One :
INTRODUCTIONS
1.starting from this day february,20th 2011, Unquecollections blog will add the new Cybermmuseum name Driwan Masterpiece Uniquecollection cybermuseum. consit My best and very rare collections (masterpiece) including the informations and history releted with that rare uniquecollection
2. More infomration only for premium member,that is why please subscribed via comment and the editor will contact you via you email for the administration procedure.
3. please hono0r my copyright,donnot copy without my permission.
4, I hope all the collectors send the comment,suggestion and added Info to make this uniquecollections cybermuseum more complete and more amizing.
5. I built this cybermuseum for the next generation ,look free but more info must subscrien as the premium member of the blog.
Jakarta February 2011
the founder
dr Iwan suwandy.

FRAME TWO:
Driwan Masterpiece vintage International Music Record Collections

I.ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACT OF MOTION PICTURE

II. ELTON JOHN WHITE LABEL RECORD



III.DIANA ROSS WHITE LABEL RECORD

IV.THE GUITARIST MAESTRO LES PAUL RECORD

V. THE MICHAEL JACKSON WHITE LABEL RECORD : BAD

VI THE HOMOKORD RECORD LABEL

VII. THE MIDDLE OF THE ROAD WHITE LABEL RECORD

VIII. THE VINTAGE CHINESE OPERA MUSIC RECORD (COVER)

ix.THE WINSTON CHURCHILL AND MARTIN LUTHER KING JR SOUND RECORD


X.SANTANA WHITE LABEL RECORD

XI LED ZEPELLIN II WHITE LABEL RECORD

XI. PRINCE AKIHITO(NOW EMPEROR) AND PRINCE MICHIKO(NOE MEPRESS) WEDDING MUSIC COLUMBIA RECORD

XII.MISS RIBOET ODEON DARDANELLA ,JASIDI SONG, BEKA RECORD

XIII. BARRY MANILOW WHITE LABEL RECORD

ps. I hope the collectors who have this masterpiece collections to show us his collections with info and suggestion via comment,THIS INFO FOR RESEACRH HOW MUCH THIS RARE RECORD STILL EXIST NOW, THANKS VERYMUCH FOR YOUR INFO.

FOR MORE INFO,PLEASE LOOK AT MY CYBERMUSEUM BLOG,PLEASE CLICK
hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

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WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

*ill 001

*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Please Enter

DMUC SHOWROOM
(Driwan Masterpiece Uniquecollection Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :
The Driwan Masterpiece Collections

Frame One :
INTRODUCTIONS
1.starting from this day february,20th 2011, Unquecollections blog will add the new Cybermmuseum name Driwan Masterpiece Uniquecollection cybermuseum. consit My best and very rare collections (masterpiece) including the informations and history releted with that rare uniquecollection
2. More infomration only for premium member,that is why please subscribed via comment and the editor will contact you via you email for the administration procedure.
3. please hono0r my copyright,donnot copy without my permission.
4, I hope all the collectors send the comment,suggestion and added Info to make this uniquecollections cybermuseum more complete and more amizing.
5. I built this cybermuseum for the next generation ,look free but more info must subscrien as the premium member of the blog.
Jakarta February 2011
the founder
dr Iwan suwandy.

FRAME TWO:
TYPE OF MASTERPICE COLLECTIONS
1. THE VERY RARE STAMPS COLLECTIONS
2.THE VERY RARE REVENUE COLLETIONS
3.THE UNIQUE ART PICTURE AND PHOTOGRAPHY COLLECTIONS
4.THR UNIQUE NUMISMATIC

5. THE UNIQUE TRADECARD COLLECTIONS
6,THE UNIQUE BOOK COLLECTIONS
7.THE UNIQUE CERAMIC ART DESIGN COLLECTIONS

8.THE UNIQUE MUSIC RECORD COLLECTIONS

9.THE UNIQUE CAR COLLECTIONS

10. ANOTHER TYPE OF COLLECTIONS
PS. THE MASTERPIECE UNIQUE COLLECTIOSN WILL ADD ONE BY ONE COLLECTIONS COMPLETE WITH THE RELATED INFO AND ILLUISTRATIONS.
the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

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