4.1 HISTORIC BACGROUND
Anthony Brooke , the son of Betram Brooke, with tittle Raja Muda Sarawak, have knowed that The Brithis Empire will asked to have more power in Sarawak after the war.
Due to that situation he have prepared to handle the problem , he prepare the new law to serve the Rajah and Colonial Office.
When he announce by the king as the chief of Sarawak state dele-gations in the conference with the British Colonial Office in 1945.
The Colonial office officer want the foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 have been done, transfere the sarawak state to British Crown colony and change the Brooke power to be same as the Malaya State King and join the Mac Michael agreement “ Malaya Union”.
In January 1944, British Empire to occupied North Borneo and asked Sarawak to made a new agreement to give the British empire the power to make new laws and system like in Malaya state.
In July 1945 the change of power from Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke to “yang Dipertua Negeri” like Malaya state.
On 11th Septemr 1945, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formalsurrender of the japanese soldiers.
Military rule did not come to end end until April 15th 1946, when civil government was oncemore restored to the country.
The administration was then handed back to the Rajah , who had arrived a few days before with his wife.
The scene in Kuching was one of enthusiastic rejoicing and many thought it strange that a man, who had already decided to abandon his country ,could still command so much devotion.
The British Empire want the Borneo army under British Army, and after the Japanese Army surender there were the meeting between Brithis Empire Official with sarawak state official.
IN 28th February 1945, Anthony Brooke write a letter to the secretary of British Colonial that he and his friend was announce by the Rajah as the vice of Sarawak’s people in the meeting with them.
The British Colonial Office didn’t accepted the Anthony proposal, and they write a letter to Rajah the Anthony delegation cann’t had the responbility .
Rajah Vyner Brooke at least take the responbility of Sarawak State in nhis own hand, and fire Anthony Brooke.
In 1945 Rajah Vyner Brooke told the British Colonial secretary that he will give Sarawak to the King of Britain.
In 6th February 1946, GTM Mac Bryan as the secretary of British Colonial have came to Sarawak and have a meeting with the Sarawak’s People Council about The Sarawak treasure in England one million Poundsterning.
As the Father’s Will, Vyner Brooke must consultation with Tuan Muda about the Sarawak Kingdom after heard from Radio BCC about the Brithish Colonial proposal about Sarawak.
In 27th March 1946, two delegation from England Capt. Gammans and Lt.Colonel Rees-Williams came to sarawak to research the sarawak people actions to the law of Rajah give the power to British Empire as Colony State.
MacBryant report that the Malayu and Chinese people of Sarawak agree to the Rajah proposal to give Sarawak to the King of Britain, many Malayu adn Chinese leader didn’t agree.
The secret was opened that Datuk Patinggi of Madjlis Mesyuarat Tertinggi have recieved 12.000 poundsterling from Mac Bryan as the “Hadiah” , and Datuk Menteri, Datuk Hakim and datuk Amat also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , and Datuk Pahlawan also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , Mac Bryan also give 2000 poundsterning to Tuan Haji Nawawi who be “Saksi” the sign of Letter “”Wang yang saya terima dari Mac Bryan telah saya serahkan kepada pihak Pasukan Pentadbir Hal Ehwal Awam British Borneo kerana saya pondang wang itu sebagai Suap”
Datuk Patinggi also give 12.000 Poundsterling to “Pihak Pentadbiran British “ with “Surat Keterangan”.
The People of Sarawak think that the step of “Penyerahan” Sarawak was excellent and Tuan Muda have agreed .
The Poeple think that the situation didn’t have change, they still have the Raja , but this only the title without the power. The Vyner Brooke Stamps still used but with BMA and crown overprint, at least in 1949 all Brooke Stamps were punch hole and used as Revenue.
The King Face were punch hole, the people didn’t understand they think they still have the Rajah Brooke.
In 1948 the first sarawak colonial stamps were printed due to commemoration of Royal Silver Wedding, and the last colonial stamps issued in 1961.
The last day of British colonial Internal Administration in Sarawak 39th August 1963 and is conjuction to comm, the United nation team visited Limbang on the same day to Asseses the people view on joining malaysia.
In September 1963 , Sarawak joint the Malaysia, and have confrontation with Indonesia and North Borneo United State.
Brunei held its first election in 1962, which was won by Party Rakyat Brunei (Brunei People’s party) . Unfortunetly , the Party was manipulated by leaders who formed the illegal North Kalimantan National army (PARAKU= Pasukan Rakyat Kalimantan Utara), and staged a rebellion to overthrown the Govern-ment , The revolt was speedily crush-ed at the cost of many lives.
Sabah Chinesebhave bmuch closer linkwith China than the Chinese of Sarawak, who look more toward Singapore.
Politrical development in the Borneo territories is only a few years old, and when it began ,spurred by Indonesia, more recently by malaya’s independence and Singapore’s self goverment, more recently still by the idea of Great Malaysia, it was organized along multiu-racial lines, but this dinot last, and parties today largely represent racial group.
Sarawak is the most politically advanced of the three territories. The largest party, formed in 1959, is the Sarawak United People’s party, took control, and S.U.P.P and modelednon Singapore’s people’s Action party. It began as a mildly socialist,multi-racial party and continued that way untilmits Chinese-educated Chinese members,led by leaders of the illegal Communist party, took control, and SUPP rapidly became a Communist-front organization. Its executive officers, including chairman Ong kee Hui, a wealthy banker and grandson of the femous kapitan China General under the last White rajah, are anti –Communist but were unable to prevent Communist domination of the rank and file, adn SUPP seriously splintered.
This split was widened in 1962 when two Chinese executives of the party had their residence restricted in Sarawak and left for China, and the wife of one , and another executive , were deported to China.
The Communist behind SUPP have tried hard , by organizing among the Chinese population and other groups, to stir up opposition to Greater Malaysia.
They even used Chinese school children –a popular method in Singapore- to take part in demonstrations against malaysia when Tunku Abdulrahman visited Sarawak in November,1962. But since then first moves have been made by Liberal groups to purge the party of its Communist control and to bring it into political line wit all other parties in Sarawak who support the formation of Malaysia- and these groups seem to be succeeding.
Azhari , who is not yet forty, has worked for years among the Brunei malays and has played on their backwardness and political inferiority to the Malays of Malaya. Although he calls himself a brunei Malay and was born in Brunei, and looks more Arab than Malay. He was in Indonesian Sumatra under the Japanese in World War II and has advocated a union between Brunei and Indonesia.
He returned to Brunei in 1952 and helped from Party Ra’yat in 1956 . In 1957 he went to london to demand independence of Brunei.
He is a dynamic speaker with dreams of a “Greater brunei” and bitterly opposes Malaysia, which would prevent his real ambition is to become Political dictator of all North Borneo , including Sarawak and claim that , even if he is not a member of the Communst party, he has strong personal links with Indonesian and Singapore Communist . Other say he is a fanatical nationatlist. Whatever is true, he is a man to watch is this fermenting little Sultanate , where political reform is urgently needed.
Presiden Soekarno announced “Ganyang Malaysia” in 27th July 1963, PARAKU-PGRS became heroes in Indonesia, they gurella in the Border Sarawak and West kalimantan. When Suharto as the new Indonesian leader , he made a freandly with Malaysia, and PARAKU_PGRS were attacked and in 1967 there were “Kerusuhan” anti- Chinese know as the Red Cup affairs. PGRS means Pasukan Gerilya Rakyat Sarawak were the Black Goat “Kambing Hitam” Confrontation.
4.2. STAMPS and REVENUE
Read in chapter three
4.3 Postal History
!) Seadah Covers,Postally Used cover from Colony North Borneo to Limbang Sarawak during Colonial state CDS Limbang 19 th Sept 1953, sandakan State of North Borneo 17th September, combination King George and elisabeth coronation stamps , rare combinations.
2)Richard Covers, Cds Kuching 17 yl 1963 to Djakarta, the last letter from Sarawaki, because at this day the Confrontation “Ganyang Malaysia” announced by President Soekarno and in Sept 1963 Sarawak under Malaysia. Rare and historic letter.
3)Sambas Covers, Azhari’s North Borneo United state Embassy Jakarta postally used, extreme rare covers.
4.4 PAPER MONEY
1)ONE THOUSAND DOLLARS KING GEORGE
2)TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS KING GEORGE
3)50 DOLLARS QUEEN ELISABETH
4)100 DOLLARS QUEEN ELISABETH