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Archive for June, 2009

1.1.1 SIR THOMAS RAFFLES
1)South East Asia Cyclopaedia
( 1896)
a)Raffles,Sir Thomas Stamford.
He was one of the most remarkable of the many distinguished men who have risen from the rank of the East India Company ‘s Civil Service .
He was the founder of Singapore , and one of the best and most astute of the governors of smaller eastren British dependencies.
He was born at sea near Jamaica , on the 5th of July 1781. From his infancy he was accustomed to an adventurous life.
His father , Benjamin Raffles , was one of the oldest captain in the trade of the seas out of the port of London.
Placed at an early age at a school in Hammersmith , at fourteen he was placed as an extra clerk in the East India House, but he did not abondon learning.
His leisure hours were never idle and when in 1805 the Court of Directors resolved on consilidating the establishment at Penang , he was named Assistant-Secretary and towards the close of that year he arrived in the Indian Archipelago.
Whilst the whole E.Archipelago was under British dominnation, he was Governor-General , and resided near Batavia(now Jakarta) from 1811 to 1816 , and from 1818 to 1924 he was Governor of the british possesion s of Sumatra.
During his visit to London , before coming to Sumatra , he founded the Zoology Society , and was its first President , and he began the zoological garden.
When he sailed from Bencoolen , the ship took fire about 50 miles from land, and all his official and private documents , all the living and mounted animals of Sumatra were destroyed .
Lady Raffles , his widow , wrote a memoir of her husband. She was the second wife of Sir Stamford , to whom she was merried in 1817. Her maiden name was Sophia Hull . She survived her husband 22 years and died on the 12th of December 1858, age 72, at Highwood, near London,Middlesex, an estate purchased by Sir Stampford swhortly after his return to England in 1824.

b)Singapore Island
At the southern , extremity vof the Malay pennisula , i s eperated from the continent by a narrow straits , in some places less than a mile width .
The History of the Colony trails back into the mists of time. Six thousand years before christ , the ancetors of the Australian aborigines passed through on their island-hoppingg migration to new homes. Since Singapore has felt the influence of The Indian, the malay, the Javanese , the British and the Chinese.
Singapore was first settled in AD 1160 by Sri Sara Bawana , and from an inscription , now destroyed, on a sandstone rock on a narrow point to the left of the entrance of the Singapore river, it would appear that Raja Suran of Andan Nagara, after conquering the state of Johor with his Kling troops , proceeded to TAMASEK about ad 1201, returned to Kling, and left this stone monument.
The island consist of a number of low hills and ridges , with narrow and rather swampy flats intervening.
The name Singapore in not a malay one,it comes from twoSanskrit words word “Singa Pura”, meaning Liuon City and recallsthe time before the advent of Islam when Indian influence was prodominant. The malay called it “Tumasik”, Sea Town, because of its mangrove swamps and it proximity to the sea. References to Tumasik are found in ancient Javanese and Chinese chronicles.
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Singapore served the headquaters of a powerful Malay Buddhist princedom, which was overthrown about 1377 by the Majapahit of Java’s Hindu Empire. The Javanese invaders put the inhabitants to the sword and, legend says”Blood flowed like water in full blood and the plain of Singapore is red to this day.
This is a reference to the Red laterite soilfound on the Island. Legend also has it that the blood-thirsty Javanese laid a curse on the Island making the soil unfruitful. Even to this day , according to the Malays, it is impossible to grow rice here.
Singapore fell into obscurity after the Javanese invasion. The fleeing Malays, led by the Island’s Sulatan, Iskandar Shah, made their way northwards to Malacca whe re a new Sultanete was founded and flourishes as a malay world market for a hundred years.
During this period Indian and Arab misionaries used Malacca as headquaters to spread the religion of Islam to the neighbouring islands.
As the years passed Singapore became a base for pirates vying with one another for control of the surrounding seas.The Island remained desolate until British establihed a settlement early in the nineteenth century.
Nothing has survived of the old Singapore with the exception of its name and the tomb, on fort Canning Hill, reputedly of the last ruler of the island,Iskandar shah. This Malay shrine, shaded by a huge tree, is worrth a visit. Visitors must remove their shoes before enteringt the holy place.
In several places the sea-face is elevated, but the greater portion of the circumference is fringed by a pretty deep belt of mangrove forest.
Bukit Timah is a granite hill about 530 feet high , but the rest of the Island is composed of sedimentery rocks, amongst which sandstone occupies a prominent place.
Gouverment Hill is about 160 feet high. The Bukit Timah is in the center of the island.
During the administration of Sir stampford Raffles , on the 6th February 1819 , for a sum of 60.000 dollars , and a yearly stipend of 24.000 dollars for for life , the Sultan of Johor made over the Island of Singapore to British , and it was finally ceded by treaty on 2nd August 1824 to the British by the Sultan.
The Island is 25 miles in length , and about athird of this distance in the breadth, has an area of 206 squares miles (1.430.000 acres) and a population at the census 3d April 1882 of 139.208.
In Singapore free port, the only charges are the Straight light dues, which are 1 anna or 21/2 cent per registered ton on merchant vessels .All national ships are free of this also.
In March 1824 the Anglo-Dutch treaty was concluded in London. By its term the Dutch ceded to Britain all enclaves in In dia and on the malay Pennisula ( Malacca and any claims Singapore included) . The British ceded to the Dutch Bencoolen anTd any other sttlemets on Sumatra, together with all claims to any enclave south of Straits of Singapore .
Both powers agreed to allow the other to trade in its ports and to join together in suppresing priracy. Now that the British had finally acquired Malacca it was of little consequence beeing overshadowed by Singapore.
Adminsitration of the Johore Sultanate had now split in three . Firstly, thereevwas the titular Sultan,Husein (follow by Ali), who resided at Singapore and then at Malacca but had no real authority. Secondly, Johore itself was now ruled by the Temneggong . Thirdly , there was Pahang, which was now ruled by the Bendahara.
In 1826 Singapore and Malacca were transfered from the Bengal Presidency to the Penang Presidency
And this reformed Malay administration was renamed “The Presidency of the Straits Settlements”
But , in 1830, this new Presidency was abolished and Straits Settlements was reduced to a residency to Bengal. The headquaters of the Straits Residency was transferred from Penang to Singapore in 1832.
The British , with their bases at Singapore,Penang and Malacca pursued aPolicy of intervening as little as possible in the affairs of the Malay states.
In 1821, Kedah had been invaded by the Siamse and revaged. Then Siam, whose forces were led by their vassal, Raja of Ligor, demanded that the Govenor of Penang give up to him the Kedah Sultan who taken refuge. This request was refused and the Siamese remained in occupation of Kedah and continued to be treat the Penang’s food supply.
A diplomatic mission to Bangkok in 1822 brought a little result. In 1825 agreement was reached between the raja of Ligor , a Siamese vassal, and the british to the effect that the Siamese would not intervene in Perak and Selangor, while the british agreed not to intervene in Kedah.
Siam also agreed not to intervene Trenganu and Kelantan. Siamese non- intervantion in Perak was only esta blished de facto by a British Treaty of Protection with Perak in 1826.
In 1824 the Siamese permitted the Sultan of Kedah to return to his realm as their vassal. Some year later, asuccession dispute at Pahang was to lead for Siamse intervention on the east soast in 1862 to 1853.
In 1867 supervision of the Straits Settlements was tranfered frommIndia Office to the Colonial Office. The first Colonial Office Governor, Sir Harry Ord(1867-1873), maintained the existing official policy of non intervention in the Malay States, but problems were mounting, particulary with the escalating influx of Chinese to the tin mines; notably, larust in Perak, Kualalumpru and Klang in Selangor, Sungei Ujong in Negri Sembilan.
The chinese organised themselves into societies ( Hong) that were often mutually hostile. With the increasing power of the Chinese section in the populatrion anarchy prvailed in several Malay states.
The Ango-Dutch Sumatra Treaty of 1871 left the Dutch free to inaugurate (1873) a war to conquer the Atcheh Sultanete which had been a roost for piracy during several decades, In exchange, the treaty gave to britain former dutch possesion on the gold Coast of West Africa.
The year 187e marked the end to Britain’s policy of non-intervantion.
A British Resident was established at Perak in January 1874, and another at Selangor the following month.
ThenSungei Ujong,most important member of the Negri Sembilan Confederation lying behind Malacca, recieved its Resident in April 1874.
Trouble ensued at Perak (1875-1877) , against enforsement of Residency committments, but matter progressed smoothly in the other twostates, and from 1877 Perak was also peaceful , In 1888 Pahang joined the numbere of Protected States and in 1895 the other states of Negri Sembilan Confederacy came under British Protection.
In July 1896, the British Protected States- Perak, Selangor , Pahang and negrri Sembilan were gathered into United administration as the Federated Malay States and Sir Frank Swertenham was appointed as the First Council Govenor.

2)Sir Stamford Raffles(Singapore tourist Board,1974)
On January 29,1819, a far-sighted Englishman, Thomas Stampford Raffles landed on Singapore. Raffles was then Lieutenant-Govenor of Bencoolen in Sumatra,a dying British possesion in the Malay Archiphelago.
He had asked and been permitted by the Govenor-General of India,Lord Hasting , to look for a new tradiing station where the British could compete with Dutch for the trade of the east Indies.
Raffles had taken the trouble to study Malay while Assistant-Secretary to the Presidency of Penang and he had been attracted to Singapore by what he had read about the Island in Malay manuscript. He immediately recognised its strategic as well as comercial possibilities.
He grew up with four sisters, a lad of promise, energitic, studious and imaginative. His father came of a good but poor family and there wat not enough money to give the son more than two years of schooling. So Raffles, at age 14,joined the East India Company (EIC) as a temporary clerk.
At the Company’s office he saw many of important men of the day, traders,soldiers, and adventures, he heard the names of far-away places and became aware of the importance of silk, tea and spices and the value of foreign languages.
With grim determination, this astonishing youth studied late into the night after the day’s work in the office, teaching himself French, latin, and German.He also showed a keen interest in Natural history,literature and science.
Young Raffles did not care for games, even if he had the time for them which he had not. He was fond of animals , both tame and wild, and disliked the sport of shooting.
He said in later life :”I have never seen a horse race and never fired a gun.
His superiors soon noticed his remarkable abilities and unusual capacity for work. He was promoted to yunior clerk at 19. This made him study even harder at home, he took up Greek and hebrew, and spent no less than eight hours everyday, outside his work, reading and writing in pursuit of knowledge.
When 23, he met the widow of an asistant surgeon in the East India Company’s Madras establisment, Mrs Olivia Fancourt. He fell in love and they were married. She was ten years his senior but the nmarriage proved very happy.
Raffles was convinced that England’s future was in foreign Lands and he asked to be sent East.
Penang had just been made a presidency by the East India Company and Raffles accompanied the new Governor, the Hon.Philip Dundas, as assistant secretary.
The extraordinary young man proceed to learn Malay on the voyage and by the time his ship reached Penang nearly six month later he could speak, read and write the language fairly well.
In 1807 he was promoted to full secretary and two years later was given the rank of senior merchant. Raffles attracted responbility, tasks piled on him, and because of his increasing proficiency in Malay he was also given the chore of translating important document.
But he drove himself too hard and finally his health failed, he fell seriusly ill. By a strage twist of fate he went to Malacca to recuperate.
The East India Company was about to give up Malacca. During his short convalescent stay there Raffles produced a clear and statemanlike report demostrating that this decision was wrong. The conclussions this able and long report were so convincing that the Company reversed its decision and Malacca wasretained. The University of Calcutta honoured Raffles for his Malay translations and for a scholary paper about the malay nation. Lord Minto, then Governor-General of India, impressed by Raffles’s work, call him to Calcutta.
A firm friendship sprang between the two men and Raffles , who had developed territorial ambitions while in the East , suggested that he be allowes’To create such a interset regarding Java as should lead to it annexatin to our Eastren Empire “ Lord Minto did not object.
In 1805 the East India Company raised Penang to the rank of Fourth(4th) Indian Presidency. But, by time Raffles arrived in 1805 it was apperent that Penang lay too far from the Straits to reppace Malacca.
In Europe, Napoleon had invaded the Netherland and the French had taken over reponbility for the Nederlands East Indies. Raffles assumed that the Dutch would not support their French conuerors in case the English attacked the Indies.
Raffles was sent to Malacca to prepare for invasion of java which took place on Aug.6 th 1811. Java surrendered as he had expected .
When raffles ,acting on behalf of Lord Minto, organized the Java expedition in 1810 , it was from Malacca that expedition set out.
When Malacca and the other Dutch enclaves were returned to the Nederland in 1818 the British search-ed for an alternative entreport in the straits, Raffles was instructed to open negotiation with the The Sultan of Johore.
Raffles landed on Singapore island in January 1919. The Local ruler, Dato Temengong, was as vassalmof Johore. The sucessin tothe throne of Johore was then dispute, so Raffles settled one of the disputant , Hussein, in Singapore, declared him the rightful Sultan of Johore and negotiated with him for cession of Singapore to Britain.

1.1.2 Singapore’s Travelling
1) Rambles in Straits(Kinloch,1852)
The passage from Penang to Singapore is ussually performed in about forty hours. The entrance to the new harbour is through an exceedingly narrow channel; but as there is at all times an abundance of water in it, a steamer can pass through at any time.
The only vessels that avail themselves of this channel are the Oriental Company’s steamers that play between Calcutta and China.
` By adopting this route, these vessels save, we understand , about sicteen miles of steaming . Singapore does not look well from the roads.
The best view of the town and the surrounding country is to be had from the summit of the Gouvenor Hill; from this point, there is an extensive panoramic view, which comprises the whole charge wit moisture, aqnd the hill is frequently enveloped in mist and fog.
There are several bungalows on the mountains, partly furnished, which visitors may manage to secure by giving timely notice; a residence there, however, is not unattended with incovenience, isasmuch as supplies of every kind must be brought up daily from the town, a distance of about eight miles.
It hab been thought thet a good hotel on the Penang Hill might be found to answer; but we think it doubtful wheter it would meet with sufficient suppot to make it remunerative, or that visitors would be willing to pay at such a high rate as could alone gift to a speculation of the kind, the remotest chance of success. There is no reason, however, why there should mot be a hotel in the town. At present, there is no pace of the kind, where a gentlemen could venture to shew himself, much less a lady.
There are several Hotel at singapore , the best of which is the London Hotel, kept by Mr Du Trouquoy, a native of Jersey. The hotel consist of two upper roomed buildings, one of which is styled the Family Hotel.
Between the Esplanade and the Beach is an Enclosed space , whitin all the beauty and fashion of the place promenade daily, and enjoy the cool sea breeze.
The usual kind of carriage is use at Singapore is a kind of office jaun, here called a palki. The Syce runs at the pony’s head, and neither he nor the animal he guides make anything of a matter of ten miles right and end.
There are no places of public resort or amusement Singapore ;neither there any society.
The merchants, who form by far the largest section of community, seem to look upon money making as the chief end and object of their lives, and their topics of conversation raely extend to nay other subject than nutmegs or the last price current.
The Indian visitor will very soon get tired of Singapore, for, setting aside the want of society and the absence of public amusement, the climate too hot, and too depressing , to render a residence in this island agreeable beyond a period of a few weeks.
Housekiping at Singapore is expensive and troublesome, and we would adcise the Indian visitor, whether merried or unmerried, to take rooms at the hotel, rather than attempt to keep house for himself.
Before taking leave Singapore, however, we must not omit to mention that the visitor has one resource of recreation, for which he is indebted to Resident Society. We refer to the public library and reading room. This institution is well provided with book sof every class and kind, and as both the English and the Indian newspapers are regularly taken in , there is no difficulty in keeping oneself “au corant” with European and Eastren politics.

2) A Singapore Streetscene by
Schlegel (Schmetz JDE , Inter-national archives of Ethno-graphy ,Leiden,Trap,vol I, 1888,page 16)
The Island of Singapore is celebrated in Malayan history as having been the first place of settlement , of the early Malay Colonist from Sumatra , the orig9in of the empire of Malacca,with several interesting eras in the history of the last it has been intimately connected.
In February 1819 part of the Island was ceded to the East-India Company (EIC) by the Sultan of Johore, upon the instagtion od Sir Stamford Raffles, who saw at once the importance of this place as a counterpoise against the port of Rhio of which the Dutch had taken possesion in order thereby the supremacy over the entire kingdom of Johore.
He had, however , to encounter many difficulties , even from the part of the British government , and it was only the 2nd August 1824 that “The Island of Singapore , together with the adjacent seas, straits and islets, to extent of ten geographical miles from the coast of Singapore , were given up in full sovereignity and pro-pertry to the East-India Company , their heirs and successors , for ever”
In other to attract the trade to the place , Singapore was immediately declared to be a free port and with this adventage , added to its favourable geographical position, Singapore grew and propered , and became in a few years an important town and staples place.
In pitturesque poin of view, Singapore is perhaps one of the loveliest places in the Indian Archipelago.
The entire circumference of the Island is one splendid panorama , where the magnificient tropical forrest tree covering the hills run down to the very edge of the sea , dip their leaves into the water, and spread their fragrant forest perfumes over a distance of a mile from shore.
In former times Singapore was approached by the old straits of singha-pura , (Lion-temple), that lies between Singapore and the mainland of Johore; but about a century ago, it was abandoned for the new channel, which flows past the present harbour of Singapore.
This harbour is formed of an extensive bay on the southern coast of the island, about equidistant from its extremities. When approaching the town from the westren entrance , through New Harbour , the scenery is splendid , and not easy surpassed by any other scenery of the world.
Even in approaching the harbour at night time , the scenery is fantastical and magical, The many lights in the town and on the shore, the lanterns hoisted in the masts of the ships anchored in the bay, the fantastical forms of the numerous Chinese Junk , the little gay pleasure-steamers plying the smooth waters of the bay and pouring gay strains of music into the calm night air , impart to the whole scenery a fairy aspect , which is not easily forgotten and craetes a most wonderful illusion.
A little of this illusion is lost when the traveller descends on shore; for how well built the public buildings and European bungalows may be, they all have a reddish , dirty aspect owing to the red clay which forms the soil of the island, and which is as disagreablen when it is dry, and flies about in red, dusty clouds, as when it has been raining, and makes the roads resemble a veritable re-mud-sea, but the small unpleasantnes occasioned by the nuisance is speedily forgotten by the interesting aspect of the overcrowded streets and the motley population swarming in them.
In passing through the rather narrowbstreet leading from the landingplace to commercial-square, a constant stream of Cnises, Malays, Klings, Parsees and Mussel-mennis met wit; each nationality wearing its own, mostly very pitturesquebor quaint dress, showing every variety of colour and cut.
But it is especially along the so called Boatquay running from the battery along the shores of the Singapore river, that the greatest bustle is found. From the river’s entrance to the iron firdie bridge, name afthe the late Lord Elgin, a long range of god owns extend, forming a complete cresent.
Those nearer of the entrance are occupied by Europeans, but all the Godowns further up are the property of Chinese, who form, as is well known, the majority of the population in Singapore.
This crecent of buildings is termed Boatquay from the fact of nearly the entire frontage opposite them being taken up with the loading and discharging of cargo-boats.
It is here that about three fourths of the entire shipping bussiness of the island is effected, and from morning till night huge cases, caks, and bales, as well as machinery and ironworks are landed; whilst the boats , after having discharged their cargo , are immediately filled up again with bales of gambiers, bundles of rattans, bag or cases of sago, and tapioca,pepper and spices, to be exported to all port of the world.
It was, therefore , a very ingenious idea of Mr W.A.P Pickering of Singapore , to exhibit in the Colonial and Indian exhebition at London in 1886, a model of paper and which model he kindly presented, together with other models exhibited, to the ethnographical Museum in Leyden; after the close of the London Museum. It seem worth the while to give a fuller description of this model than only a bare notice in the Catalogue of the collection, and , at the request of the able editor of the”Internationales arciv fur Ethnographie” , Mr J.D.E Schmeltz, I took this gratifying task upon me.
As we have said above, the Chinese form the Majority of the population inSingapore,being about ten to one of the tradingt population. Consequently, the style of the buildings in Singapore is a sorth of compomise between Westren and Chinese style. The walls are bulit of bricks, platered over with White stucco, and the roofs are covered with tiles, very often Chinese ones. The windows are not glazed, but are shut by Venerians, geneally painted green, in order to ward off the glare of the tropical sun. Abowe this windows the chaste designs of flowers or birds in porcelein . The ridged of the roofs, as also the eaves , are frequently similary ornamented.
Underneath, the whole lenght of the street consist of a series of valuated arcades, reminding one vividly of the “Arcade dela rue Rivoli” in Paris or those in Basel, whe re the ground flour is equally occupied by shopkeepers, whilst the first and next stories are inhabited by private individuals.
The streetmodel presentee by Mr Pickering consist of two buildings, consisting each of three houses. At many be seen in the engraving, these houses are built in the mixed style we have spoken of above. But before passing to the detailed description of these houses, itwill be well to cast a view upon the street itself, wherein the Chinese artist has combined to bring together nearly every variety of scene found in this part of the town. We have to mention firdt the general representative of aur cab and hackneycoach amed in Singapoe a Palanquin , though it be mounted on wheels and drawn by a horse instead of being borne on the shoulders of men.
In the case represented in the model, it would have been perhaps luckier for the occupant if the latter mode of conveyance had been made use of; for the old , rickety palanquin has come to grief (look at the engraved illustrations in the Pictures talks), one of the forewheels being broken in twain, whilst the other has run loose of its axle,to great terror of the chinese lady occupying the Vehicle, and who is looking out , umbrella in hand, how to get out of her disagreable position. Behind the palanquin , a native Policeman or Peon, as he called in Singapore , is remostrating with the Telinga-(ear) driver , whose number he is probably noting down for an eventual invitation to appear before the policecourt.
Quite unconcerned for the mishap encountered by the unlucky palanquin, are two Chinese carrying between them a pig in a basket ; an ingenous method of conveying this the most stubborns of the quadru-pleses, which would well deserved in Europe.
Whenever in China a pig has to be transpported, a wide basket open on e one side is put before the head of the pig; a sudden jerk at its tail induces the animal to jump foward into the basket, which is forthwith lifted from the grown and carried off.
The cruel way in which pigs are driven at home is thereby dispensed with, whilst a good deal of precious time is spared.
We have no remarks to offer upon the Chinese lady walking leisurely along the street if, at least, she has not been shopping st the silkmercer.s behind her.
What the artist has intended to represent by the two folloowing figures is not quite clear. Zthe first holds in his right hand a brass shovel, and his left armed extended st fulled length , and seems to be intent uppon piercing it with a rodhe holds in his right hand.
From the opposite side of the road a Chinese boatman, carrying the mast and sail of his boat upon his shoulders, is stepping past a native graascatrrier who is bringing two piculs of fodder for the horses of his master.
If, in the first vehicle, the palanquin , the inamate came to grief by fault of the driver of this conveyance, not so much can be said for the young Chinese debauchee lying in-toxicated with Samshoo or Opium
, his fan having escaped from his enervated hand , is a sailcloth hammock carried upon a pole by two native.
The youngman is too far gone to be sensible of the Charms of a nice Canton girl carrying in the wellknown fashion her handkerchief and fan; although she would be willing enough to grant her favours to him for a small retribution.
Near to this Chinese graduate in love, as the canton Chinese bath it, we see a handcart laden with boxes and other wares, drawn by a native; whilst next to him a heavier waggon, drawn by two buffaloes and loaded with sundry cases, boxes, and bales, plods its slowly progress through the heavy mud under the guidance of the “Seis” or Telinga-driver.
An Englishman dressed in White jacket and pants, the white pithhat on his head, over which he holds , besides, a white umbrella, stands looking on , waiting for a gap whereby to pass on his way.
Since opening of Japan for the world trade many Japanese householdarticles have been profusely introduced everywhere, and among other the japanese Jinrikisha (the man’s strength cart), since about 1872, this Chart has been imitated by Europeans in the form of a small gig, constructedbto carry one or two persons, drawn by a coolie in shafth and sometimes pushed by another from behind. It is now largely used in Shanghai ,Hongkong, Samoy and Singapore (Ricksow?) and we have seen a model of it drawn by a sturdy Chinese coolie.
Turning again to the frontbpart of the model to the left, we see a Chinaman leisurely walking, came in hand and smoking a cigarette; whilst near to him a venerable Chinese patriach, with his pipe and tobaccopouch in his left, fanning himself all the while with a white fan in his right, is leading his hopeful son to school.
An itinerant barber, carrying upon a pole his requisitesnfor shaving , comesnext, following a Chinese fowl dealer, carrying two baskets well stocked with geese and fowl.
A little further on we see a poor old Chinaman and a Kling or Telinga, a native from Madras or Coromma-ndelcoast , half naked, having only a white piece of calico thrown over his head and part of his body , and recognizable at his religious white, yellow or red patch in the middle of his forehead.The occupations sought by these people are numerous.
They are traders, shopkeeper, cooks, boatmen, common labourer, palanquindrivers and washermen; the two last occupations being almost entirely monopoliseh by them As a rule, they rather insolent, in appearance often very black and very ugly, and , therefore disliked by the European community in Singapore.
Before him walks a Chinese hairdresser , having some falose tresses of silk pending on a pole, wherewith he will repair, invisble to the eye, the deficient ones of his compatriots. Next to him a native is carrying a huge wooden chest, whilst before him a Chinese seller of eatables is pacing along the road , offering for three dollar-cents a substansial meal of three or four dishes from his ambulant restoration.
The street scane is closed by a chinese lady walking with her son and a Chinese gentleman strolling leisurely with fan and stick.

3)a Letter from Singapore (William Farquhar, 1819)
“ Here I am busy forming a new colony.I have no doubt from the natural advantages the settlement posses that it will one day become a place of the first importance to the east.
We have already got up a very respectable Chinese town containing some thousands of in habitams. Raffles could not have a more eligible situation or one more to my liking.
The climate is extremely healthy as
far as we are yet able to judge. The soil excellent, water of the purest kind and a most convinient and commodious harbour for shipping.
(The three page autograph letter written and signed by William Farquhar(1771-1839)nto Major De Havilland in great enthusiagm od the new Settlement. He was appointed the first Resident and Commandant of Singapore in 1819, immediatly after at the persuasion of Sir Stamford Raffles the Island was cede by the Sultan of Johor to the East India Company. Farquhar remained there until 1823. In his most enthusiastic letter he describes the natural assets of his new post., and most central for trade. While obviously much concerned about his promotion propects, and having a strong wish to revisit his family at home. Farquhar expresses his been in the success of Settlement, also remarking upon the extreme jealousy of the Dutch at the new British acquisition.Christie’s Auction Singapore,1994)

4)Singapura the Lion city(Singapore Tourist Board,1974)

1.2 RAFFLES MEMORABILIA
1.2.1 RAFFLES PICTURES
1) Raffles painting by G.F.Joseph in 1817,during Leutenat Gouvernor-General Republic Batav (Indonesia)
2) RAFFLES STATUE INSINGAPORE
3) TOURISM PROPAGANDA SIR STAMFORD RAFFLES, 1974.

1.2.2 OLDIES PISCTURES TALK
1) Singapura the Lion City seaside topographic pictures,1974
2) XIXth Century photo
a) old village on the mouth of Singapore river.
b) Old Singapore habour
c) Old Raffles Museum office
d) Old Raffles Museum hall
e) Native Singapore ship
f) Old Orchad Street
g) Old Hindu Temple
h) Old Chinese Temple

3) XIXth Century Engraved
a) The view from Penang Hill
b) The Penang Hill
c) Singapore seaside view
d) Seaside view from Penang Hill.
e) The Penang Hill near beach
f) Singapore’s Chinese Street view
g) Crowded traders at Chinese Street Singapore with many kind bussinesmen
h) Horsecar and shoulder Pingquin the Lady and The Singapore policemen.
i) The 2nd and 3rd flour Singapore Chinese Shops
j) Various Singapore Chinese Shop’s named.

1.2.3 EIC POSTAL HISTORY
1)EIC Red Oval Singapore , 12 June 1840 pre Stamped letter with squered “India Letter/Deal” on the letter from Singapore to England.
2)EIC SINGAPORE POSTAL STAMPED B 172 ON INDIA STAMPS.
3) EIC DIAMOND DOT STAMPED ON THE RARE INDIA 4 ANNA STAMPS ON LETTER FROM SINGAPORE TO SWITZERLAND,16 JULY 1855.
4)EIC B 172 STAMPED ON INDIA STAMPS ON LETTER FROM SINGAPORE TO CANTON,17 MAY 1856
5)EIC B 172 STAMPED ON INDIA STAMPS FROM SINGAPORE TO CALCUTTA,29 SEPT 1857.

1.2.4 Raffles 4th EIC coins in
Sumatra ENCLAVES.(Bencoolen and Sumatra westcoast)
1) MADRAS BRASS BONK
2) MADRAS EIC BRASS BONK
3) SMALL MADRAS COIN
4) BIGGER MADRAS COIN
5) UNIDENTIFIED MADRAS COIN
6) PONDICHERY BONK
7) UDANG AND HUMAN FIGURE SILVER BONK
8) 4 EIC ONE CENT COIN
9) 1/4 ST 1785 JAVA BRASS BONK
10) ½ ST, 1787 JAVA BRASS BONK
11) EIC BRASS TOKEN 1787 TWO KEPENG ISLAND OF SUMATRA
12) EIC TWO KEPPENG ISLAND OF SUMATRA

1.2.5 SINGAPORE MARCHANT TOKEN USED IN SINGAPORE AND SUMATRA.
1)BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG PENANG-TAILED
2)BRASS TOKEN PENANG WAPPEN SAKEPENG-HEAD
3)EIC BRASS FOUR KEPPENG ISLAND OF SUMATRA -TAILED
4)BRASS TOKEN ISLAND OF SULTANA ONE FLAG RIGHT-HEAD
5)BRASS TOKEN TRENGANU SAKEPENG-HEAD
6)BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG SIAK SRI INDRAPURA-HEAD
7)BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG SELANGOR-HEAD
8)BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG PERAK-HEAD
9)BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG STATE OF DELI-HEAD
10)BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG MINANGKABAU
11)BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG INA UGI TANA UGI –MAKASAR
12)BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG KOCK TANA UGI-HEAD
13) BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG ISLAND OF SUMATRA 1804-1511
14) BRASS TOKEN SAKEPENG ISLAND OF SULTANA 1518
15) KOCK SAKEPENG 5 TYPE TOKENS

1.2.6 AMULET ,TOKEN OR SULTAN PASSED WITH HUMAN PROFIL :
SUNAN GUNUNG JATI OR SULTAN HAJI BANTEN?
1)HALF
2)JOINED
3)BACK FROG
4)CLOSE UP PROFIL SUNAN

1.2.7 SUMATRA TOKEN USED DURING RAFFLES GOUVENOR OF SUMATRA ENCLAVES.
1)BARUS KANCING
2)THAI TOKEN
3)JAVA-KAWI TOKEN
4)TJIREBON TOKEN LITH.
5)TJIREBON CHINESE TOKEN
6)TJIREBON IMITATION CHINESE TUNG PAO TAI
7)IDEM NIPPON TYPE
8)WITHOUT HOLE TJIREBON TONG PAO TAI
9)TJIREBON TUNG PAO HOLE
10)TJIREBON KONGSI
11)CELEBES MANGKASARA LITH
12)SIVER MAKASAR
13)BRONZE MAKASAR
14)BRUNEI TIN
15)MAKASSAR TIN
16)AL ADIL ACHEH TIN

1.2.8 JAVA TOKEN USED DURING RAFFLES IN SUMATRA AT BRITISH BANTEN TRADE.
1)SMALL BANTEN BRASS TOKEN
2)MIDDLE BANTEN BRASS
3)BIGGER BANTEN BRASS
4)SMALL BANTEN TIN
5)VERY FINE SMALL BANTEN SULTAN RATU
6)UNIDENTIFIED SMALL BANTEN

1.2.9 SUMATRA KINGDOM TOKEN USED IN RAFFLES ‘S SUMATRA ENCLAVES.
1)ACHEH GOLD DIRHAM NUMISMATIC JOURNAL
2)TIN ACHEH
3)DOUBLE ACHEH TIN
4)UNIDENTIFIED ACHEH 5)PALEMBANG LITH
6)NO HOLE BRASS PALEMBANG
7) BRASS HOLE ROUND
8) BRASS EIGHT SQUAERE
9)BRASS BIGGER HOLE
10) BRASS SMALL NO HOLE
11)SMALL HOLE FOUR TYPE

1.2.10 BORNEO MONTRADO /SAMBAS &BANGKA CHINESE KONGSI TIN TOKEN USED IN SINGAPORE BY PONTIANAK TRADERS
1)PONTIANAK LITH
2)MONTRADO KONGSI
3)DOUBLE KOCK AMULET
4)SAMBAS KONGSI
5)TAI KONG KONGSI 1
6)TAIKONG BANGKA
7)SAMTIU KONGSI
8)UNIDENTIFIED KONGSI

1.2.11 BORNEO PONTIANAK/SAMBAS KINGDOM
1)SAMBAS ARABIC
2)SAMBAS LITH
3)SAMBAS
TAI KONG KONGSI 2
3)PONTIANAK CLOVER EIC
4)PONTIANAK MADRAS TYPE LITH
5)BANKA LITH

1.2.12 STRAITS EIC BRASS&SILVER TOKEN
1)¼ CENT EIC-TAILED
2)¼ EIC -HEAD
3)½ CENT -HEAD
4)½ CENT-TAILED
5)½ INDIA STRAITS -TAILED
6)50 CENT STRAITS QUEEN VICTORIA SILVER -HEAD
7)ALL TYPE EIC-STRAITS COPPER AND SILVER COINS-LIGHTPHOTO
8) IDEM-RED EYE OFF LIGHT PHOTO

1.2.13 REPUBLIC BATAV FRANCH &BRITISH BRASS TOKEN
1)INDIA BATAV 1804 F
2)VOC JAVA 1808
3)LN JAVA 1809
4)LOWDEWIJK NAPOLEON TYPE 1
&2
5)EIC JAVACAT
6)DOIT EIC TIN 1814
7)THE SMALLEST TOKEN 5 1/32 ST
8)THE SMALLEST TOKEN 1/8 ST

===========END THE CHAPTER ONE========================

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INTRODUCTION
This book grew from five Oldies Indonesian collections between 1973-2000 and the new finding during travell around Singapore in 1974,1994 and 1995.
Before I have only Singapore Stamps , and after found some postally used covers and revenue in 1990-2008 I have started to collect antiquarian books , anykind document and related area postal history like Malaysia and Indonesia .
I have found many Singapura postal used cover before 1950 , but very difficult during East India Company – India stamps used in Singapore.
Some interesting off covers Singapore ship mail agent in Indonesia and malaysia will be discuss in the book .
During the last South East Asia phillatelic Auction in Singapore 1994, many informations about Singapore document and postal History were sold, and I have found the auction’s book, I hove Chriesty allow me to put the rare Singapore phillatelic informations/
After many years preparation with many Indonesian phillatelist who help me to find new Sarawqak Information like Mr Hengky, Ir Untung and Mr Herry Hutabarat, this book finish in Mei 2009 and the resume will put in my internet Blokker .
I will contact Singapore Senior Phillatelist Mr The Peng Hian and Mr Steven Tan via e –mail to send a correction , suggestion and more informations,
I still need more informations and corrections from everybody who interest about this topics to make this unique book “The Unique Singapore documet and Postal History will be the best book about The Singapore classic phillatelist.
Dr Iwan S.

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4.1 HISTORIC BACGROUND
Anthony Brooke , the son of Betram Brooke, with tittle Raja Muda Sarawak, have knowed that The Brithis Empire will asked to have more power in Sarawak after the war.
Due to that situation he have prepared to handle the problem , he prepare the new law to serve the Rajah and Colonial Office.
When he announce by the king as the chief of Sarawak state dele-gations in the conference with the British Colonial Office in 1945.
The Colonial office officer want the foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 have been done, transfere the sarawak state to British Crown colony and change the Brooke power to be same as the Malaya State King and join the Mac Michael agreement “ Malaya Union”.
In January 1944, British Empire to occupied North Borneo and asked Sarawak to made a new agreement to give the British empire the power to make new laws and system like in Malaya state.
In July 1945 the change of power from Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke to “yang Dipertua Negeri” like Malaya state.
On 11th Septemr 1945, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formalsurrender of the japanese soldiers.
Military rule did not come to end end until April 15th 1946, when civil government was oncemore restored to the country.
The administration was then handed back to the Rajah , who had arrived a few days before with his wife.
The scene in Kuching was one of enthusiastic rejoicing and many thought it strange that a man, who had already decided to abandon his country ,could still command so much devotion.
The British Empire want the Borneo army under British Army, and after the Japanese Army surender there were the meeting between Brithis Empire Official with sarawak state official.
IN 28th February 1945, Anthony Brooke write a letter to the secretary of British Colonial that he and his friend was announce by the Rajah as the vice of Sarawak’s people in the meeting with them.
The British Colonial Office didn’t accepted the Anthony proposal, and they write a letter to Rajah the Anthony delegation cann’t had the responbility .
Rajah Vyner Brooke at least take the responbility of Sarawak State in nhis own hand, and fire Anthony Brooke.
In 1945 Rajah Vyner Brooke told the British Colonial secretary that he will give Sarawak to the King of Britain.
In 6th February 1946, GTM Mac Bryan as the secretary of British Colonial have came to Sarawak and have a meeting with the Sarawak’s People Council about The Sarawak treasure in England one million Poundsterning.
As the Father’s Will, Vyner Brooke must consultation with Tuan Muda about the Sarawak Kingdom after heard from Radio BCC about the Brithish Colonial proposal about Sarawak.
In 27th March 1946, two delegation from England Capt. Gammans and Lt.Colonel Rees-Williams came to sarawak to research the sarawak people actions to the law of Rajah give the power to British Empire as Colony State.
MacBryant report that the Malayu and Chinese people of Sarawak agree to the Rajah proposal to give Sarawak to the King of Britain, many Malayu adn Chinese leader didn’t agree.
The secret was opened that Datuk Patinggi of Madjlis Mesyuarat Tertinggi have recieved 12.000 poundsterling from Mac Bryan as the “Hadiah” , and Datuk Menteri, Datuk Hakim and datuk Amat also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , and Datuk Pahlawan also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , Mac Bryan also give 2000 poundsterning to Tuan Haji Nawawi who be “Saksi” the sign of Letter “”Wang yang saya terima dari Mac Bryan telah saya serahkan kepada pihak Pasukan Pentadbir Hal Ehwal Awam British Borneo kerana saya pondang wang itu sebagai Suap”
Datuk Patinggi also give 12.000 Poundsterling to “Pihak Pentadbiran British “ with “Surat Keterangan”.
The People of Sarawak think that the step of “Penyerahan” Sarawak was excellent and Tuan Muda have agreed .
The Poeple think that the situation didn’t have change, they still have the Raja , but this only the title without the power. The Vyner Brooke Stamps still used but with BMA and crown overprint, at least in 1949 all Brooke Stamps were punch hole and used as Revenue.
The King Face were punch hole, the people didn’t understand they think they still have the Rajah Brooke.
In 1948 the first sarawak colonial stamps were printed due to commemoration of Royal Silver Wedding, and the last colonial stamps issued in 1961.
The last day of British colonial Internal Administration in Sarawak 39th August 1963 and is conjuction to comm, the United nation team visited Limbang on the same day to Asseses the people view on joining malaysia.
In September 1963 , Sarawak joint the Malaysia, and have confrontation with Indonesia and North Borneo United State.
Brunei held its first election in 1962, which was won by Party Rakyat Brunei (Brunei People’s party) . Unfortunetly , the Party was manipulated by leaders who formed the illegal North Kalimantan National army (PARAKU= Pasukan Rakyat Kalimantan Utara), and staged a rebellion to overthrown the Govern-ment , The revolt was speedily crush-ed at the cost of many lives.
Sabah Chinesebhave bmuch closer linkwith China than the Chinese of Sarawak, who look more toward Singapore.
Politrical development in the Borneo territories is only a few years old, and when it began ,spurred by Indonesia, more recently by malaya’s independence and Singapore’s self goverment, more recently still by the idea of Great Malaysia, it was organized along multiu-racial lines, but this dinot last, and parties today largely represent racial group.
Sarawak is the most politically advanced of the three territories. The largest party, formed in 1959, is the Sarawak United People’s party, took control, and S.U.P.P and modelednon Singapore’s people’s Action party. It began as a mildly socialist,multi-racial party and continued that way untilmits Chinese-educated Chinese members,led by leaders of the illegal Communist party, took control, and SUPP rapidly became a Communist-front organization. Its executive officers, including chairman Ong kee Hui, a wealthy banker and grandson of the femous kapitan China General under the last White rajah, are anti –Communist but were unable to prevent Communist domination of the rank and file, adn SUPP seriously splintered.
This split was widened in 1962 when two Chinese executives of the party had their residence restricted in Sarawak and left for China, and the wife of one , and another executive , were deported to China.
The Communist behind SUPP have tried hard , by organizing among the Chinese population and other groups, to stir up opposition to Greater Malaysia.
They even used Chinese school children –a popular method in Singapore- to take part in demonstrations against malaysia when Tunku Abdulrahman visited Sarawak in November,1962. But since then first moves have been made by Liberal groups to purge the party of its Communist control and to bring it into political line wit all other parties in Sarawak who support the formation of Malaysia- and these groups seem to be succeeding.
Azhari , who is not yet forty, has worked for years among the Brunei malays and has played on their backwardness and political inferiority to the Malays of Malaya. Although he calls himself a brunei Malay and was born in Brunei, and looks more Arab than Malay. He was in Indonesian Sumatra under the Japanese in World War II and has advocated a union between Brunei and Indonesia.
He returned to Brunei in 1952 and helped from Party Ra’yat in 1956 . In 1957 he went to london to demand independence of Brunei.
He is a dynamic speaker with dreams of a “Greater brunei” and bitterly opposes Malaysia, which would prevent his real ambition is to become Political dictator of all North Borneo , including Sarawak and claim that , even if he is not a member of the Communst party, he has strong personal links with Indonesian and Singapore Communist . Other say he is a fanatical nationatlist. Whatever is true, he is a man to watch is this fermenting little Sultanate , where political reform is urgently needed.
Presiden Soekarno announced “Ganyang Malaysia” in 27th July 1963, PARAKU-PGRS became heroes in Indonesia, they gurella in the Border Sarawak and West kalimantan. When Suharto as the new Indonesian leader , he made a freandly with Malaysia, and PARAKU_PGRS were attacked and in 1967 there were “Kerusuhan” anti- Chinese know as the Red Cup affairs. PGRS means Pasukan Gerilya Rakyat Sarawak were the Black Goat “Kambing Hitam” Confrontation.

4.2. STAMPS and REVENUE
Read in chapter three

4.3 Postal History
!) Seadah Covers,Postally Used cover from Colony North Borneo to Limbang Sarawak during Colonial state CDS Limbang 19 th Sept 1953, sandakan State of North Borneo 17th September, combination King George and elisabeth coronation stamps , rare combinations.
2)Richard Covers, Cds Kuching 17 yl 1963 to Djakarta, the last letter from Sarawaki, because at this day the Confrontation “Ganyang Malaysia” announced by President Soekarno and in Sept 1963 Sarawak under Malaysia. Rare and historic letter.
3)Sambas Covers, Azhari’s North Borneo United state Embassy Jakarta postally used, extreme rare covers.

4.4 PAPER MONEY
1)ONE THOUSAND DOLLARS KING GEORGE
2)TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS KING GEORGE
3)50 DOLLARS QUEEN ELISABETH
4)100 DOLLARS QUEEN ELISABETH

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3.1. THE LAST RAJAH CHARLES VYNER BROOKE

3.1.1 Historic Background

a.Before World War II
Of the Three Rajahs, it’s interesting to note that Vyner Brooke (as he was more commonly known) was the only one groomed to inherit what the first Rajah gained through tortuitous circumstances and the second Rajah inherited as a result of a family squabble.
Upon his birth on the 26th September 1874, Vyner was proclaimed Rajah Muda and on the 24th May 1917, just one week after the death of Charles Brooke and in accordance with his wishes, he was publicly declared Rajah of Sarawak.
His formal installation took place the following years 22nd of July, by which time his brother Bertram, the Tuan Muda, and the new Ranee had arrived to witness the event. With dubiuous vacillation Sarawak and its people embarked on what transpired to be the last twnety-nine years of Brooke rule in the country.
Vyner Brooke was already a familiar figure in the Sarawak having first arrived in the country at the age of two. After some years spent with a private tutor he returned to finish his schooling in England, and his next visit was when he was tweleve years old, followed by another when he was seventeen.
In August 1897, at the age of twenty- three, he joined the Rajah,s staff permanently. He then spent several years serving his time as resident of different state until on May 12th 1904 he was proclaimed the Rajah’s heir before the Council Negri.
Charles then decreed that his son Vyner would reside in Kuching and share his duties.
His new position empowered him with the control of outstation affairs, to desputize on behalf of his father in the supreme court and the supreme and General councls and to used the Rajah’s flag and the Royal umbrella. From 1904 onwards, Charles had sufficient trust in his son Vyner to leave him in charge of the affairs of the country whenever he
returned to England.
Vyner was the opposite of his father in every respect. Handsome ,char-ming and sociable with a genteel manner, he bore a strong resemble-nce to the first rajah.
The generally held opinion among many was that because of his easy-going and unconventinal ways he did not possess the qualities necessary for alife of devotion to Sarawak and that, once the noveltry of his position of Rajah faded, he would lose interest in the country.
He love of adventurous innovations such as cars and motorcycles, and his liking for smoking and other unaccaptablenescapades added to his unreliability.
As Rajah, he seldom took others into his confidence preferring to keep his own council, projecting him as somewhat of an egigme to his officer.
During his early years of services hisbrealtionship with his father, who was not an easy man to please, was a satisfactory, if a time strained one.
But as time passed even Charles began to have doubts about the reliability of his heir. His feeling were to become even more obvious with Vyner’s marriage to Sylvia Brett. Charles never made any secret of how he felt about his daughter-in-law nor did she never hide her feeling towards him.
In reference to the second time she met him,which was on her first visit to sarawak, she wrote :”I had only seen him for a moment at my wedding and i had forgotten how starky supreme he was, how gaunt and unapproachable ; a stern figure with a hwak-like nose,one glass eye from which a constant tricle of water dripped on to his snow-white moustache and a heart of stone”
A description perhaps tinged with a touch of malice. Altough not averse to the charms and beauty of Wmen, Charles never really cultivated a relationship of much woth with Sylvia.
His dislike of her probably stemmed from his feelings toward her father, Lord Esher. From the moment they met Charles disliked and mistrusted the man; he was the type of person that stood for everything Charles loathed.
Lord Esher was a very influential person with friends in the right places. He was a model citizen, very wealthy , circulated amongst the rigfht business and political figures and was said to be a close confident of the King of England.
Charles became convinced that once Vyner gained power in Sarawk, Lord Esher would use his inmfluence to persuade him to abdicate, ar to allow him a firm footing in the commercial development of the country
That the Rajah would have preferred to be succeeded by the Tuan Muda was no secret to Vyner, having lived all his life with th4e knowledge that His parent had a greater preference for his second son.
Being quite and reserved Bertram, although not a formidalbe as it father, bore more of his character-istic traits. Whenever he was in Sarawk he spent his time in the oustations enjoying, as his father had before him, the peace and traquility of the country and the simple life he led amongst the natives.
When Bertram married Gladys Palmer, the only daughter of Sir Walter Palmer M.P. in joly 1904, the Rajah was extremely happy with the union . In comparison to his relationship with Sylvia,he was on excellent terms with Gladys who wrote :”I become devoted to trhe Rajah , and some of the happiest bdays of my life were spent talking and walking with himin his grounds”
With Vyner marriage in Fabruary 1911, the breach between father and son widened.
In 1912, shortly after the arrival of Vyner and his wife in Sarawak, the Rajah issued the follwing proclamation:” I charles Broke, Rajah of Sarawak,d hereby decree that my secnd son Betram Brooke , heir presumptive t the Raj of Sarawak, in the event my eldest son , Charles Vyner Brooke , Rajah muda of Sarawak , failing to have male issued , shall be recieved on his arrival in the State of Sarawak with a Royal salute and honours equivalent to his rank . I further decree that he shall be recognised in the future by all inhibitants of Sarawak as being part of the Government of the State and such recognition shall be duly registered in the records of the Supreme council of the Raj of Sarawak”
While the Rajah had no real reason to disinherit Vyner, he had contrive this subtle plan so that although Vyner would still be the future Rajah, a certain amout of control would be given to his brother.
Perhaps if the Rajah had confided his intentions to the Rajah Muda before making the proclamation the trouble that ensued could have been avoided.
As it was , the Rajah was tactless in the letest move of his , Vyner was upset and deeply resentful. With his hurt, his sense of duty so openly insulted and the slight on his and his’s wife ability to prduce a son and heir ( they already had one daughter) , he reacted spontaneuosly with little thought to the consequences.
He wrote to his father and in the reply he recieved the Rajah said that the only word could explain Vyner’s feelings was “Jealousy”. With that ,Vyner wrote again stating that if Rajah persited with his proposal of the new Bill “I shall be reluctantly obliged to make a public protest against your actions, and to leave the country until things are more satisfactory arranged”
The letter also pointed out that :” The position you propose to put me into must inevitably degrade me in the eyes of population , and amount to admitting that you do not consider me fit to govern this country without the sanctions and apprval of my younger brother .”
He then expressed a hope that Rajah ‘s reply would bring the news that the proposal for Betram’s elevation in status in Sarawak were being reconsidered .
Such a declaration of oposition and defiance stunned the Rajah, whose word had always been law.
His official reply to Vyner on 10th June.1912 , read : “As your letter reiterates your disobedience to my commands, i Hereby officially informed you that in consequence of this acts, I give notice that I shall not in future require your servive in the Gouvernment office nor in the Supreme court”
He went on to say that “obedience to the Rajah” had always been the rule and would remain so as long as he was Rajah.
He then suggested that Vyner should leave the country as soon as it was convenient to do so . Enclosed with the official letter was also a personal one in which the Rajah told his son that he had almost decided to resign in his favour “ and leave it to you to hold the Raj with your present title until my death” he hinted broadly that he was still willing to transfer the Raj at the end of the year.
This latest turn of event greatly shocked the people of Sarawak. As far as Vyner was conserned the personal letter from his father didn’t after the situation in the slightest , and , in spite of Sylvia pleading with him to stay in the hope that things would sort themselves out, his mind was made up.
“My father never changes his mind and neither do I” he told his wife . Having spent hardly a month in Sarawak, Vyner and Sylvia packed their bags and set sail for England . Before leaving they left letters fr Betram who was n his way back frm Engand, the content of which were not very pleasant. Vyner, uncertain of the role of his brother played in the setting up of a state Commite in london of which he also was the president wrote :”I am to the dirty work out here , the letter Sylvia left for her brother in law was rude beyond reason”
In fact , Betram had agreed to the Proclamation on the belief that Vyner had already been informed of its contents. I’s questionable as to why the Rajah deemed the Proclamation as necessary one.
Perhaps he felt that his son would never be as loyal to Sarawak as he was determined to preserve the Brooke tradition.
But for now Vyner was not pre-pared to accept the throne under te conditions imposed by the Rajah.
As he cleary stated in his letter to his brother ,”I do not return to Sarawak again umless with full power. By full power I mean absolute control over the country”
When Betram arrived back in Sarawak the Royal Salute and Guard of Honour were there to welcome him. Amidst pomp and ceremony be attended the meeting of thje Supreme Council with his father .
Back in England, Vyner ‘s wife gave birth to a second daughter. When the rajah had heard the news that there was another child on the way he prepared Kuching for a big celebfration.
Flags and Banner were raised and the bell-ringers were standing by in anticipation of a grandson. With the birth of another girl the flags came down and the bell-ringers were sent home.
It was the thought of those bell-ringers that prevented me giving birth to a son and heir. I could visualize the grim old Rajah sitting in his palace, his glass eye glittering as he tapped the floor impatiently with his stick and the Chinese bell ringers hanging on the bell ropes , waiting for the signal that never came.It was enough to put anyone off.”Wrote Sylvia.
However,when The Rajah returned to England toward the end of 1912, the quarrel between him and his son was patched up. Both Vyner and Sylvia had taken steps to write letters of apology which the Rajah grud-gingly accepted.
He directed that when Vyner was away from the Stae, Bertram should assume the position of Vice-President in the Supreme Council and other Council inSarawak. When Betram was in England he was to be President of the Advisory Council in Westminster.
In Sarawak , Betram was to be shown the same respect as the Rajah and could use the Astana as hus residence if he so wished.
Charles hoped that by placing his son in the position it would be “an additional safeguard “ against speculators who wished only to make profits from the country with little concern for its welfare.
Another clause in the Will was that no changes were to be carried out in the State or Government by Vyner without first consulting with his brother.;”I fervently hope that my sons will see the necessity of acting together to keep intact and develop the resources of the country which has been brought to its present state
By myself and my faithful followers after so many years of devotion to it”
The Will also eiterated that the policy and methods of Government of Sarawak which had been adhered to by Charles and the first Rajah were not to be departed from.
He worried that his son would not devote themselves to a lifetime in the East and for that reason , urged his successor to establish themselves in Sarawak immediately after accession.
He hoped that the attractions of life in a Westren country would not divert their attention from the more pressing needs in Sarawak.
He impressed upon the new Rajah the need to spend eight months of each years in the country and stating that the task of Rajah was to be “the slave of his country and people”.
He then went on to point outh that “The Rajahs of Sarawak should habe but one home and that Sarawak. As the firs Rajah used to say to me; The head can not be long separate fromthe heart”, lastly, he directed that Betram was to recieve the title Tuan Besar.
One can only assume that the terms ofthe will must have been a great disappointment to the new Rajah, as Charles brooke was still standing by the Proclamation of 1912 that had caused such an uproar between father and son.
But in new view of his mistrust of his son and their strained relationship, it is hardly suprising that he decided to try as best he could to safeguard his country after his death.
Bertram, who couldn’t quite adjust to his new title, was happy o continue to be known as the Tuan Muda. He was devoted to Sarawak as his brother but was satisfied to let Vyner control things.
If the new Rajah was hurt by his father’s obvious trust in his brother it never showed. But Vyner was never one for harboring resentment or il feelings and he and his brother got along quite well.
However , he seldom, if ever, folloed through any recomendations put foward by Betram and rarely consulted him on matters or affairs in the State. Perhaps if Bertram had been a little more aggresive during the early of his brother’s rule the familynqurrel broughtnabout over the cession of Sarawak,might have been avoided.
As it was, Betram had perhaps waited too long to remind Vyner of the terms of their Father’s will and was not included in the more important discussions concerning the cession of the counry.
Contrary to everyone’s fears Sarawak did not change dratically over-night. The System of Government remained the same and the European officers who had served his father continued to serve Vyner with the same responbilities and trust.
Perhaps the only obvious change during the first few years was in the general atmosphere. Charles Brooke had been stern, feared and hardworking, whereas Vyner was dignified, gracious, courteous, and easy-going. But he did not take too kindly to over-familiarity and a chill glance from his sometimes cold looking blue eyes would be all it needed to nip it in the bud.
At first the Rajah did not spend as much time in the country as his father had hoped and he came and went often. But later on he settled down to a more regular routine spending the spring and summer month in England and the autumn and winter in Sarawak.
The new Renee took a great interest in her adopted country. She was entertaining and clever. For the first time since the Renee Margaret left, parties were again being held at astana .Life for the Europeans in Kuching was suddenly much more interesting.
The Renee loved to enjoy herself leaving people with the assumption that she thought only of her own pleasure. The Renee dicided that in a limited government society the safest course of follow was to treat everyone aqually.
The gossip that went around was something she had to learn to live with and try to ignore.
Vyner, who had a weakness for woman, found some of his officers wives”pretty and alluring” and the Renee felt that some of the women made use of this weakness . She on the other hand but her fair share of handling the attentions and flattery of the men who were trying tp”advance themselves with Vyner through me “ She felt that for people who had “ as we did, absolute power” temtations were inevitable.
Kuching was much quieter when the Tuan Besar was in control whenever Vyner was back in England. There were no parties and Betram didn’t even live in the Astana , preferring instead a more humble abode close by.
One of the first changes that came about under the new Rajah was the disbanding of the Sarawak Rangers which was then turned into a constabulary forces.
This was, in line with his policy of gradual change di occur in Sarawak. The country continued to progress both economicaly and socially and more public services were developed.
Vyner undertook the reorganization the railway, which had been set upnby his father, and by 1920 it was possible to travel along its full length of ten miles after dark.
More wireless stations were added, so that by 1927 , there were stations throughout the country.
The hospital service was improved and a government dentist was appointed. And a printer from England was engaged to improve on the only newspaper-The Sarawak Gazette- which was set up in 1870 but only appeared sporadically.
More European women arrived in Kuching to joined their husbands and a club was opened in 1920 for their pleasure.
The first Cinema in the country was opened by the Rajah and named after his wife. It proved a profitable venture and shows were held there regulary. Kuching was also undergoing a period of relaxation under the easy-going ruleof the new Rajah.
Office hours were not as steneous as they used to be but the officers in the outstation still had to work as hard as ever.
New offices were created , there was a new departmen of Trade and in 1929 , a Secretary for Chinese Affairs was appointed.
Most of the officials from the days of Charles Brooke had either died or retired and very soon there wasn’t anyone left who remenered the difficult and troubled times of the early reign of the second Rajah. Sarawak prospered and flourished and looked foward to a bright future, but family quarrels, which seemed to be part and parcel of the Brooke tradition,loomed ominously on the horizon.

b. Second World War
When the second Worl War erupted in Europe, Sarawak felt little of its effect at first.
To help Britain along with its war effort , the Rajah prented its government with a gift of one and a half million dollars in 1940, followed by another million in 1941, from the Sarawak Treasury.
This should serve as some indication of how prosperous the country had become. The gift was in deference to the Treaty of 1888,in which Britain agreed to protect Sarawak against enemy attacks.
Celebrations commemorating the the Centenary of Brooke rule were held in 1941, with week long festivities from the 20th to the 28th September.
Six month earlier the Rajah had announced publicy his proposal to divest himself of absolute power and his intention of establing a consti-tution for Sarawak. The Rajah delegated his authority to a committee of Administration, which was set up on 31st March, until thre new Constitution came into force.
He also signed an agreement that would provide financially for his future and thet of his family dependent on him, and he was recieve compensation for the lost of his rights.
The constitution was issued on the 24th September, to coincide with the centenary celebrations, but under the terms of his father’s Will, the line of succession yto Raj had already been laid down and the Rajah should consult his brother before making any changes in the govern-ment or Administration of Sarawak.
The Rajah,who had sworm on his accession to honour his father’s Will,failed in his duty to carry hat promise.
`The Tuan Muda’s consultative right had been ignored and Betram could see no reason to alter the plan of succession laid down by his father which bequeahed the succession to his sons and their male issue .accord-ing to the rule of primogeniture, and failing them,to the son of his late younger Brother Stuart. Betram was already the legal heir presumptive but owing to his failing health, it’s likely that he would have denounced his right in favour of his son,Anthony,should be outlive Vyner.
The Rajah did not trust Anthony Brooke whom he had appointed Rajah Muda in 1939, but subsequently revoked the appointment due to a minor incident. The Rajah anounced the Tuan mUda as his heir but under the new constitution should Bertram die before his brother then the question of heir for Sarawak would be turned over the Committee of Administration. Under such terms the future position of an heir for Sarawak would remain uncertain.
Vyner nor his wife were too pleased with the idea of Anthony Brooke becoming Rajah of sarawak, and Sylvia tried to have the line of succession changed so that her daughter’s son could inherit the title, but nothing came of her efforts.
It seem ironic that throughtout his life his life Vyner had to accept his parent’s prference for Betram’s son would inherit the Raj.
If Vyner had a son of his own perhaps his feelings toward the persevation of the Raj would have been stronger. As matters fared, Anthony Brooke was never given the opportunity to prove whether or not he would have made a good ruler for Sarawak.
It will never be known either how the country would have adjusted the new Constitution because by Christmas day ,1941, the Japanese had invaded Sarawak.

c.Japanese Occupations
24th, Chritmas day 1941,Japanese invaded Sarawak. The Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke with his secretary Gerald Mac Brayn had run to Brisbane Australia, where he made the temporary Kingdom , then he gave the responbility of the sarawak National treasure to his brother Betram Brooke as “Pesuruh Jaya Khas Sarawak” in England.
The country and its people struggled under the Japanese Occupation which lasted almost four years until, on the 11th September, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formalsurrendered of the Japanese Soldiers.

3.1.2 PISCTURE TALKS
1) C.V. BROOKE SIGN AND OFFICIAL STAMPED
2) PROFILE CV BROOKE
3)YOUNG CV BROOKE AND HIS WIFE
4) OLDER CV BROOKE AND WIFE
5) CV BROOKE FAMILY PICTURE
6) CV BROOKE OFFICIAL PICTURE
7) NATIVE INOCENT IBAN 1
8) NATIVE INNOCENT IBAN 2
9) IBAN CEREMONY
10) IBAN TATTOUGE
11) POSTALLY USED KUCHING RIVER PICTURE POSTCARD
12)KUCHING HOSPITAL

3.1.3 STAMPS

1)1918 CV BROOKE FIRST STAMPS,LIMITED EDITION 8C-9240,16 C-28.500, 20 C-36.960, 25 C-20640.
2)1932 OLDER CV BROOKE STAMPS
3)1941 OLDER CV BROOKE, 3 C GREEN,4 C BRIGHT PURPLE,8 C-CARNINE AND 15 CENT BLUE.(RARE BECAUSE MANY USED WITH DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT AND OVERPRINT BMA & CROWN)

VARIATIN WHITE FLEA 2 C CV BROOKE 1918 EDITION
CHALKY PAPER CV BROOKE 1928 LIMITED EDITION , 8 C BRIGHT ROSE RED-15.000, 25 CENT-10.000 AND 1 DOLLAR-10.000.

TWO CENT OVERPRINT 12 C.LIMITED EDITION-12420.

3.1.4 REVENUE
1) ONE SET CV BROOKE STAMPUSED as revenue,20 cent,25 CENT, 30 CENT, 50 CENT, 1 DOLLAR, 2 DOLLAR, 3 DOLLAR AND 4 DOLLAR WITH SERIKEI CHOP .

2)CERTIFACE OF IDENTITY WITH 50 CENT STAMP AS REVENUE,

3)3 CENT BLACK STAMPS USED AS REVENUE IN ARABIC CHAR .

4)3 CENT BLACK STAMP 1.10.37,USED AS REVENUE

5)3 CENT BLACK STAMP USED AS REVENUE IN KUCHING 10.1.1944.(SARAWAK PHILLATELIC REPORT)

6) 50 CENT DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT IN COMPLETE SAVING MONEY CHEQUE. WITH RED INLAND CHOP.

7) ONE SET FRAGMENT OF DAI NIPPON OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT STAMP AS REVENUE ;
a) 50 CENT OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT JUICHI GATSU 1944, 15.10.2604; NI GATSU ,
b) STRIP TWO 5O CENT, OVAL OVERPRINT BLUE, NI GATSU(2604).
c) 1 DOLLAR, OVAL OVPT BLUE, NI GATSU
D) TRIP TWO 1 DOLLAR, OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT, JU GATSU
d) 2 DOLLAR , OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT ,200/04
e) 2 DOLLAR, BIGGER OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT
f) 2 DOLLAR AND ONE DOLLAR OVERPRINT ROUND RED,JUICHI GATSU.
g) 5 CENT VIOLET, BLACK ROUND DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT
h) SQUARE VIOLET OVERPRINT 50 CENT STAMP
i)Round red Dai nippon overprint 2 cent green CV BROOKE STAMPS

J) RED BIGGER OVAL DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT WITH STRIGHT OVERPRINT ON 1 DOLLAR CV BROOKE STAMPS.

k)SMALL ROUND RED OVERPRINT ON 3 C CV BROOKE GREEN.

l) ONE SET VIOLRT BIGGER OVAL DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT ON CV BROOKE STAMPS, 50 CENT,1 DOLLAR,2 DOLLAR, 3 DOLLAR.

m)SURAT IKRAR BERPINDAH NAMA (CHANGE OF THE OWNER NAME CERTIFICATE) WITH STRIP TWO 2 DOLLAR CV BROOKE STAMPS OVERPRINT ROUND RED AS REVENUE, 20 THMARCH 1946.

n) Sime, Darby & co Revenue & Postal History.
(1)Alant Dant the last EUROPEAN BRANCH MANAGER SIME,DARBY & CO SARWAK WITH HIS SIGN ON THE RECIEVED FROM THAT FACTORY WITH 3 CEN CV BROOKE STAMPS AS REVENUE(REPORT BY HONG MING YONG)
(2) SIME,DARBY & COMPANY LIMETED MALAYA & SARAWAK AMPLOP , SEND BY SIM THIAM PECK BORNEO TO SURABAYA INDONESIA, CDS KUCHING 1949.THREE OVERPRINT CROWN ON CV BROOKE STAMPS 3 C GREEN, 4 CENT MAGENTA AND 8 CENT CARMINE WITH HANDWRITTEN THE COST 5. ( HISTORIC COVERS)

o) CROWN OVERPRINT 5 DOLLARD CV BROOKE BROWN RED STAMPS USED AS REVENUE.

p)OFFICIAL DAI NIPPON STAMPED ON CONSTRUCTION GENERAL SURVEY 7 DOLLAR AS THE WORKER FEE CERTIFICATE (PRIVATE COLLECTION).WITH TWO SAME ANOTHER TYPE(FROM THE AUCTIONS)

q) 3 CENT GREEN CV BROOKE STAMP OVERPRINT CROWN AS REVEUOE ON HONG JOO SHOT GUN FACTORY RECIVED,

h)5 CENT BROWN CV BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE ON CHIN 7 SON SHOTGUN RECIEVED.

I)IWAN ‘S PUNCH HOLE STAMPS AS REVENUE
(a) 3 X 3 DOLLAR + 1 DOLLAR CV BROOKE STAMPS USED A REVENUE ,26.3.49 (PRIVATE COLLECTION,FIRS REPORT)
(b)STRIP FOUR OF 4 DOLLAR CV BROOKE PUCH HOLE REVENUE , USED AS REVENUE 20.4.50 (PRIVATE COLLECTION,FIRST REPORT)

(c) BLOCK FIVE OF 5 DOLLAR CV BROOKE PUCH HOLE STAMPS AS REVENUE WITH INLAND KUCHING SARAWK STAMPED .20-11-49.(PRIVATE COLLECTION FIRST REPORT.)

(d)5 dollar King George withouth punch hole used as revenue.

(e) Mr Bill report to mr Ong, block four 5 dollar King George with one punch hole and the other no punch,
(Transition between puch and no puch)

(f) SARAWAK BRITHISH COLONY STAMPS USED AS REVENUE, G-5 DOLLAR,2 DOLLAR AND 50 CENT,I DOLLAR . E- 1 AND 2 DOLLARS.

J. POSTALLY USED QUEEN ELISABETH II SARAWAK STAMPS FROM KUCHING 7 JY 1963 TO JAKARTA INDONESIA TWO MONTH BEFORE THE BIRTH OF MALAYSIA10 SEPT 1963. &CONFRON-TATION

3.1.5 UNIQUE PICTURE

1) G.G. VAN DER KOP TRAVELLING’S PICTURES.
(a) KUCHING RIVER VIEW LAND-SCAPE,RIGHT AND LEFT
(b)Kuching river and Astana
(c) Chinese street and Gouverment office.
(d) Sarawak Museum.

2) Sencored Pictures from dreams of a pagan past prewsented in Sarawak.
(a) Rajah Charles Brooke with hid wife.
(b)iban girl and black ink sencored on the bare breast.
(c) a serial of iban ethic pictures

3)Anticession REVOLT PICTURES
(a)PICTURE ‘S COVER-BOOK
(b)RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE AND MALAY LEADERS

4) RAJAH ‘S CERTIFICATE
(a) RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE LAND’S CERTIFICATE
(b) RAJAH CHARLES VYNER BROOKE LAND’S CERTIFICATE

3.1.6 COINS
1) 1/2 CENT CV BROOKE COPPER COIN.
2) 5 CENT CV BROOKE COIN
3) 10 CENT CV BROOKE COIN
4)20 CENT CV BROOKE SILVER COIN
5)50 CENT CV BROOKE SILVER COIN
3.1.6 PAPER MONEY
1) ONE DOLLAR YOUNG CVB
2) BLUE ONE DOLLAR CVB
3) TWENTY FIVE KATTIS RUBBER BONDS
4) ONE PICUL RUBBER BONDS
5) SERIAL NUMBER ONE DOLLAR DAI NIPPON MALAYA
6)SERIAL NUMBER FIVE DOLLAR DAI NIPPON MALAYA
7) GREEN ONE DOLLAR CVB
8)FIVE DOLLAR CV BROOKE
9) TEN DOLLAR CVB
10) 25 DOLLAR CVB
11)50 DOLLAR SPECIMEN NCVB
12)100 DOLLAR SPECIMEN CVB

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This CHAPTER HAVE MORE INFORMATION THAN THE CAPTER ONE, because the socond rajah issued seven types stamps and the communications with abroad country developed. Many Plantations in Sarawak have communications with Indonesian Plantation company, and some postal history have found and some at the Chriestries auction 1 March.24th.1994 “Fine Stamps and Covers of The Straits Settlement and South East Asia at Singapore. In this auctiuon, 19 postals used covers with The Second Rajah Stamps were sold in this Auction, This informative books now became antique collections. The senior specialist collectors had contributed in this auctions like Colin Fraser, Jeffrey Schneider,David Parsons and nIcholas Startup. Some of the rare postal History collections provenance by C.M.Symes. His the founder of Sime Derby & Co Ltd . still don’t have information. Mr Hong Ming Yong have write about Alan Dant the latest Sarawak Brach Manager of Sarawak Branch Manager of Messrs Sime,Darby & Co and I have found one postally cover from Sarawak Siedarby to Surabaya Indonesia, will discuss in the chapter the third Rajah because the cover form that time. All of this collections send to Mr Th Jackson and Mrs A.Myerscough, and the postal history became their names “Jacson” and “Myerscough” Cover. All the covers sent to England, I need more informations the Sarawak cover to another country,please give your kind information to me, thank you. We shall discuss about the nineteenth covers on every types second Rajah stamps and the limited edition issued informations from Stave Tan,s Unternational Stamps & Coin SDN BHD “Standard Stamps catalogue Of Malaysia ,Singapore and Brunei 2004.” The Sarawak specialist collector.s alway need, because many second rajah stamps limited editions, especially the Postage and reveneu stamps in 1888,typo by De La rue . 1.1. Historic Bacground The Second Rajah Sir Charles Brooke (1868-1917) 1.1.1 Morison,Alastair; A Fearful Radical” The Rajah is extrely nice and kind but a fearful radical. This was how his sons’s tutor described Charles Brooke,the second Rajah of Sarawak, in 1887. There have been few more remakable Europeans asso-ciated with South-East Asia. His life forms the subject of a new book. The first full-length biography of the man. It fills a gap in the surprisingly large body of literature on Sarawak. Charles Brooke was the nep-hew of the first Rajah james Brooke. Charles Brooke joined his uncle in 1852 after service in the Navy which he joined at the astonishing age of twelve. He was no stranger to the area having served in Borneo waters on several occasionbs. His was hardly the upbringing to produce a man of elegance and refinement but it suited tough and craggy personality and inured him to hardship. He spent much of the early service in Sarawak in the small and isolated station of Lingga which lies in the estuary of Batang Lupar in what is now the second Division of Sarawak. It was no pleusure resort but was an important strategic centre for the control of a large region populated by lively and warlike Iban groups. Here with little, save his own strong personality and that of his principal assistant, the brave and able Malay leader Abang Aing, he sought successfully to impose the Goverment’s authority. This meant discouraging local feuds and head hunting , supporting the groups which were friendly towards the Rajah’s goverment and periocally leading exspeditionsn against those who defied the goverment’s authority. Although a hard and generally tacitum man he was the same time immenseky patient in his dealing with those under his authority , able and willing to talk and listen endlessly. He respect local custom and thought it essential to live close to the people and to give up the refinement of European society in order to understand and sympathise with them. He was no misogynist and wrote warmly of the charm and grace of Iban girls. He was completely fearless; calm and resourceful in emergency and at his most cheerful under the stimulus of personal danger. He acquired a deep affection for Sarawak and its people and this was to become the dominant motivation for the rest of his long life. His personal characteristic were such as to gain the respect of Bornean people and none more so than the Iban among whomhe spent so much of his time. The Iban were an energetic, warlike, egalitarian people. They were not the original inhabitant of Sarawak but had moved over from the Kapuas valley of Indonesian Borneo, displacing or asborbing the small tribes who had lived in the area previuosly. Although a homogeneous people in matters of language and costum they were never united. The unit of organization was thet of a number of longhouses , Villages under a single roof containing up to fifty or more families, their members closely related and generally occu-pying a river valley. A dynamic individual would be accepted as the local leader. Warfare and the taking of enemy heads ( Thought tho convey great blessing on their new owaners) were the most important activities for every able-bodiedman. As the authority of Rajahs became established channnelled into activities in support of the goverment, providing the manpower for the expeditions which imposed the goverment’s authority. In 1857 it was the support of the Iban under Charles Brooke which crushed a rebellion by members of Chinese secret socities during which the capital Kuching was captured and the Infant State of Sarawak nearly destroy. Charles elder brother , the heir apparent,had quarrelled with James Brooke, and so Charles Brooke succeeded his Uncle in 1868. He was active in Sarawak affairs until his death in 1917. With only a handful of European officers he depend-ed almost entirely on local supports .Malays administration but the support of the Iban and other local peoples was also indisispensable.Many former opponent were to become loyal supporters. Slavery and endemic tribal warfare were gradually eliminated, largely through persuasion and conciliation . The last actin against pirates, the destructionof a group of lilanum boats and the rescue of most of their four hundred captives had taken place in 1862. As in the engagement of 1848 this action too was to be the source of some controversy. Actively engaged on the Sarawak side was the Anglican Bishop at labuan and Sarawak. Bishop MacDougall, a hearty medical missionary who had only taken holy orders because his Intended bride was deter-mine to marry a clergy-man . The Bishop sent an account of the fighting to the london times but wrote, somewhat unfortunately “” My double-barrelled Terry’s breech-loader….proved itself a most deadly weapon….it never missed fire once in 90 rounds…. ” We are. Indeed , all most thankful to our Heavenly Father who thus ordered things for us and made us His instrument to punish those bloodthirsty toes of the Humanrace. The ultimate sactions avaliable to the goverment in imposing its authority were punitive expeditions, an unpaid rank and file being rewarded with loot and the heads of enemy fallen. The expansion of Sarawak at the expense of Brunei conti-nued until brought an end by the British Goverment in the early years of this century. But for this Brunei would have been entirely absorbed in Sarawak. The Revenues of the state grew steadily.They were, at least in the early days, derived largely from opium, spirit and gambling monopolies catering or the Chinese populations. Viewed in the light of present –day taxes on Tobacco, drinks, and betting, the Rajah was perhaps a little ahead of his time. More attractive, however the Rjah’s Ideas on Administration. He followed his predecessor’s principles” To rule for the people and with the people and to teacch them the rights of free men under the restaints of Government” Administration was direct and informal and based on a much closer degree of social contact with the governed than was the case in any colonial territory. The Rajah had been responsible in the year preced-ing his accession for forming a General Council which came to be known as Council Negri. This was an advisory body, the majority of whose members were local men, mostly Malays and Muslim Melanous. Thereafter it met at regular intervals. The Rajah approved of many aspects of the life of his subjects and although slavery and headhunting were eliminated, he was prepared to tolerate most of the others. He had no wish to change the life of the countryside and compared the life styles of Sarawak country people favourrably with bthose of the labouring classes in Europe. He thought that the impact of the West would be to corrupt and weaken the people. He especially admired the Iban peoples. Only three years before his death he said this of them : “ What one has to admire in the Dayaks is their vitality, energy and activity;if they are not farming por otherwise employed in peaceful pursuits they are on mischief bent, worrying or killing their so-called enemies. If it was not for their vitality they would be an effete race, as a weakly flower in a garden that one scarcely takes the trouble to notice; they are, however , strong in body, a mass of muscle,quic in intelligance and perception, with brains that are as the Virgin soil and only require seedlings of agoodly sort to be planted. I feel sure, to produce useful things on a future day, I never tire of their misdeeds and I have reason to know that on many occasions they desired to obtain my head and boil it on a cauldron” The realationship between the Rajah and his wife and the Sarawk Malays were closed and indeed affectinate. His wife has dsecribed,how,when one of her children was stillborn, the Anglican Bishop refused to allow it to be buried in consecrated ground because it had not been baptised. She wrote “The Datus(the Malay Chief) on hearing this, were so indignant at such a state of thing that, although good Mohammedans, they came to the Astana,laid the poor mite in a coffin and carried it themselves to the cementetry, where it was buried with affection and dignity” The Rajah always rose at five in the morning. When not away travelling he would then go for a ride. After breakfast he would cross the Sarawak river to be greeted by the senior officers and the Malay Datus and proceed to the goverment office. Here he would superinted and transact every kind of government business and sit in ncourt where he could be approach informality by any member of the public. Justice was arbitary but probably fair. There were few coded laws, one of the few being society was a capital offence. This was a legacy of the 1857 rebellion but subsequently Sarawak, unlike Malaya and Singapore, had no problems with secret societies. Matters relating to local costum were deelt with by the Datus and other local chiefs. The Rajah was agreat reader and once commented that a good book and a profuse perpiration were indispensable in Sarawak for health and happiness. At the age of forty-six, at the suggestion of his wife, he took up the study of Frebch with a French schoolmaster who had been shipwrecked off Sarawak coast. He became a staunch francophile, kept his diaries in French and always trevelled in French ships. Accessible to all his subjects and he expected his officers to be accessible too. He country’s finances werr carefully husbanded and the Brookes never became wealthy. In England they were no more than moderately well-off country bgentlemen. The rajah’s only real indulgence was fox-hunting for which, whenever possible in later, he returned to England in the northen winter. He might have done more to plan for the education of the people he loved but he was more concerned to give them peace and security and to protect them from undesir-able outside influences. His last public address to Council Negri ended with sn sdmonition against foreign commercial exploitation: “There may others who will appear after my time with soft and smiling countensances to deprive you of what I slemnly and truly consider te be your right and that is the land. It is your inheritance on which your flesh and blood exist, the source of your self existence which if once lost , no amount of money could ever recover. After my life the future will remain with you to be independent and tree citizens, or be humbled and interior class without pride in yourselves or in your race. You must choose between two, the owner send the master on one side or the dependent and coelie on the other. It is for you to see that whatever rules this land that the land is not granted away to strangers. This is the bdanger after I have passed away. I am now old and cannot live many more year if any. I have had a long life, but my cord must have nearly reached its end. I now bid you bid goodbye A year later he was dead. (The author and his wife lived for many years in Sarawak). 1.1.2 Armentrout,Fred S.”Dreams of a pagan past preserved in Sarawak” InAugust 1897, at the age of twenty three, Vyner Bfrooke, the son Of Charles Brooke , joined the Raja staff permanetly. He then spent several year ser ving his time as Resident of different district until May 12th 1904, he was proclaimed the Rajah’s heir before the council Negri. Charles then decreed that his son would reside in Kuching and share his duties. His new position empowered him with the control of outstation affairs, to deputize on behalf of his father in the supreme court and the supreme and general councils and to used the Rajah’s flag and the royal umbrella From 1904 onwards, Charles had sufficient trust in his son to leave him in charge of the affairs of the country whenever he returned to England. On 24th May 1917, just one week after the death of Charles Brooke and in accordance with his wishes, he was publicicly declared Rajah of Sarawak. 1.1.3 Clipping & Ducument a. Rajah Charles Brooke private love. He seated himself near her and placed a grubby piece of paper on the piano keys.”Read that” was all he said. Written wich pencil on the paper were thr following words :”With a humble demean if the king were to pray that you’d be his queen. Wouled not you say Nay?” Renee ‘s first reaction was to laugh and the Rajah was rather upset and cross at her attitude. He assured her that he nmeant every word that was written on the note. He told her that she could do a lot of good in Sarawak and if her answer was yes, he would be very happy. Weighing up her life as it had been and seeing herself as not being of much use to anyone in England. Renee decided to say yes. She knew that the Rajah couldn’t possibly be in love with her but perhaps realising his chances of finding another woman to marry. Apart from her mother, were rather slim . she woul do as well as anyone. She wasn’t in love with him either althoungh she respected and admired him for the great man that he was and felt that by marrying him she might be of some use to someone after all. Her mother and relatives were aghast at the idea of Renee marrying a man so much older than herself and as if that wasn’t enough, she was being taken off to live in some uncivilised country at the other end of the world. However,the Rajah wasdetermined to merry her and his silent determintation finally overcome all opposition. They were married quietly in Highworth church, in England, on the 28th October 1869 , when Renee was just twenty years old. Apart from her mother and brothers only a few friends and neighbours were present. Her relatives and the Rajah’s parent decided to stay away. After the wedding the Rajah and Renee left to spend the night in Exeter before proceeding to”Burrator”, where they were to spend their honeymoon. This was a small house in Devonshere left to the Rajah by his uncle James Brooke. Before boarding the train for Exeter the Rajah purchased a copy of the “Times” and “Punch” magazine. He settled his new bride in one corner of the comparment with “Punch” and sttled himself in another corner, where he became totally immersed in his paper until they reached Exeter. They arrived at the hotel just in time for dinner which unfortunately, the Rajah felt was tpoo expensive to indulge in. Instead odered grilled pheasants legs, bread and butter,tea and a half bottle of port. 1.2. Pictures Talk 1.2.1 Rajah sign Charles Brooke sign and seal 1.2.2 Profile 1)The Young Charles Brooke 2)Rajah Charles Anthony Brooke 3)Young Renee 4)Charles Brooke Family 1.2.3 Landscape 1)Sarawak River 2)Old Sarawak House 3)Native Iban in the river 4)Iban soldier 5)Courthouse and Astana,1890 6)Carpenter street,1890 7)Kuching Courthouse,1890 8)Astana from the Sarawak River,1890 9) PADU rivers 1.3. The Second Rajah coins 1.3.1 Brass Coins 1)Brass ¼ cent 2)Brass half cent 3)Brass one cent 4)Brass one cent hole 1.3.2 Silver Coins 1)Silver 5 cent 2)Silver 10 cent 3)Silver 20 cent 4)Silver 50 cent 1.4. The Second Rajah Stamps 1.4.1 Common Stamps 1)Jan.1 st ,1871,no Watermark,P 11 irregular,Litho.by Maclure ,Mac-donald & Co. 2)Jan.1st.1875, P 11 ½ -12 by (?),may be by Maclure ,Mac-donnald &co 3)Nov.10th,1908. reprint type 1888 limited editions, but with Postage & Postage inscribed, p 14 , no Wmk, by De La Rue. 1.5.2 Limited Editions Stamps&Postal Hidtory a. Limited edition STAMPS 1)1888, postage & Revenue limited edition stamps. Edition between 181.080 – 12.120. 6c –edition 12.840 16 c-edition 10.400 1 dollar-edition 12.120 2)Jan 1st 1874, TWO CENTS surcharged in black on 1871 second Rajah stamps. 3)Nov.10th 1888 ,Limited edition Postage & Revenue second Rajah Stamps 4)May ,23rd 1892, Surcharged ONE CENT on 1871 stamps 5)1895 OLDER SECOND RAJAH LIMITED STAMPS Edition 30.000-60.000 6)1899, surcharged 2 & 4 CENTS ON 1878 STAMPS b. Rare Postally Covers 1).Postally used Cover .2 cent postage & Revenue with india stamps cds Sarawak ang Singapore. 2) 1 cent postage & Postage charles Brooke on picture postcard (provenance Dr F.Ngu) 3).Myerscough covers 1.5.3 STAMPS VARIATIONS a. 1871, second Rajah first stamps with manuscript surchard” e ctt “(One cent ?), never report before. b. 1874, TWO CENTS surcharged 1871 second rajah first stamps in 1994 this were bogus stamps, but in 2004 “ Recent research has shown that it is almost cretain five enused copies exist. Two or three copies are known used. Forgeries of this surcharged with forged cancellation exist up to about 20 in number, but there are readily identifiable “(Steve Tan,2004) c. Small c ,TWO CENTs variation, normal TWO CENTS and antique 1899 stamps Found in Indonesia , used, cds SARA(WAK) . d. Another variations in postally used stamps or covers still waited informations. 1)Flea dot on Charles Brooke forehead’s hair on 2c postage & postage,postally Use CDS K 2)Manuscript (on) e ctt on three cent Charles brooke first stamps, CDS square S. 3)Variation eight cent dark green Charles Brooke first stamps off center, perforation 14 (normal 11 ½-12) and smaller size. 1.6 The second Rajah Posmark 1)CDS square S first Sarawk postal stamped on six cent charles brooke first stamps 2)Cds round type Sarawak on 3 cent charles Brooke first stamps 3)CDS round type SARAWAK ON 8 C POSTAGE & POSTAGE Cds round type SADONG on 2 c postage & postage. 4)Cds round type Miri on 3 c postage & postage. 5)Cds round type S. 6)Cds round type K on 2 c Charles Brooke Postage & Postage. 7)Cds round Kuching 1907 on 4 cent Charles brooke poste & Postage. 8)Sarawak round cds on 5 cent charles Brooke postage & Revenue. 1.7 The Second Rajah Revenue History 1)Used off sheet Charles Brooke Revenue,5 cent,25 cent,50 cents,1 dollars,3 dollars,4 dollar,5 dollar, and to dollars 2)Dead of Transcription(Surat Tukar Nama) with combination 5 DOLLARS CHARLES brooke revenue and one dollars CHARLES vyner BROOKE STAMPS (provenance l.T.ong) 3)The same as L.T.Ong Revenue history above, I found the same ,date 23th Mar 1935, 4)Charles Brooke High Nominal Revenue 5 dollars block of six an ten dollars block of 16 (Provenance H.H.Ngu) 5)Older Chales Brooke 3 c stamps used as Revenue ,1917 (provenace L.T.Ong) 1.8 The Second Rajah Paper Money 1)Charles Brooke Ten Dollar Cancelled paper money. 2)The Earliest Sarawak Papemoney,Sarawak Government Treasury,five cents,ten cents,twenty cents, twenty Five cents,fifty cents one dollar 3)Charles Brooke one Dollar papermoney 4)Charles Brooke Ten Dollars Papermoney 5)Sarawak Ten cents paper money The Sarawak Charles Brooke paper money above provenace by Mr Steve Tan Kuala Lumpur (photo)

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