4.3.1. PROLOG Diem  1955-1957


4.3.2. DIEM REGIME  1957-1963


4.3.3. The AVRN -Vietcong 1964-1967


4.3.4.  The Liberation War 1968-1975


4.3.5.  After Liberation War 1976-1980











(VIETNAM CONG HUA 1955-1975)


4.3.1 PROLOG  DIEM REGIME (1955-1957)


1) October    1954

(1)October ,23th 1954


(a)The  President Eisenhower’s latter  to Diem :


Dear Mr President,


I have been following with great interest the course of developments in Viet-Nam , particularly since the conclusion of the conference at Geneva.


The implications of the agreement concerning Viet-Nam have caused grave concern regarding the future of a country temporanly divided by an artificial military grouping, weakened  by a long and exhausting war and faced with enemies without and by their subversive collaborators within.


You recent request for and to assist in the formidable project of the movement of several hundred thousand loyal Vietnamese citizen away from areas which are passing under a de facto rule and political ideology which they abhor, are being fulfilled .I am glad this humanitarian effort


We have been exploring ways and means to permit our aid to Viet-Nam to be more effective and to make a greater contribution to the welfare and stability of the Government of Viet-Nam.

I am,accordingly, instructing the American Ambassador to Viet-Na,m to examine with you in your capacity as chief of government how an intelligent program of American aid given directly to your Government canserve to assist Viet-Nam in its present hour of trial , provided that your Government is preparedto give assurances as to the standars of performance it would be able t main tain the event such aid were supplied.


The purpose of this offer in tp assist the Government of Viet-Nam in developed and maintaining a strong, viable state, capable of resisting attempted subversion or aggresion through military means .


The Government  of United States expects that their aid will be met by performance on the part the Government of Viet-Nam in undertaking needed reforms.It hopes that such aid, combined with your own continuing efforts, will contribute effectively toward an independent Viet-Nam endowed with a strong government.


Such a government would, I hope, be so responsive to the nationalist aspiration of its people, so enlightened in purpose and effective in performance, that it will be respected both at home and abroad and discourage any who might to impose a foreign idelogy on your free people.




Dwight D. Eisenhower.


(source : Modern History Sourcebook)

(b)The Photograph of President of South Vietnam  Ngo Dih Diem with President USA Eisenhowrer at Whasington National Airport.


b. The First year of Diem regime-1955

1)Jan 1955


(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army

(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were  send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang  (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan,  in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)

 (2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945,  were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.

2)February 1955


     (1) February,2th,1955

     The recieved of Rayon Ford Car’s repaired station Saigon  with the earliest used rare Vietnam Thue Coniem brown revenue 0$50 .

 “Nghan do phu tung (Rayon Pieces Detachees) Ford” Saigon 1.2.1955 for  Charger  two charger of car EOA 1130 = 224 $ + Cahes 3$96 total 232$96, revenue 0$60 total 233$56, 

        (Best collection for showed-auth)

3)March 1955


(1)March.4th 1955

     After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.



4) April 1955

 (1)Diem crust the Binh Xuyen sect

at the period end of French forces and their Vietnam auxillaries to deploy  to South, and for Vietminh troops to regroup in the North.


5) -6) no info

7) July 1955

(1)July.11th 1955


(a)The man of action formally extended Phillipine recognation in a diplomatic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col.Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969) 


(b)The late used revenue of  Etat du Vietnam  thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60. with red squered stampedGarantie & Mois- Sauf Cases.” And red round stamped “ Ban Quan horlogerie-97 Boulevard Charner- Saigon.”


(2)July.16th 1955

Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States

(3) July 22th 1955

Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem

He proceeded to prove the following contentions :


(a)”That  South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”


(b) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese to support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriendly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”


(c)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and communism is to indulge in fiction.

True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more prfitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dangerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnamese people.

In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.

Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnam-ese people”

Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’

(ibid ,constantino,1969)

8) August 1955

Not yet information.


9) September 1955

     Not yet information

10) October 1955

(1) October.23th 1955

Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum .

(2)October,26th. 1955

(a)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.

(b) Three days after Senator Recto attack on Magsaysay for the recog-nition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime, which according to him  had been done in obedience to American dictates, Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.

       The information had appeared in the November 23.1953, issue of Time Magazine. Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.

       (The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information-auth)


(c) The  Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang  with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam  ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also  another type ship like  High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST  at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505.(P) 



(3) 1955

(a)The small Book’s Covers with red native vietnamese ‘s Picture illustrationCa Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955”, Muc Luc Hieu Tu, Nu tac and Nich ai vong an, and at the back cover propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)

This cover used as the cover of handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac

Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.

Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.

La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.

Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.

Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.

Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.

Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.

Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu  chung toi cho khoi chet chim,  thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.

Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.

Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD) 

( What the meaning of ca ve cu sau ? please comment and tranlate the handwritten “Kinh cao cho mau an giac “-auth)


(b) The best of Nguyen Bao Tung Phillatelic ’s colection  contains stamps from the Government led by the late President Ngo-Dinh-diem from 1955 to 1963 and he had the covers with Diem signed and official sealed stamped




11) November 1955

(1)The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese’s soldier party at the restaurant “Nghi Xuan

The soldier with civil complete dress, and two flag there, Vietnam Cong Hoa ‘s yelow three green strip and the military AVRN flag ,s one bigger star.

     “Buoi tiec dtai chien si Hoang Dieu tai nha hang Nghi Xuan

( best flag thematic photo’s  collec-tions, auth)

12) December 1955


(1)     December ,9th.1955

The two original vintage black-white photos of a Vietnamese traveler’s group  to  an ancient building

“ Cuoc du lich o Nam-vian na De Thien De Thu trong 3 ngay 9-10-11 Decembre 1955.”

(Please someone translate, where Thien De Thu trong 3 ? auth)


(2)     December,11th 1955

The Refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day , very rare in mint never hinged stamps. 30 and 100 piastres.(the used stamps were found in Indonesia, the mint not yet found, I have seen in HCM city-auth)






c.Diem’s Regime in1956


1) January 1956


(1)in 1955 and 1956,

(a) Thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North.

The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether  nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.     

(b)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)  

2) February –4)April 1956

     Not yet info

5) May 1956

(1)May.10th 1956

The very rare  Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue with anxient Building, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956.

The complete Khai Sinh form :




Quoc –Gia Viet-Nam                               Chung Thu Thay Giay


         ==ooo===                                             KHAI  SINH


Lang  Thun Doang Son va dtoi choi

Quan  Yifoa  Vang

Tinh     Quan Nam


Ten ho dua con :  Nguyen Nhan

Trai hay gai        :  Trai

Sinh cho na’e     :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa Vang

Sinh ngay nao    :   Nam 1908 Ngay 16 thang 3

Vung moi Sau thong Ba Nan mot ngau Chin trai le Tam.

Ten Ho Cha         : Nguyen Khue

Nha ciro o’ dau  :  thon duong Son xa Hoa theu quan Hoa vang

Ngep-ngep         :  lam Nong

Ten ho me           :  Dang thi Sifaul

Vo chanh hay thu:  Vo Chanh

Ten ho nguoi khai:  Nguyen Khue

May Toi                 : Sot tam Nuoi tuoi

Ngep-ngep          :  Lam Nong

Nha cua o’ dau   :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa vang

Ten ho nguoi chung thu nhat : Nguyen quan(50t) Nam muoi toi

Tuo,ngep-ngep ,noi o’; thay thuoi Thoi LUONG soi,pa dtoi thai

Ten ho nguoi chung thu’ ba : Nguyen Dui Ngu(60 t) sau muoi tuoi

Tuoi,nge-nghiep ,noi o: Lam Nong thoi Duong Lon Xa Hoa thai

quan Hoi vong.


               Lam tai  Thoi Duong son xa ,ngay 10 thang 5 nam 1956.

NGU’OI KHAI             Do’ng Hu’ong-Chinh Xa  Hoa Thoi

Nguyen Khue                 squered stamped “ Thih-Quang Nam-

Quan –Hoa-vang-Hoi Dong Huong

Chinh –Lien Xa-HOA-THAI

Nhung nguoi Chung       Nhan thiet chu ky cua Hoi-Dong Huong

Chinh Xa Hoa Thai

                                          Hoa Vang ngay 11 thang 5 nam 1956

                                                     TINH TRUONG

                                            Signed and red circle stamped



(the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where the location ? please comment-auth)

4) June 1956 no info

5) July 1956


(1)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections  scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.

6) August 1956


(1)             Nuoi Ngot 1956

The original vintage photo of the vietnamese lady in the beach of Nuoi Ngot.


(2)             Long Hai 1956

The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese lady in the front of the traditional house at Long hai.

7) September 1956

(1) September,17th 1956

The  Admission’s card of Franch –Vietnamese University at President TINH street Saigon.




   14 Rue President Tinh                           PHOTO



M     Do Thin Muoi

Est admis aux Cource de:

  1. Vietnamienen 1 degre A 30
  2. Francais A 66  Age……………………………………………….
  3. Anglais debut A 40   profession ……………………………
  4. ………………………………………………………………………….. 


Saigon ,le 17-9 1956            Adresse………………………….

      Le Directeur                               Le Titulaire

     Hansigned                             Handsigned


10) October 1956


(1)  October,5th.1956

     Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN

In the back , rare ephemera vintage handwatch Pronto automatic ,”Ban va Su’a” and Montresz-Stylos , BAQUAN, 97 Boulevard Charner tel.No 2.414 SAIGON (OD)


(2) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and  their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.


8) November 1956 no info

9) December 1956

(1) December 7th 1956

The rare  earliest Regional taxes Saigon Cholon revenue, on Health certificate. Sign By  the Chief beraue archive signe Guiges , and sign legalized  7-12-52  with red cross Bac-Si-Nguyen red stamped.

 (Rare health record document with regional saigon cholon 10$00 yellow revenue, because this revenue from 1960 every years was overprint with year to 1975, and unoverprint on piece difficult to find, only three found another  29.4.1957 and 16.3.1959-auth)


 4.3.2 DIEM REGIME   WAR 1957-1963





a) IBID Stanley Karnow & Nguyen  Ngoc Vy

The South vietnamese Communist  ,the Vietcong, began organising in the countryside in 1957 , planning the assasination of Diem’s village headmen and official. But Ho Chi-minh was still holding back.

Diem’s authoritarian rule, his rustlessness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among peasants but among all those groups excluded from power and from a share in the loot.

The Vietcong assasinations soon made themselves felt, exciting deep unease throuhout the country.

Murder of government officials increase from 1200 in 1959 to 4000 a year by 1961.

Diem’s response was to drive the peasant into foryified hamlets, but this proved both ineffective and couter-productive , alienating the peasantry, who objected to being placed under military commanders and were any-way caught between Diem’s reprisals during the day and the Vietcong at night.

The US administration failed to appreciate that the Vietcong were not lackey of the communists in the North but were an expanding and powerfully organisd army of south Vietnam engaged  in a guerrila civil war.

Clearly South Vietnam stability was deteriorating , though Diem was still in control of the cities and much of the countryside of South Vietnam.

That was most unwelcome to the Americans, since the communist regions of the country bordered on North and South Vietnam and so acted as a passage for suplies and men along the maze of Jungle trails as the Ho Chi-minh trail, by which it took two months to reach the South from the North.

This sparsely populated country of some 2,5 million bordered not only on North and south Vietnam , but also on China,Burma, Thailand and Cambodia, and so was a potential cockpit of struggle between more powerful neighbour.

SEATO , “the South –east Asian collec-tive defence treaty”, organised by Dulles in September 1954, onlike NATO had no standing Armies, nor had its signatories promised military support in each other. So,although it as extended to cover the defence of Cambodian  and South Vietnam, it provided no guarantees of help and proved of limited value when the United States did appeal for Military assistance.

The Eisenhower administration also sent military advisers to South Vietnam and to Laos, yet the Laotian Royal Army never became an effective fighting force capable of dealing with the guerilla tactics of the Pathet Lao.

The influx of American and dollars, more, corrupted and undermined the South Vietnamese and the Laotians.

American advisers, in anycase , suffered from one disability  they couldnot overcome : they were foreigners white oustsiders.   

The Vietcong , for all the violence and disorders they bought to their fellow countrymen , were their own people.

An enormous amout of financial aid was poured into South-east Asia ; most of it went to the military or lined the pockets of corrupt officials.

What the pattern of military aid reveal are the priorities of the United States in South-east Asia from mid-1950s to the mid-1960s. By far the largest amount of aid as calculated  per head of population was sent to Laos and south Vietnam during the decade from 1955 to 1963, about half that amount per head went to cambodia and the Phillipines.

Eisenhower was committing technical,financial and military ait to enable the anti-communist forces in South-east Asiato defend themselves against the communist. But he was opposed to using US military forces on the Asian mainland ( except in South Korea). The mighty US Seven Fleet with its nuclear weapons was close by. What if the nuclear threat did not deter the Vietminh, while supplies continued to reach them from China and the Soviet Union ? What if, despite US ait, the anti-communist groups were too weak to resist effectively? That dilemma Eisenhower bequethed to his successors,

In November 1960 the Democratic Senator from Massachusets J.F.Kennedy won the US preidential election.

Indochina lay at the heart of the “Unfinished bussiness” left over from the Eisenhower administration and the issued came to the boil within the fitst sixth months of 1961. A speech by Khrushchev on 6 January 1961, declaring that the Soviet Union would support waht he called “National liberation movement” in the under-developed countries (including South Vietnam-auth)

April 1961 was a critical month for the White House . Vietnam became the focus of crisis management.

Kennedy order  a review of what military,political and economic action-overt and covert- it would be necessary for the United States to undertake to prevent the communist domination of South Vietnam.

There was wild talk by the military of air strikes against North Vietnam and Southern China.

Although Kennedy frequently showed a better sense of propotion than smoke of his advisers about the dangers of escalation following the despatch of US troops, he never departed from his policy of increasing the US Commitment as much as he judge necessary to defeat Viet cong.

First and fore most it was ignorance, a failure to understand the true nature of  the conflict in Vietnam, reducing it to the simple formula that it was part of the worldwide struggle berween the free and the communist.

But it was not a war arising simply out of communist aggression from North Vietnam . The Vietcong were a south Vietnamese force, the expression of political opposition and disaffection with the ruler of South Vietnam.

It was this misreading of the situation that underlay the US decision to intervene on a massive scale,

The belief that superior technology, the bombardement from the air, coul break the will and capacity to fight of the North Vietnamese and the Viercong caused heavy loss of life and terrible destruction, but in the end was in effective.

Nor could the ground forces defeat ab enemy prepared to naswer escalation with escalation.

The military experts were wrong in their optimistic assements and once more President Johnson had engaged America prestige he found it impossible to pull out and to admit defeat.

But meanwhile that war had been Americanised abd, after Tet, the propping up of an unviable South Vietbamese gevrnment became increasingly problematical.

The US had been sucked into a civil war and faced a determined and rushless enemy. Attrition in the end broke the American will to continue fighting in a country thousands of miles away and for a cause that could not be won.


b).AIR WAR IN VIETNAM (Above and Beyond,vol.4,New Horizon Publizher Inc.Chicago,1968)

     Airpower has been the critical element in US military operations in Vietnam.

Massive,unprecedented use of airpower has provided important advantages fro US troops that no conventional army ever enjoyed in a large-scale war against well-organized guerilla forces.

 ( This book have written before the fall of Saigon, that is way the writter and US armed forces still have the arogan to win because they don’t understand the Vietcong and vietminh people powers and in the Iraq war the used most modern aircraft and  startegic attack especially the bunkers, read another book “The unique Iraq War’s docu-ment and postal history collection”-auth)

     The main advantages of modern airpower are completely new levels of mobility and firepower, Helicopter, employed by hubdreds, have brought the new mobility to  ground operations. Most US infantry in Vietnam move into position for its sweeps and assaults by helicopter, which is more than ten times faster than any ground trasportation, high speed move,ment of large forces gives US commandrs a much greater opportunity for suprissing the guerillas than was possible in the past.

          More important, in the fact that moving primarly in the air, instead of by road,largely robs the guerrilla of the opportunity for ambush.

          Aerial firepowe, unprecendented in the swiftness, had been turned against the Viet cong and the North Vietnamese(Vietminh-auth) army in South Vietnam.

          Attack aircraft are spread throughot South Vietnam in such numbers that they usually can respond to any call for help in less than 15 minutes and very often within five minutes.

          When the enemy does attempt an ambush of ground forces, or stage a suprise attack on a fortified village, strike fighters can almost immedietely bring tons of the heviest ordnavce down on the attackers.

          The ability to respond quickly, and massively to any assault has been a key factor in stopping the capture of isolated settlements by guerillas, and in keeping small friendly units from being overrun by larger Vietcong forces.

          Bombing by B-52 bombers, the most massive use of firepower in any guerillq war, has been a key US tactic because it deprives the Vietcong of its mountain and jungle sanctuaries.

          Guerilla armies traditionally have operated from a sanctuary in rough country where safe from attack and  could rest, train new troops, prepare their operations and treat their wounded.

          The B-52 raids have knocked out many of the large tunnel complexes in mountains and junges which served as major Viet Cong and Vietminh bases.

          Air supply also has been important in Vietnam. Daily movement of tons of food, ammunition, and fuel is needed to support helicopter-borne troops, and this supply movement is provided mostly by fixed-wing transports. These military air transports also provide what amounts to a scheduled airline service between the major towns of South Vietnams, carrying both and freight war’s 

(including postal, that is way every Vietnam covers were Airmails-auth) .

          The vital role of airpower is Vietnam is best illustrated by contrasting the US position in the late 1960’s with that of the french in the early 1950’s because  the French army had mobility and firepower as same as the guerilla vietminh, they don’t use aircraft helicopters. (very rare airmail potally covers during Vietminh war 1952-1955 aut)

          Most dramatic and important innovation of the Vietnamese war (Vietcong war-auth.) is the mass employment of helicopterss. For the US and South Vietnamese infantry , is often is called the “helicopter war”, for helicopters carry him into battle, provide part of his fire support, usually allmof his resuplly of ammunition and food, and then vacuare him in case he is wounded or when the operation is over.

          More than ten years (situation in 1968 when the information had written-auth),   were required to bring airmobile, helicopter-army from concept to reality.

          A small group of Army Generals, of which Lt.Gen. Hamilton H.Howze was one of the most persistent, fought for the new idea and by 1956 brought about the formation of experimental helicopter (air-cavalary) units at Fort Benning, Georgia technology strongly to the aid of this new concept in form of the long-range, reliable turbine-powered helicopter which appeared in the early 1960’s






b. Diem regime war collections.




a.)Diem vs Vietcong in 1957


1) Jan 1957


(1)Soviet Union, favoring a permanent division of the country , proposes that North and South Vietnam be admitted to United nations as separate states .(D)


(2)The Vietcong (South Vietnamese communist) began to organized at countryside in this year.


(3)January.2nd 1957

 The receipt of Car service station “  Nhanh do phu tung Ford-Cholon” 1800$00 and the earliest used the bigger Vietnam Cong-Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 and 0$60.

(The early republic of Vietnam -vietnam Cong Hua Con niem/revenue – was the histroric proof that  the  transition period between the Franch power to  Nationalist power in South Vietnam  had finish and thenationalist characters were begun –auth)


2) February 1957


(1)February.16th 1957

The earliest used of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 40 cents, on the receipt of car station”Ford” saigon, paid 147$64, RATE REVENUE 40 CENT.

3)March 1957

(1)March, 11th 1957

The original photo of vietnamese lady  at Long Hai.

(2)March,19th 1957

The rare Etat du Vietnam Quc-Gia Con Niem revenue 30 cents on the receipt of car statin”Ford” Saigon, paid 93$- ,revenue rate 0$20,

(Because the 20 cent revenue didn’t exist because too many used as the  postal ‘s porto ,  prevent against the law,  they used 30 cent.  DUE TO THIS SITUATION, the fiscal authoritiest must issued the emergency overprint 0$20 revenue to prevent the people paid more than the law order, look at another collection with that emergency revenue. –auth)

4) April 1957


     (1) April, 27 1957

     The Vo Giay Ban Nha  certificate, with Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes Regional 10$00 revenue, the complete document :


(Chong) Toi ten la’ Do-van –Pho , so’ Kiem tra N.1706.A0053 cap tai Quan sau Ngay 13 thang 7 nam 1955.


(Vo) Toi ten la Nguyen le Nguyen-thi-kiem lan the kiem tra so 090069. 20 B .003751 cap tai quan Co Vap ngay 18 tahang 5 nam 1955,


        Vu  Chong toi ky ten duoi da’y , dong y’ ba’ng lo’ng

Ba’n cho o’ng Tran van-Rue, so keim tra 1703-31-A006414

Mocan nha so 509.8 duong truong Minh Giang noi dai cat tre dat chua cu Tay. Vo chong toi hien ngu tai so nha 183.A duong Yen-ro. Vo chong toi ky ten duoi day co nhan du so tien cua ong Tran-can-Ruo la’ 19.500$00 (MUOI CHIN NGAN TRAN DONG BAC)  de’ ban mot can nha so’ 309.B. Hai ben vach xay gach  va ngang la 3m/2 Be dai la 8 m thuoc ve quyen so huu cua ong Tran-van-ruo so tra du so tien mua can nha 309.B. cho chung toi roi. Khoi su ngay lam to giay nay. Tran –van-Ruo lam chu thiet tho gian nha noi tren, va pha tra tien dat, cho chu dat tuy theo ngieu 1 t  can nha so 30 ma tu tro di khong con quyen so huu cua chang toi moi.

        Hung toi bang long ban gian nha so 309.B. cho

        Tran van Ruo nan san nay co ad lam  ai tro ngai co o

Tran van Ruo thi chung toi xin chiu hoan toan trach nhie.


            Lam tai saigon ngay 29 thang 4 nam 1957               

Ong Do-van-pho                   Ba nguyen thi-kim


           Ban nay lap thanh hai ban, ban chanh ong Tran-Ruo giu de lam bang, con ben phu thi ong Do-van-Pho va ba Nguyen-thi –kim-lan giu.


                                                        On Tran-van-Ruo


Thi nhen chu ky ten tren tuy ta cuc

O’ So Van Pho cap

Nguyen thi Kim Lan

Saigon nge 30 thang 4 nam 1957

Truong Saigon-Cholon

Vuong-quan Nha

Blue double circle stampedVIET-NAM CONG-HOA* DO THAN S.C. TRUONG QUAN-RA*”



5) May 1957


(1)May.7th 1957

The receipt from Rayon pieces Detachees (nganh do phu tung) ford Sai Gon ,Car repaired 1978$.

  Very rare revenue “Vietnam overprint   0$20” with 3x 0$40  Vietnam Conghoa CON NIEM (THE EARLIEST USED),red ”PAYE” stamped


(2)May.8 th.1957


(a)The rare Etat du Viet-Nam Quc Gia Con Niem 2 piastres, on the receipt f car statin service “Ford” saigon for paid 994$00, with ravenue rate 2$00.

(The latest used the old franch currency piastres, and etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia very short time, and change to Vietnam Thue To and then Vieetnam Conghoa-auth)


(b) The Vuon-Gia-Can’s Pilot Identity card, signed at Saigon, in the back authetication violet double circle stamped “VIET-NAM CONG-HOA * DO-THANH S.C. QUAN-BA*”, on Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes regional 10$00 revenue,the complete documen :




 216,Ru Dixmunde-Saigon

     46,Legrand de la Liraye-DAKAO



Certifie l’Authenticitie                  CARTE D’IDENTITE

   de la signature de            le Directeur de L’Ecole VUONG-         PHOTO

Monsieur VUONG-GIA-CAN   GIA-CAN soussigne pertifie

Opposee ci-controle               que le nomme Nguyen tu Sai

Saigon le 21.5.1957                   No M1e 157 ne le 3 Aout 1940

          Stamped                           a’ tan an Vinh Long

Tun Authentic Saigon-Cholon  fils d M,Nguyen van Tri

TRUONG QUAN-BA                     et de Mme Nguyen ngoc Hoa

                                                       Profession  pilote

SIGNED & VIOLET               domicile 30 Bui cheu Saigon  

DOUBLE RING CIRCLE STAMPED est bien eleve du ditetablisment.

“Vietnam Cong Hoa*Do thanh         Saigon, le 8-Mai 1957

S.C. TRUONG QUAN BA*”                           Le Directeur

Signed & Red double circle  stamped




( very rare Pilot ID with the bad official printed revenue,  but because the situation still used .

Later in 1960 the design still used but change from S.C or Saigon-Cholon province to Do-Thanh Saigon ,the new province’s name after assasination Diem.  Taxes regional ,Franch style  was changed to the vietnamese with same meaning   “Niem thue “ .

Due to the bad quality , on the  revenue were surcharged with the year from 1960 -1975 ,except 1963 not yet found-auth) 

(3)May.18th 1957

     Diem arrives in U.S. for ten day visit . President Eisenhower reaffirms support for his regime.(D) and Ngo Dinh Diem waves to New York lunchtime crowd as a parade in his honor proceeds up Broadway. Very few Americans could have then found Vietnam on a map (P)


6)June 1957


(1)June.7th 1957

     The First Covers of  Stamps” Tem Tho Cau Nguyen “stamps design native army with elephants, CDS Saigon June 7th 1957 found in Indonesia

(After Afro Asia conference in Bandung 1955, many South Vietnam stamps and first day covers send to Indonesia, auth)


(2)June,18th 1957

The reciept from Saigon Rayon detachee Ford for car repaired 124$40 with revenue 2x Overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia revenue

 (very rare strip two overprint revenue of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia ,the transition between Bodia to Ngo dien diem authority-auth)


(3)June.8th 1957

The Reciept of Service station Vespa-Ford Saigon , 928$00 with added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem 3 x 0$60 ,rate 1$80

(The earliest  Diem’s revenue of Vietnam Conghoa or the Republic of Vietnam in trhe South ex Cochin Chine -auth).


(4)June.18th 1957

The rare combination revenue Vietnam Thue Con Niem 3$(without 00) with emergency overprint 0$20  Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 80 cent.on the receipt of car Service station “Ford” saigon , paid 1561$00 added revenue 3$20.

 (The Serial Reciept with revenue of the Car service station “Ford” Saigon with various type revenue, were the best collection for show –auth)


(5)June.21th 1957

The reciept from Rayon Detachee Ford for repiared car, 2.075$20, revenue etat du vietnam Quoc-Gia overprint 0$20 and 5 x new type brown Viet-nam revenue 80 cent (rate 4$20) .(rare transition revenue, the vietnam revenue used very short times -auth).





7) July 1957


(1) July.16th 1957

The Reciept of Bo Thanh Saigon ,Ty Tai Chanh vung Saigon for 22$10 for Gia moi thuoc khoi,Tien muon thuy luong ke & Tien tu-bo dan nuoc ,thue truong Ba. With overprint 0$20 Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia revenue

(rare revenue, I have only three that kind revenue on complete docu-ment,best variation rate, this the best transition  revenue during the earliest of liberation war-Diem era, I hope one day will put on show in USA and Saigon- auth)  


(2)July.12th 1957

The Receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon 2108$00 added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 8 x 0$60(rate 4$80) ,

( rare eight revenue, strip of five and three revenue 0$60.-auth)


The Receipt of Car service Station Ford Saigon 538$00, added 3 x 0$40 (rate 1$20) bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue.


(4)July.12th 1957

The rare combination common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80 with rare emergency overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia con niem revenue 80  cent. On the receipt of car servive station for Saigon  470$00, rate revenue 1$00.-

(rare the Quoc Gia revenue 1$00 that time-auth)


(5)July.26th 1957

The very rare combination emergency overprint 0$20 Quoc-Gia Etat du vietnam revenue  with 3 x 0$80  Vietnam thue Con Niem revenue 80 cents (rate 2$60), on the receipt of car repaired station “ford” saigon ,for paid 1.220$20.

(unusual revenue rate and cmbination rare type revenue, best collection for show , the late used of vietnam Thue Con Niem sea-fauna type revenue -auth)

(6)July ,30th 1957

The receipt of car&motorbike  service station Vespa&Ford Saigon , Ringlauer cable complete, 87$00, added very rare emergency revenue “ Overprint Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia con niem black 0$20 on 0$80 this time difficult to found revenue Etat du Vietnam Quc Gia 0$20”



8) August 1957

(1)August.27th 1957

The receipt of Car Service of Ngahn du Phu tung Ford Saigon , 2981$00 added Revenue Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00.


(The serial reciept with complete nominal value revenue in 1957 until 1959 will showed us the transition period  including the emergencies overprint revenue were best collection to show  look at that varition revenue-auth)

9)September 1957

(1)September.20th 1957

The rare combination between common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue 0$40 with rare Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue 2 Piastres , on the receipt or car servive statin “Ford” cholon, 1138$ , revenue rate 2$40.

(still used Piastres revenue-at transition period -auth)


(2)September.19th 1957

The unusual nominal value of revenue only  2$ without 00 (the right must 2$00) Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue on the reciept of car station service “Ford” saigon 1012$00, rate revenue 2$00.

(Unusual print without 00 after 2$, only  2$ , the right was 2$00, before another type 3 piastres -auth)

(3)September.26th 1957

The Contant Receipt of Societe Indochinoise De Transport  for car service SIT Saigon &SIT Phon Phenh  “Bobine Lucas 12v-237706” 328$00 with bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80

(The Indochine old form still used-auth)


10) October 1957

(1)October 1957

Communist insurgent activity in South Vietnam begins in accordance with decision reched in Hanoi to organized  thirty seven armed companies in Mekong delta.

During the year guerrillas assassinated more than four hundred minor South Vietnamese official.(D)

(2) , The South Vietnam Communist, The Vietcong , began organising  in the countryside, planning the assasination on Diem ‘s village headmen and official,


(3) The photo of Diem in the front of Saigon Bishop and another officials, he sat at law chair (TT Diem tam Cao nguyen Trung phan 1957) (P)




1) January 1958


(1)Diem in 1958

 Diem’s authoritarian rule, his ruthlesness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among pheasant bu among all those groups excluded from power and from a share .

2) February 1958

(1)February,7th 1958

The receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon, 1667$00, added Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 + 0$60.(rate 3$60)

3) -4) 1958

     No info

5) May 1958


The receipt of Indochine electric company 61$20 with Vietnam Cong Hoa common bigger type 0$20. the form write in Franch langueges.

6) June 1958

(1)Vietcong form a coordinated command structure in eastren Mekong delta .

7) July 1958

(1)July.31th 1958

The receipt of Car Service station Ford Saigon , 800$00 with Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 2 x 0$80 (rate 1$20)

8) August 1958

(1)August.15th 1958

The Military certificate, “ Quan-Doi Vietnam Cong Hoa” De Tam Quan-Khu. “CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN-MON SO 1 Bo-Binh” (Quan/Military certificate/Chung Chi), the complete certificate with armed walfare illustrations. :


Hoi-Dong Giam Khao ky thi man khoa lai T.T.H.L/SDKC 14 ta ngay 23 thang 6 nam 1958 den 28 thang 6 nam 1958  .

          Chung nhan Binh nat TRAN-VAN-KHIET  so quan 400.052

Ta trung tuyen ky thi CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN MON S 1/BO-BINH.

          Voi diem trung binh chung 13,23/20 . thung hang 43/71 .

Chuyen mon   :         Bo-Binh


Lam Tai KBC 4.061, ngay 15-8-1958

             Chan cu kao

Thieu-Ta Nguyen –Luong-Khuong


KBC 4.098 ngay 25/9/1958

Trung –Ta Bui-Huu-Nhon

Q Tu Linh-Do Tam Quan-khu



(the interesting for South Vietnam military document ‘s showed  with the picture of  green black military action around the certificate, sign at KBC 4061(?) and 4098(?) not list in IMNAHA KBC number please comment the complete area from KBC 4027 – Dalat National Military academy to KBC-4100 Thu Duc infantry school.

This was the trung tham certificate? Change thingking? Because only 12 days training,what kind of training and where the location -auth)

9) September 1958

(1) September.27th 1958

Tet Nhi Dong Saigon (Tet New Year Holiday) covers with the tet Stamps and special first day postal stamped In this day 20 years laters Vietcong suprise  attack (PH)

10)-11) 1958 no info

12) December 1958

(1)  by 1958 almost all the residual insurgent had been wiped out.(P)



c) Diem ARVN vs Vietcong  in 1959


1) January 1959

(1) Murderer of Gouvernment official by Vietcong 1200 per years.(D)

(2)Since 1959, the best Vietnam phillatelic collector Nguyen Bao Tung was a member of South Vietnam’s council for planning new stamps design and secretary General of the Vietnamese-American Association Stamp Club in Vietnam

( please Mr Tung or his native Vietnam phillatelic ‘s friend help me with more comment and information-auth)


     (3) The original vintage photo Vietnamese army (AVRN) wiyh his sister (4 womens) , in the back of photo written “ Ky niem Hoi con tic 1959 Bihuy.”

2) February 1959

(1)February ,18th 1959

The picture postcard of Nha Trang beach ‘Cha”ng ca’nh , Dai ta’nh” postally used (stamp off) CDS NHA TRA(NG) , 18.(2).1959 TO Cholon.


Nha Trang 14.2.59      cds Nha trang            

Cordial souvenuer                      18.2.1959

Nuedley vocine                   Nguyen Ba Luon

Pour l’annee                         Profeneur

      Ky’ Hoi                                E’cole Francaise de              




(2)February .6th 1959

The rare reciept of Police D’Abonnement Au Compteur, appreil instalattion than-chan ,Trinh , money 9114$63, with the rare highest nominal value bigger type green Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 10$00.

(This revenue document very find condition  and very rare the Police ambonnement of Compteur, for high price installation nine thousand $ , and high nominal 10$00 revenue- the show piece collection-auth)

3) March 1959

(1)   March,1st. 1959

     BINH CHUNG  RA-DA.  Don Vi Anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng. Vu Trang Nhan Dan (D)

     (2) March,3rd 1959

The HOC CHI of Truong Trung Hoc Tu Thuc Cong-Hoa, 139 ,Duong Pasteur saigon. DE Tu Nhien Khoa 1958-1959.

Signed by Hieu Truong Phan van Van with rede doublke circle official stamped.,

Autheticated  with  regional Cholon-Saigon taxes regional 10$00 yellow revenue. By T.U.N. Do Truong Saigon,Truong Quan cuan Na with official stamped “ Vietnam Cong-Hua* D0-Thanh S.C. Truong Chan Ba.*”


(The lattest used of the regional revenue, after this  regional revenue will ovrprinted with year from 1960 to 1975 except 1963, the best serial regional revenue and best for showed-auth)


     (3) March 14th 1959

          The stamps of Trung sister on Elephant were issued in this day, the  6 pi uncommon in mint no hings condition.

(The Vietnam hero’s  Trung sister  very popular but the Lady Trieu didn’t issued because the people hate Madame Ngu because she said  that she was the reincarnation of Lady Trieu and she made the statue which broken out after the Diem regime fall, read the chapter I  Ancient Vietnam War, -auth)

4) April 1959 no info

5) May 1959

(1) North Vietnam forms Group 559, to begin infiltrating cadres and weapons into Southy Vietnam via the Saigon Trail.(D)


6) no info

7) July 1959

(1) July 1959

Group 759 organized by Vietminh to suplies to the south by sea.(D)

(2)July,12th. 1959

        The Dalat” Chuc Pongouh” water-fall vintage picture postcard send from Dalat in French char. In the back in franch:


                                                                   Dalat le 12.7.50

Monsieur Triat,


Alur tres …ne nouvelle a vous

aunoncre, j’ai trouv …..juine (JUNE) fille pour vous et j.

..re, quu’elte vous flavia.Je vous la prisenter , Ju mon retour.Si Vous e les presse, regadez en attenolant la

photo qua Germaine Vous a envorjee.Je cois qu ‘slle yest de dana (Danang)  .


#Bientiet et Bon counage.                   Signed



(Please somone translate this latter ,thanks,auth)

(3)July,15th. 1959

     To Khai Gia Dinh ‘s Bo Thanh Saigon ‘s document from Canh Sat Cuoc Quan ,Khu 7

signed by Gia-truong dung Khai ,ky ten and Kien-thj , le canh sai truong with red double circle Sat quoc quan with bamboo / flora disign.(OD)


(4) July 24th 1959

Ban Xa-Hoi Quan Tan-Binh


Nha Lanh cua Bo Dinh thi Nam SO BAC LA : Mui dtong bac :


Giup vao Quy Au-Tri Vien phunun.

Tan Binh,26.6.1959


Chu Tieh signed Nguyen –Thi-Lieng

Red Stamped BAN XA-HOI  Tinh Gia-dinh

Quan Tan-Binh.


 (What the meaning : “Au-Tri-vien”? auth)

8)August 1959


   (1) August,1st,1959

   The red “The’  Cu’ Tri (election?) Card” in vietnamese language , 1.8.1959 :





                        THE’ CU’ – TRI

          BAU CU’ QUO’C HO’I NAM 1959

                        No. 0634621 A/IX


    Ho’ Te’n   Nguyen Thi Thuan

    Ngay sinh va sinh :  29 tuoi

    Dia-chi  9 –B- Be’n Nguyen Duy

    The’ co’n cuo’c so’  B .003.539 nga’y………ca’p toi…..

    Cha ‘ ky’ cu’a       Zua’n Ta’m     ngay  1 Thang 8 na’m 1959

     Nguo co the                                     Chu’ ky’ va’ da’u cu’n

                                                               Nha chue’ tra’ch ca’p tha’i



  CHU’ Y’ .Ai du”ng the’ cu-tri cu’a ngu’o’i khac’ hoa’c dua the’ cu’-tri cua

                    Minh cho ke’ kha’c du’ng de’u bi truy-tp’ theo hinh-tua’t.


9) no info

10) October 1959

(1)Notre Dam Basilica (Saigon)

This church up to the Basilica in 1959 during 300 years Saigon Bishop (D- in the front of Basilica no Marie Madona statue) and private photo of the Basilica (OP- i964, there were Madona-Marie statue, may be made after Diem assasination)

When my visit in 2007, in the front of this Basilica I saw the Madonna statue  and  I have prayed at the front of that statue : “Please help me to get the best vietnam war postal history” and when I turned to the right I saw the small native stamps shops where some Vietcong postal history were found-there, difficult to seek the stamps shop in saigon because everybody did.t understand where the antique or phillatelic shop, you must told them Buu chin shop, also the Stamp catalogues.

In my last visit july 2009, I have went  by foot, walking from Phi Vu Hotel Nguyen Trai street , through the street in the front of the Hotel two block –to the right I came to the Back of the Market at front of Saigon Bus station, the to the right two block came to Ho Chi Minh City Museum where show the Vietnam War weapon, helicopter, jet and tank, granat,gun, archive ,photo and document of Vietnam Liberation war including Vietcong collections, but not the revenue and pstal history, also traditional wedding ceremony, and the Vietnam cultural ethnic collection and Saigon history, then   turn to the right found Pasteur street(Duong),

More two block turn left I have seen the Basilica, seen inside , many brides have made the antique photo, a Chinese Oldman help me to take photo of myself , in the front Mary statue at the front of Basilica,  

At left side of the basilica,  I met The Antique Saigon post office where I made two CTO cover, one for my friend Adi Darma with the 2006 sheet stamps chinese shio, and for my collection Ho Chi Minh stamps block four, but very pity I cann’t find the Stamp shop anymore after asking many persons because I still have the name card, after that by bus I go to Saigon bus station and met my friend in the front of that bus station and her husband bring me to her house at Chilon by motorbike, where I found complete revenue , postal and document history’s collections to add what I have found yesterday -auth)  


11) November 1959


(1) November,28th 1959

The  official first day postcard of first anniversary Republic du Tchad ,first day CDS “Premier Emission”, and the picture of flag blue-white-red, very pity the stamp was taken off.

 This unused postcard issue by “ Aevres sciales, office Equatorial des Postes et Telecommunication. (please told me what kind of stamps, vietnam or Franch stamps? –auth)

(2)Ecole Lamartine L.M.C. Billet D’Inscription Card.

 Aunee Seolaire 1959-1960.

Nom  : Vo Thi Thao

Classe:  10 eiue A

Venant de 11.

12)December 1959


(1)Soon after consolidating its power in saigon, the diem regime embarked on a massive campaign to liquidate in South Vietnam.

Many were imprisoned in reeducation Camp “TRUONG TAM “ or Center to Change thought.

(IMNAHA report postally used cover from Truong Tam, look at July,10th 1967-auth)

(3)    December,12th 1959

The traffic accident of two car  NCC 578 and NBO 096  report with the road map of accident’s situation, for repaired.

(If someone will translate the document, the complete document will showed in the blog, very rare accident that time  because not many cars in Saigon-auth)


d) Diem’s ARVN vs Vietcong  GUERILLA’S in 1960


1)January 1960

(1)Early 1960

     The turbine-powered helicopters appeared , and the US and South Vietnam infantry called the “ Helicopter war “.

The two turbine-powered helicopters which emerge as the backbone of the  new airmobile Division were the Bell HU-1 “Huey” and the larger Vertol CH-47 “Chinook”, without such aircraft the airmobile concept could not been implemen-ted.(D)   

(2) Eighteenth prominet South Vietnamese petition Diem to reform his government.(D)

2) February 1960

No info

3)March 1960

(1)March.25th 1960

The Vietnam Cong  Hoa Ho-Tich Tric-Luc B Khai Sanh , Bo thanh Saigon be thieu II 832 certificat , with Regional Saigon Cholon revenue  overprint red 1960, yellow revenue 10$ + green revenue 5$ .

(The earliest year of overprint regional Bothan saigon  revenue in 1960 and the latest 1975 during the fall of Saigon, the overprint on two type regional Bothan Saigon revenue  10$00 revenue yellow bad design and  green 5$00 fine native building design revenue , what is the meaning of Tri Luc Bo Khai San, I have the complete sertificate from 1960 until 1975 except 1963 with  regional Bo Than Saigon revenue, very best collection to showed, please comment about the 1963 the worst & Diem’s assasination year-auth)




4)April 1960

(1)April 2nd 1960


The U’U-Dai Card (what the meaning ? please someone tranlate-auth)


(a)the Front of U’U –Dai card












(b) The Back  of U’U Dai card.




So xe : NSF 338

Eua,Bom Mo.Xit Dau -2 AVR 1960

Nhot May : Mo Bi Loi L AF

Nhot Hop Soo :Sx Go

Nhot Bong Sau: Sx Go  


5)-8) no info

9) September 1960

(1)  September,5th 1960

       Long Dong congress opens in Hanoi, stresses need to combat Diem regime.  (D)

10) October 1960

(1)October,4th 1960

Station Service facture NCC no 518 marque(merk) Peugeot , 120$ with common type bigger  Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 0$40.

11) November 1960

(1) November,8th 1960

J.F.Kenney defeat Richard Nixon for the prisidency.


(2) November,11th 1960

     South Vietnamese army unit un-successfully  attempt to overthrew Diem.(D)

12) December 1960

(1) December,20th. 1960

          (a)Hanoi leaders from National Liberation Front for South Vietnam , which Saigon regime dubs the “Vietcong” meaning communist Vietnam. The movement was formed on directives from Hanoi(D)


          (b) Nguyen Huu Tho, head of the National Liberation front, as the Vietcong was officially called.(P)




e).Diem vs Vietcong Guerilla  in 1961


1) January 1961

(1) Murderer of Gouverment official by Vietcong 4000 per year.(D)

(2) The communist regions of the country border on North and South Vietnam  so actees as a passage for supplien and men on the maze of jungle trails known as the Ho Chi-minh trails.

(3) January,6th. 1961

     Khruschev declaring that the Soviet Union would support what he called “National Liberation Movement”

2) February 1962

(1)February.13th 1961

The reciept of car repaired station service Tan-Sn-Nhui Saigon 270$ with Vietnam Conghoa Con Niem (revenue) 0$40 .


3) March 1962 no info

4)April 1961

     (1) April,29th. 1961

(a)US troops deployment  to South Vietnam were discussed within Kennedy administration.

     (b) Common President Ngu Dienh Diem second issued stamp. The uncommon mint 9 pi stamp,

(I found this stamps , used off cover, in Indonesia-aut)


5) May 1961

(1)Alerts went out to American bases, a modest  100 –men increase in the nearly 700-strong American advisory mission in South Vietnam was approved.

Aproval for the despatch of a further 400 special Forces troops was goven. Extra military resources were provided, enabling the Vienamese army to be expanded from 150.000 to 170.000 troops. Finnaly US Troops were stationed in Thailand. (D)

(2) Vice-president Johnson chatting with Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon . Johnson, whom Kennedy had sent on an ambassadorial world tour, exuberantly praised Diem as the “Winston Churchill of asia” which reassured Diem of American support(P)

(3) Autumn 1961

     General Taylor had recommended to the President the despatch of 8000 US combat soldiers becuase in a memorandum the Joint Chief of Staff had estimated that 40.000 US troops would clean up thew Vietcong threat,  that if the North Vietnamese and Chinese intervened another 128.000.

(4) A second Geneva Conference to “neutralise”Laos.

6) June 1961

(1)President Diem at Presidential palace on 7th anniversary as President

(2)June.4th 1961

The reciept of electricity in Franc char .”Compagne Des Eaux Et D’ Electricite De L’Indochine” 67$20, with rare small type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem (revenue) 0$20. signed at Saigon 4 juin 1961 by P.P. De La C’Des Eaux et D’Electricite De L’Indochine.

 (very rare 1$00 small type Vietnam Conghoa Coniem revenue used at 7th Diem’s presidential day   anniversary ,please comment if someone have another nominal, look at the differents size at the photo illustration-auth)

(4)June.21th 1961

The certificate of Ho – Tich “Trich-Luc Bo Khaisanh” with regional Saigon Cholon revenue ,yellow 10$ ,red overprint 1961.

7)-10) no info


11) November 1961


(1) November,11th 1961

The receipt   of S.A.R Kaswa than chettiaa  23 dung 104 toat tich , propitaire Saigon , from Huyenh Xien 51$ with Vietnam Cong Hoa CON NIEM (REVENUE) , 0$20, F OR PAYING 36 M2  ve khoan tra tien muon dat o duang (Huose’s LAND TAX?) month 10 1962.

(I have the same receipt from 1-7-1961 , every month t 1-12-1962-auth)

(2)  November.21th 1961

The reciept of contractor Loan”TUE-NGHIA-DUONG SAIGON –CHOLON” the form with vietnamese and chinese char, from (nhan cua) Pho-Vu,cholon street (duong) Phai Tu so 42, maney

2216$ , Con Niem (revenue) type Vietnam Cong  hoa Con Niem 5$+ 1$ (rate 6$) with red chinese char stamped.







f)Diem AVRN vs Vietcong in 1962


1) January 1962 no info

2) February 1962.

(1) February ,6th 1962

American Military Assistance Command (AMAC) and CORDS (Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support) formed in South Vietnam

(IMNAHA report the postal history of AMAC and CORDS team , look at Andrew Crasshow blog.-auth)



The Hoc Sinh(Born/birth ) card, for 1961/1962, with yellow Saigon Cholon regional revenue 10$ overprint red 1962 sign by Hieu truong Nguyen Van Phu with Official Vietnam Conghoa quan truong quan nha sign & red stamped authentication, (may be this was the first The Hoc Sinh Card, or she forgotten to made in 1961-auth)  

(3) February,27th. 1962


(a)Two South Vietnamese pilots bomb Diem’s palace but Diem and his family survive. Diem and family miraculously escape injury, but Madame Nhu(Diem brother,s wife) slightly hurt.(D)


(b)Sometime laters, madame Nhu inspect the bomb palace (P)

3) March 1962

(1)March .10th 1962

Find condition , Rare Saigon vietnam Dien Tin (Telegramme) cds Saigon-T.U.V.T Vietnam 10.6.1962

From Xuanloc to Le-thi-phuoc 52 Nguy enphi Khanh Saigon. “TRINH BIEN TRONG (work in ?) 24 GIAO , HIEN TRUONG”

(The rare and only one telegram found during vietnam war in 1962-auth)

 (2)  March,20th. 1962

      Postally used cover with Vietnam Buu Chin  Cong Hua’s Unesco comemmoration stamps 3×1 Dong (rate 3 Dong) send from Saigon (round CDS) to Kinh goi ong Le-Van-Hai, Giao-Vien Lop Nhut”B” Truong Nam Tieu-Hoc Long-Xuyen.An-Giang (rare destination PH)  


The Facture Reparatins ‘s receipt of Saigon Xe hoi Cong-Ty 34vBoulevard Thong-Nhut Saigon. From Mr Giang Thi Naoh money 636$77, with two type revenue Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem small size 1$00 and bigger size 0$40.(This the rare earliest small size VCH Con niem type revenue-auth ) 


4) April 1962 no info

5) May 1962

(1)Vietcong formed battalion-size units in central Vietnam.(D)

6) June 1962

(1) June, 19th. 1962

     The VERY RARE ,Vietnam Telegram “Dien Tin”  send from Saigon Telegram date stamped SAIGON. T.U.V.T-VIETNAM 10.6.1962.





:                                                                     :                                            :

:                  DIE’N   TIN                  :   VIET-NAM CONG-HOA :

:                  TELEGRAMME                   :    REPUBLIQUEB DU VIETNAM  :

:    ____________________________________                            ______________         :


:                       : GUI   BI     : GOC    O :         :        B U U   –  D I E N  :


:         2       ______________________         : POSTES ET TELECOMMUNICATIONS   :

:                       :  SAIGON  :XUANLOC :                

:______________________________________       :  Le –Thi-Chuoc 52         :

:                                                       :Nguyen Phi Khanh  Saigon:

:                                               9/6

:                                                                  :___________________________:


:    Trinh  Zie’n trong    24  gio’ =


:                                                             Hie’n Truo’ng :   :________________________________________________ :

Chinh-phu’ kho’ng chiu trach-nhie’m va’ vie’c do’i tin tuc cua tu- han bang dien-tin

L’etat n’est 0 du chine resposabilite a’ raison de la correspondance par la voie telegraphique



(2) Mid 1962

Amerivan advisers increase from 700 to 12.000.

(3)In 1962

The best South Vietnam capture the Vietcong ‘s photography in 1962


(a)Vietcong capture by South Vietnam army (ARVN)  were put at prison camp ‘s Kham Duc compound (Photo)


(b) South Vietnamese Infantry warly moving past hut they set ablaze after they found it held communist literature (photo)


(c)ARVN soldiers loading their Vietcong prisoners on small canoe-like boats in Mekong delta.


(d)AVRN soldiers wading into canal to put equiptment in boats to lure Vietcong guerillas from nearby flooded paddies (Photo)

(3) June.1st 1962

The reciept money BP$1479$00, with Vietnam Conghoa ConNiem revenue 3$00, for paying in French “Mille quatre cent si xante dix nuef piastres” from mr Ba Huyn Xiem by LXXX VIETNAM CONG HOA QUAN TRUONG ,  ve khoan tra tien muon dat  dung nguyen che nghia hem lo s n(TF 183) 36 m2, thay mat nguoi chu dat saigon 1-6-1962  handsign. ( I also have the same receipt for 51$ not use france char anymore , date 1-12-1962, with same type revenue 0$20-auth)


7) July 1962 no info

8) August 1962

(1) August.6th 1962

The Chung Chi ,  duong Cong-quyns 132-133 Saigon  “Marconi’s school’s certificate, chung ban ong(Mr) Nguyen –ngoc-Siem, sanb (born0 1-8-1934 tai Hien Thanh,Tan-an, da then boc lop Ke-tan tai bon truong, tie ngay 1.2-1962 den ngay 1.8.62 . sign Saigon 6.8.1962, Hieu Truong Nguyen Van Giau. Autentication with  overprint red 1962 on yellow Saigon cholon regional revenue 10$. Sign and red stamped Vietnam Cong Hoa official “bamboo design.

9) September 1962 no info

10) October 1962

(1) October,1st 1962

The same “THE HOC –SINH” Card  of Miss Do Thi Muoi tai(born) My Tho 2.3.1937, address 23 Ng Thung Chan Saigon above (16.2.1962) WITH Cholon Saigon regional revenue overprint red 1962, BUT DIFFERENT LEAGALIZED : KT.QUAN –TRUONG QUAN NHI WITH VIOLET STAMPED.and hoc lap de IV nien kha 1962 /1963 (informatif document about the change of goverment official and new card for 1962/1963 -auth)



11) November 1962


(1)     November ,1st.1962

The prestamped “ Brisbane Qld Aust.   4-PM 1 NOV 1962 POSTED PILLAR BOX,  and rolling dated stamped PERTH. INV.  ,AU 10 GAME NOV 1962  hand written Acc (Sencored ?) on document’s envelope, send to Lam Huu Sia,36 So That Diem Saigon , S.Viet-Nam.

(rare cover from Brisbane Australia via  PERTH (sencored?) to So Thanh Diem street Saigon South Vietnam –very interesting Diem street, what is  the name that street now ? a historic information of Diem topicalcollection-aut)


12) December 1962


(1) December.1st 1962

The receipt of S.A.R KASWATHAN-CHETTIM, MONEY bp $ 51, WITH VIETNAM CONG HOA CON NIEM REVENUE 0$20, ve khan tra tien muon dat a duong N.C. Nghia ham la So 5 (36m2 Land ta)






f). The  crisis escalation 1963

(Monk burn himself , Student protest and Diem assasination )


1) January 1963

(1)Vietcong units defeat South Vietnamese at the battle of Ap Bac .(D)


2) February no info


3) March 1963


     (1) March, 6th.1963

     The very rare Do Than Saigon THE’ CU’-TRI  (election?) card  with  stamped red squared box D.V.16 – cross and  D.V. 19.  signed by Cap tai Saigon , print 16.9.1964 , change with red ink written 6.3.1963. signe by Quan-Truang Quan 8 , Cao Ming Chung with red double circle official stamped of TOA KAHN CHAN QUAN THAY-VIETNAM CONG HUA  D0-THAN SAIGON.

( Why the date of the’ cu’ Tri change from 1964 to 1963, may be the worst situation in 1963 and what the meaning of Stamped D.V. 16 and 19. may be military  areal code,please comment-auth)


                        VIET NAM CONG HOA

                             DO THENH SAIGON


                                         THE CU – TRI           : D.V. 19 :

                       So 0735593                             

          Ho te’n       LAM VAN HUE’

       Ngay va noi sinh  1928 Cho Lon

          Nai cu-tri  9 B Nguyen deuy R 11 ky 14

          The’ ca’n cua’c so”   050977    cap tai quan    ngai 1960


          Chu ky cua cu-tri     Cap tai Saigon ngay 6 thanh 3 nam 1963  

                                    Quan-Truong Quo’n    8


                                                                             CHAU MINH CHUNG


                             Chu Y” : 1. The nay duoc cap hoan Toan mien phi

                                                        2. Xin gia the de Quan Trong cac quoc

                                                             Bau cu khac.

                                                        3.Ai dung cu tri cua nguot khac hooc

                                                            Dua the cu-tri cua minh cho ngua khac

                                                            Cung co bi truy to theobhinh tuoi.



4) no info


5) May 1963


(1)  May,8th.1963

South Vietnamese troops and police shoot at Buddhist demonstrators in Hue. (D)

6) June 1963

(1)Crisis intensifies as Buddhist monk commits suicide by self –immolation.

A Budihst monk burns himself to death in Saigon in this day ,as a protest against the South Vietnamese governnment ‘s mistreatment of Budhist.

 This suicide , the first of several by Budhist militans as Tri Quang, after that  a Buddhists Monk displayed pheno-menal skill in Mobilizationn south Vietnam ‘s Buddhist to protest against the Diem regime.

 He and  other monks stage a sit down strike on a street in Saigon , then sparked widespread demonstrations against the Govern-ment. Two kind of photo’s angle self immolations, first form the left side and second from the right , also the photo of  Tri Quang sitdown strike  (D & P)


7) July 1963


(1)  July,4th. 1963

      CIA agent, informs from South Vietnam General Tran Van Don, officers are plotting against Diem.(D)

     (2) July,7th 1963

     The Vietnamese Emblem and armor defend stamps issued in this day.


(3) August 1963


(1) Vietnam Special force cordon off the Saigon Market because of student demonstration (P)

(2)Dean of the school of Science and Paedagogy at the center trying to calm student holding a protest demonstration against the repressive measures of the Diem government (photo)


(3)Students at the School of Sciences and Paedagogy holding a protest demonstration against the Diem goverment(photo)


(4) Tam Pham Bieu , Dean of the school of Medicine at the University of Saigon, speaking to Students after his arrest by the Diem Government.(photo)


(5) Military Governor of Saigon-Cholon (Gia Dinh) province holding a press conference at the city hall to defend the Diem government’s position during the period of martial law two. Look at the Governor’s photo (D&P)


(6) Anti-Diem goverment demonstration by the student at the University of Saigon School of Sciences and Paedagogy(P)


(7) Demonstration by high school students against Diem Goverment at the Saigon city street (Truong vo Truong Toan, canh ben Truong Trung Vuong, gan so Thu Saigon-P)

(8)August 9th 1963


(a)US secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara visit Saigon , look the photo , he sat behind ARVN Brig.General Do Cao Tri (photo)


(b)General Maxwell D.Taylor also visit South Vietnam and he had made a tour of Inspection with ARVN General Van Minh Duoang, look at his photo when gave military salute (photo)


(c)The photo of the South Vietnam presidential family , their put the native traditional gown , at left Diem (P)


(d) Madame Dinh Nhu Ngo , ex first lady during Diem regime, waving from the stairs of an airoplane  to went abroad before His husband and her brother in law Ngo Dinh Diem assasination.(photo)


(e) During the period of martial law, Military Governor Ge. Ton That Dinh and General Nguyen van La holding a confrence to defend the Diem Goverment’s position, look at their Photo (D&P)


(f) In this day, Phu Lam SG Budhist monk arrested by Diem regime, being held in guarded compound at Phu Lam (Photo)


(g) The Photo of Rome Italy- Arch-bishop Ngo Dinh Thuc , was taken in this day (P)


(h)The photo of official meeting in Saigon this day, ARVN General Nguyen Dinh Thuan defend the Diem position to the US Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge jr and US secretary of defense  Robert S. McNamara.(P)


(i)  Unidentificated Dean of the School of Sciences and paedagogy attempting to persuaden the security Police of The Diem government no to arrest the student demonstrator (P), but The Student still being taken away in trucks by them(P)

(3)  August,21th 1963

     Ngo Dinh Nu’s forces attack Buddhist temples.(D)

(4) August,22th 1963

Washington recommends tha Nhu be removed; also suggest American support for mutinous generals against Diem.(D)


9) September 1963


(1) September,2nd 1963

     Kennedy criticized Diem in a television interview.(D)


(2) Pres.Ngo Dinh Diem’s brother Ngho Ding Nhu and his younger son  with his wife went to europe by aeroplane (Photo at airport)


(3) Us Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge yunior meeting with President of southnVietnam Ngo Dinh Diem (P)

And he talking with Mr Ngo Dinh Nhu at a diplomatic reception (P), he also talking with acting Foreign Minister Truong Cong Cuu at a diplomatic reception.


(4) Us Ambassador H.C.Lodge Jr shaking hands with US Army services on the Saigon city street(P) and he with his wife  leaving St Christopher’s Anglican Episcopal congregation Church after services on Sunday.(P)


(5)  The formation of the 11th Air Assault Division.  After  the one year prepared concept tested in two month s of continous maneuver against the 82nd Airborne Division.

 The outcome was strongly vin favor of the helicopter-borne forces and the 82nd was defeated as sound-ly as any division ever was its peace-time maneuvers.(D)




          (6) President Diem talking with a delegation of Budhist monks from the Union Committee for the Defense of Pure Buddhism at Gia Long.(P)


          (7) Nhu holding press confrence (P)


          (8) Police participating in a Diem government sponsored demonstration (P)


(9) Police holding back a crows at the An Quang Pagoda as the Buddhist monk are taken away again by the Diem government(P)


          (10) Police hauling away high school student who were demon-strating against the Diem goverment (P)


          (11)Pictures of the Buddhist monks who burned themselves to death  prior to the anti-Diem Government revolution in the xa-Loi pagoda (P)


(12) Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Saigon being welcomed back by medical student after his arrest by the Diem government (P)


(13) Combat Policemen going to student demonstration (P)


(14) Buddhist monk tidying up the vestry rooms in the Xa Loi pagoda at its official reopening by permission of the Diem government(P)


          (15) September,13th 1963

The photo at Belgrade,Yugoslavia, where Kennedy,s meet Mrs Nhu, accompanied by  Senator Edward(P)

And Senator Edward M.kennedy tals with Mrs Nhu(P)




10) October 1963

(1)October ,10th 1963

Infantrymen move toward the woodline after being airlifted to a landing zone in Xa Ba Phuic during a search and destroy mission (P)

(2)October 1963, 16.000 US troops  sent more to South Vietnam . The Geneva agreement were dead, as the US responded military to increasing Vietcong activity.(D)

     (3) October,21th 1963

     Mrs Nhu in Whasington DC ( Ba Ngo Dinh Nhu trong buei hop bao tai Washington DC, Hoa Ky)

11) November 1963

(1)November 1st 1963

(a)A photo of Vietcong army(?) in this day, Cac binh si tham gia cuoc dao chanh (please someone translate to find more information-auth)


(b)The Photo of Dinh Gia Long (office) , noi TT Ngo Dinh Diem va ong (overthrew ?)


(c)in this day, at The photo we saw the  wrecked Presidential Palaced, gutted & ransacked after military coup that overthrew Diem Goverment(P)


(d) Mayor General Van Don Tran with other officers and troops celebreting overthrown in this day(P)


(e) General Van Minh Duong leader of military coup that overthrew Diem regime , in this day made a press conference (P)


(f) The photo of Monks meeting with Military coup after overthrew Diem Regime (P)


(g) In this day , Vietnamese dancing again at night club (after forbidden during the Diem regime ) aftrer overthrew of Diem Regime (P)


(2) November,2nd. 1963

( The Diem and Nhu assasination’s day)


(a)Arrest and Assassination of Diem and Nhu.(source:Wikipedia)

Marked the culmination of a successful CIA-backed coup d’etat led by General  Duong Van Minh in november 1963.

On the morning , November,2nd 1963 , Diem and his adviser, young brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, were arrested after the Army of The Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) had been successful in bloody overnight siege on Gia Long Palace in Saigon.

The coup was the culmination of nine years of autocratic and nepotistic family rule in South Vietnam Dis-comfort with the Diem regime had been simmering below the surface, and exploded  with mass Buddhist protest against long standing religious dicrimination after the government shooting of protesters who defed a ban on the flying of the Budhist flag.

When rebel forces entered the palace, the Ngo brothers were not present, as they escaped the night to the loyalist shelter in Cholon.


The brothers had kept in communication with the rebels through a direct link from the shelter to the palace, and misled them into believing that they were still in the palace.

The Ngo brothers agreed to surrender and were promised safe exile, after being arrest,  they were instead    executed in the back of an armoured personnel carrier by ARVN officers on the journy back  to military headquaters at Son Nhut Air Base.

While no formal inquiry was conducted, the responbility for the death of the Ngo brothers in the trip. Minh’s  bodygueard, Captain  Nguyen van Nhung, and on Major Duong Hieu Ngia, both of whom guarded the brothers during the trip.

Minh’s army colleagues and US official in Saigon agreed that Minh ordered the executions.

They postulated various motives, including that the brothers embar-rassed Minh by fleeing the Prseidential Palace, and that the brothers were killed to prevent a later political came back.

 The general initially attempted to cover up the execution by suggesting that the brothers had committed suicide, but this was contradicted when photos of the Ngo’bloofied bodies surfaced in the media.


(b) The street of Saigon were littered when opponent of Diem broke into the office of a newspaper sympathetic to the Government Diem’s overthrow was greeted with jubilation by the Saigon populace which had hated his harsh rule(P)


(c) In the morning of this day, a mutinous South Vietnamese soldier inside  the presidential palace , after Diem and Nhu had fled to a hiding place on the Saigon suburbs (P)


(d) The bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel carrier, in which they were murdered by two insurgent officer after their captutre on this day. They had surrendered, hoping to be permitted to leave the country (P)


(e) The book’s illustration of the bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel courier , in which they were mudered by two insurgent officers after their capture on November 2 1963 ,They had surrendered hoping to be permitted to leave the country (ibid S.Karnow)


(f)Nguyen Bao Tung best phillatelic collections aslo contain the stamps of the Founder of the Republic of Vietnam who was assasinated after The military coup on November.1st 1963., the collections bore the signatures of the president Diem and official seals

( very rare collections with original signature and official seals because no one keep the Diem official cover after he was assasinations, please comment –auth)


(3)November,22th 1963

(a)Three weeks after Diem’s death  J.F.Kannedy assasination in Dallas, succeeded by Lyndon Johnson.

The death of Kennedy and Diem led to a new phase  in the American involvement in Vietnam (D)   


(b)Henry Cabot Lodge, American ambassador to Saigon, with President Diem. Lodge had little patience for Diem, whom he felt was hindering the American effort on help South Vietnam fight the Vietcong (P)


(c) An American adviser, leads South Vietnamese troops into action in thge Mekong delta in 1963. America adviser then in Vietnam were suppos-ed to avoid combat, but many parti-cipated in battle neverless(P


12)December 1963


(1) December,15th 1963

     The Thanh-Minh-Tu, AP PHU HAI, XA PHANRI-CUA “THIEP MOI” invitation(?) letter from Phu-Hot to Kinh Goi Ong Bu “ Quan-Truong Quan(Military) Hoa –Da


“Trong 9 nam chien tranh tan khuc.Tan-Minh-Tu Phu-Hai pai bj canh tieu tan sup do, mai den nay m duoc co-duyen xay dung hoan thanh, do cung nhoi au giup do cua Chinh-quyen, nho su giup do cua cac nha hao tam ung-ho va duc tin tuong manh liet cua toan dan trong Ap, gop lan cua moi lap nen.

Le Khan thanh se cu hanh trong 3 ngay 12,13, va  14 thang 11 quy –Mao  tuc ngay 27,28,29,29-12-1963 the chuong trinh vach dinh ben canh.


                                    Tron trong kinh moi

                                    T.M. Ban To-chuc


                                                Tran-Van-Ne (OD)


(Please native Vietnamese collectors will helping me to translate this  very rare document and also the below document , because the information from this document very useable for postal history colecter and Vietnamese historian-auth)



(2)December,12th 1963

The very rare official letter send by  Cuorier from Ngoc Bang Saigon double red circle stamped on Covers sending by Courier to Ong Ba,Trung Uy’ Quan Trung. He oa-Da.

        Inside Doan Ca-Kich Ngoc Bang Saigon,Chiep Moi Card used for writting the latter :




      Kouh Anh!

Doan cua chung toi rui qua din dia phung nay theit bai luon 3 hon’i khy dhuong xoay tu’.

            Itiui guo nay ca 50 doan vien Chua Co buoi au son nai.

            King thi vi hoan caung dien diug cua gauf ceuy dau hiem 3 ngay ray Rly ngoi dan duoa.

            Vay: Vo choy toi nho eum dui thua vio auh nho anth tieui.

            Pheuing hui gi’up do doang ti guing say duo ngay Tet.

            Hoay Rinz. (PH)


(Please native Vietnam to help me for translate this interesting informations from this letter, why this cover din’t send by Postal , may be no postal services by the worst situation , if someone have the postal histori covers in 1963 please comment and sho us that rare collection-auth)


(2)The meeting between General AVRN Van Minh Duong with American Ambassador Henry Cabot Jr and Robet McNamara,(P),


4.3.3. AVRN  War in 1964-1967


a. AVRN vs Vietcong war 1964


1)January 1964

(1)January,30th. 1964

General Nguyen Khan seizes power in Saigon , arrest four ruling generals but allow Minh to remain as figure head chief of State.(D)

(2) In the year after 1963 , Nguyen van Thieu steadily in importance he became the deputy premier and minister of defense.


2)February 1964

Not yet info

3) March 1964

(1)US Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara visit Vietnam , vow support for Khanh.(D)


(2) March,20th 1964

The chinese written postally cover from Saigon-Vietnam 20.3.1964 to Saigon-Cholon  Viet-Nam 21.3.1964, with  1d justice emblem and 2d Unesco stamps (rate 3 d) .

( Cholon was the chinese overseas area over the Mekong river in Saigon where I found this posta history , the address in chinese traslate means…….. :……………..auth)

4) April and 5) May 1964 noinfo


6) June 1964




(1)June , 2nd . 1964

Pantagon Strategist refine plans for bombing North Vietnam.

(2)Johnson anticipate a large scale US effort:

       (a)The Tonkin Resolution was simply intended to give him the discretion to punish the North Vietnamese, but it was  noneless regarded  as essential to bring stability to an independent

(b) Non-communist  South-Vietnam in order to counter Khruschev’s claim to have the right to support “ war of National Liberation”(D)

7)July 1964, no info


8) August 1964

(1)Vietnam was still seen  by the public as no more than a miror problem : The Us would need only to flex her muscles for the communists to back down.(D)


(2)Covert South Vietnamese Maritime operations begin against North Vietnam.(D)

        (3) North Vietnamese patrol boats attack the MADDOX , an US destroyer in Tongkin Gulf, August 2(D).


(4) A doubtful second incident report two days later(D)

(5) US aircraft bomb North Vietnam for the first time in this month.(D)

     (6) August, 21st , 1964

      The rare postal history of US’s Kennedy prestamped 11c airmail letter sheet       send from native vietnamese at California CDS “SAN LUIS OBISPRO 1934004, Aug 21 1967” to South Vietnam CDS “Saigon-Vietnam 26-8 1967”

The handwitten latter in vietnamese language:


Cal Poly-San Luis Obispro                         Chu nhat 20.8.1967


                             Hong mien

          Lan qua khong dube bien y ma Hong, anh ut truong La Hong da quan anh, khong con nho gi dten thang anh xa xoi may nua the roi dong hu do anh nhen duoc the Hong vo nhat la khan quan co do think tay Hong sung tai, va anh thay minh co loi doi nghi oan cho hong, hong chonanh xia nha. Tu nay anh khong dan nghi tam bay tam ba nhu vay  noi dan nhung anh anh hong ung dung bo be anh nuy , moi lan duoi thu van biet chat itoi gia ma viet cho anh doi dong de goi la chanh qua soy am tam long doi coi nay. Anh thang thue cau du truong ve qua tang ma hong, anh vat sung luong va cam doi thay tu nua lanh de anh quang khan cua hong.

Mau ve  kiem day lain anh thich thu nhat day, hop y ve dung la nhy diem anh nhuoc tu lan. Honh khan that, anh ky biet noi sao cho bet sui  biet an cua voi hong duoc, anh nung khong biet hong nuon gi e anh co gi anh ve tang hong theu y hong, thu san hong biet nho, hong muon gi anh nung chra y ca muon la……..etc….

          Hong lua nay ra Sao! Anh rat nay tu Hong, anh khy quan duoc nhy ky vien va thy luong ve Hay chue Hong voi ve, manh an duong man.

                                                                             Signed Hien


( This collection very interesting, because not many communication between Vietnamese who study in California to his friend (Girl?) and writting information and comment about his own country, we will understood about the vietnam information in US –please someone wil kind to translate-auth)

9) September 1964

(1)September,7th 1964

     The South Vietnam first day covers-Premier Jour D’Emmision of Bai Bien (Plaque De) “Ha Tien” stamps, firstday special stamped  Tem Tho “Ba Bien Ha Tien.Saigon , Ngay Bau-Rien 7-9-64. (PH)

10) October 1964


(1)October,30th. 1964

     Vietcong attack  Bienhoa air base, but Johnson rejects proposal for   retaliatory raids against North Vietnam .(D)

11) November 1964

(1)Lyndon Johnson defeats Barry Goldwater for the presidency ,November 3(D).


(2) Saigon convulsed by Rioters protest Khanh’s rule  and Taylor now ambassador , urges Khanh to leave the country.(D)

12)December 1964


(1)  December,24th. 1964

     Vietcong terrorist bomb American military billet in Saigon, but Johnson again rejects proposal for raids against North Vietnam.(D)

(2) December.20th 1964

Bien Lai Khai Sanh- Bo Thanh saigon certificate-without photo(?) ,sign and stamped by Quan-Truong ,vietnam Cong Hoa NAM –PHAN, for Tian boi Phan ,tai quan 4 Saigon durong (street) 9 Le Chach, con (Children) cua :Tian hoc Diec,va cua Ly tu Ky (father & Mother?)


b)AVRN vs Vietcong  in1965


1)January 1965

No info





2) February 1965

(1) February,4th. 1965

Johnson’s national security adviser, Mc Geo Jr and George Bundy, arrives in Saigon, as Soveit Prime Minister Alaksei Kosygin arrives in Hanoi (D)


(2) February,7th 1965

Vietcong stage attacks against American installations and this time Johnson authorizes Flaming Dart,US

 air raids against North Viet-nam.(D)

(3) February,12th 1965

Postally used Airmail covers from  Danang to Saigon, rate 3 Dong, Rolling type CDS Danang 12.2.1965 and in the back CDS Saigon 12.2.1965

       Inside the letter handwritten :


Danang 10.2.65

Bich men,

Minh don thu Bi’ch vao nhung ngay dau ma in’am moi, vao nhung.ngay mia minh thay can phai co i c’an gi thay doi; thay doi ca noi tam lan ngoai guan.

            Bi’cha, thu thach ta’ den voi minh nhung a lan trong nam Nguoi minh gia tay hoan toan nhu kho he’o.tuy nhien nhua dong von con tu cho minh tiep tuc cuoc toi.

            Cuoc toi nay kerong biet co ban tay Dinh menh nhung vao kgong, mrrang dau co hay khong-kerong thanh van te-ma vanb te chines van loi ngudi voi thuch tai thuc tai la i traong tay tau kso.

            Toai tong y’ voi Bich y’ nghi bignam yen the tuc nay. Oi! Ly tuong la I con vat kerong ca chan, no chi quet tren mat tat nay i vet loang ten negam.

            That na chung ta chi ta nhang nong cu cho toi nay. Dieu to khong ,conghia ta cai tines kien na minh te bai ten the te’ noi khong tim ra tuoc I loi thoat, boi vi dau nuon dau khong con ngun voi cuoc toi rang buoc nhan mot c’ach ro rang.chines khong Kerong co y noi rang “ Minh voi Bich tuy 2 ma I” nhung su thuc van Kerong che dau tuoi tien do  …….etc…………..

            Cuortha,vi ta noi va toan vong, ninh muon duic Bich va toan gia mot nan vui tuai va may man.

            Voi nhung loi bao quat tren tay, minh chi nhun Biich lap lai nhien lan nhunh cau cuoi la nhung loi chuc thang that nhat.

            Thans that duc Bich vui tien. (PH&D)


 (This letter send one month before the US Marine land to defend Danang.auth)

(4)February,24th 1965.

     Operation Rolling Thunder , sustained American bombing of North Vietnam , begins in this day with South Vietnam as airbase(D)

3)March 1965


(1)March,8th. 1965

Two Marine battalions land to defend Danang airfield, the marine wer the first American combat troop to defended airbased  in Vietnam.(D) and The photo of Marine Land-ing(P)

(2)March,9th. 1965

Postally used airmail cover from Danang one day after US Marine landing to defend Danang airfield, CDS Danang 9.3.1965  with stamps 3 Dong(rate) and CDS Saigon 11.3.1965 (two days), inside the love letter(?) from N.H.Taoi to P.N.Bich  :


Danang 9/3 65

Bich men

Duoc thu Bich(name) qiua luo minh tang Sua Soan mioi thi ni Minh nong Bich thong cam cho su tra ti tre nay m athu loi nse.

            Deng luc tinh than minh dang cang thang vi nhung noi uat han nam aqua,tang luc minh tang chan nan su bhoc ten cuc to, tha Bich ten minh la mot niem an yui dang men Minh van biet, von nguh cu neu Sau moi that bay ma khong bay ra nhung Su rhon keo te wem tiem nsung nguyen do nao da tua ten thrit bon cug thi soau nay kso na co the vuot lengiai toan.

Tuy wien tung vi the ma tem ion tonguh minh tem i nonien buj amij nsu nerong nguti xung quant minh mia nsu vay moi lay i su kso ai suot toi Du biet vay, minh van psai nsin theng vao thuc tai, i thuc tai pru-psang, ban ha minh tay ngubi nay the nay, no nguoi kia the kra hose’ nhin minh voi, i tain trang the nao? –dtac biet nhung bau chi than minh.

Co 8 tam trang nha minh, Bich moi tay mot Su mia mai ngho-ngei. Do chi la I van dte tam ly.

Buy nhien , nhi la noi the, chu minh van vui song lam Bich a. Nghi nha Bich, tui minh hi con vai chuc nam mia la ta dta psai dtoi husug cuoc dtoi Bi gi minh phsai vi I ksiu quang be bnho ay dte huy hoai moc toi. Do (Heart picture) Bich thay minh khong phai vi mang mai cam tu ti dtang tren the qian nay, vat lon voi moc tong kan voi the choi con nguoi ben kia landtat.

Dao nay thi minh Sua Soan ha thi roi, tuy du nhus song nam mia khong con, nhung minh voi co gang mia I nguoi lun, Bich cu tiu la ban Bich se kerong dtun thot vong cho Bich in khong ? 3 thang lo ngay Sau se ytra loi.

Minh va Cau khong ctuoc tin yi o’bhayen ca’ Minh se ctanh that cau chuc Bich ung Gai quyen van Su nhuy ,Hen thu Sau. Bhao thanh cong. Toai  (PH &OD)


4) April 1965


(1) 25.000  young and better educated social groups were Marched to the Whitehouse demostrations against the Vietnam War.


(2) April,8th 1965

North Vietnamese Prime Minister Pham Van Dong rejects Johnson’s proposal, says ettlementt must be based on vietcong program (D)

Pham van Dong vintage Photo, found in the Ho Chi Minh photo collection as a given during Afro Asia Confrence in Bandung Indonesia,1955.(OP)


5) May 1965

(1) May,15th 1965

Ho Chi Minh handwritten about the Vietnam nationalist war ( found in Hanoi-auth)

6) June 1965

(1)  June,11th 1965

Air Vice Marshal Nguyen Cao Ky takes over as prime minister of military regime in Saigon (D) and the photo of Cao Ky (P)

(2)  June , 26th.1965

American command in Saigon reports that Vietcong have put five South Vietnamese combat regiments and nine battalions out of action in recent month (D) and the photo Vietcong combats (P)

(3)Near the mountain peak called Don Den , twenty kilometers northwes t of the Danang Air base, the Cade River serpentined its down from the green mountains  on its way to the South China sea. It curved abruptly east across the flat bottom of a narrow, elbow-shaped valley the Ameican called Elephant Valley from an action that occured there one ninght  in this day.


Infantrymen from the Third Marine Regiment were act up on the lower jungle-covered ridges of Dong Den when, incredibly enough, they heard through the darkness what they thought to be the trumpeting of elephants. They radioed in for artillery illumination rounds to bring the Valley out of shadows.Sure enough, it was elephant.


A string of eight of eight of them with their drivers was wending its way across the flat rice land. The elephants were loaded with heavy cannon and ammunition for the Vietcong.Atillery made short work of the pachyderm convoy. The action went down in Marine lore as the Battle of Elephant Valley.




Since it was a natural gateway from the North tp the South, the valley constanly swarmed with hamburgers on resupply and replacement missions.(D)


7) July 1965


(1)July,8th. 1965

Johnson reappoints Lodge ambassador to South Vietnam, to replace Taylor and eighteen combat battalion now in the country.(D)


(2)Mid Winter 1965

The marines became the first U.S. Forces in Vietnam to establised authentic snipper schools, snippers classes were only three days long .


Two men armed with bolt-action rifles slipped silently into jungle hide dep inside Vietcong territory , they settled down to wait. Any unnecessary movement might disclose their position. They spoke only in an occa-sional whisper.They did not smoke. Some times they waited as long as ten to rweleve hours  like that in order to release a single accurate shot at an  elusive enemy.


They had adopted a weapon borrowed from the VC, who had in turn borrowed it from the japanese and others from as far as men had gynpowder and realized the advantage of killing from hiding at a distance- the rifle that cracks from nowhere to bring sudden death.





Vietnam , with its lack of combat lines, its fluid battlefield, and an enemy that often operated singly or in asmall sniper warfare, evenmore so than the trenches of world war I or the more conventional setpiece action of World war II.


US forces had a numbrer of crack riflemen, they possessed frew trained snipers at the beginning of the Vietnam involvement. The Vietcong soldier considered himself relatively safe at range 600 yards or more.


There were instances of VC walking in plain sight at distances of 700 to 1000 yards  while they directed mortar fire on American Positions. In the jungles and hemlets of the countryside, communist felt free to move about at will, confident they could spot U.S. patrols first and either avoid them or lure them into ambushes for vtheir own marksmen.


So desperate was the need for qualifiued US sippers to counteract the enemy in the new kind of war .Although rarely publicized, the exploits of American Vietnam snipers have become a permanent part of the history of the war.


Word of their feats spread quickly in-country , As :    “Thrirty-three guerillas filtered onto a road that went past a sprawling vietnamese cementery.





 They were operating in their own backyard. This was”Charlie Land’ “Mr Charles” controlled it so throughly that he could afford to relax. None of the guerrillas showed concerned as they sloppily formed up to march up the road to a village where they would replenish their food supplies.


Suddenly , the point man grabbed his chest as a bullet from a hidden rifleman sent him sprawling to the ground.


The crack of the rifle eight hundred yards away was barely discernible. Hidden in tall knife grass, the US Marine who fired the shot quickly jacked a fresh round into the still-smoking chamber of his Einchester Model 70. Off to his right, his teammate drop a second VC.


Within the next few minutes the  pair of sharpshooting Marine snipers killed eleven Viet Cong and wounded six more as they rained lead into the panicked guerrilla ranks. Entire battalion operations and week-long sweeps rarely accounted for that many enemy causalties.(D)

(3)July,24th. 1965

BINH CHUNG TEN LUA, Dion Vi Anh Hung. Luc Lu’o’ng Vu Trang Nhan Dan(D)

(4) July,28th. 1965

Johnson approves Westmoreland’s request for forty-four additional combat battalions (D) and the photo of combat battalion(P)


       (5)After concencus was reached   by Johnson’s  adviser that  the  Viet-cong could defeated and the North Vietnam were forced to a negotiated when know that they willn’t win the war.

          The momentos dicisioned to plan a war in Whitehouse, after extensive discussion between Johnson and his close advisers their were no recognation that South Vietnamese were fighting among themselves and that North Vietnam were also Vietnamese.


8) August 1965


(1)The experimental divison  was redisgnated the 1st Air cavalry Division (air mobile) , incorporated into the active Army sructure, and sent to South Vietnam.


          (2)     Combat operations generally have confirmed the effectivesess of the air-cavalary units. One of the major operation questions,the vulnerability of helicopters to ground fire, it is  reported that only 48 helicopter were lost in the first four years, which in cluded a period nearly three years when only a few helicopters were in the country in support of Vietnam forces.


(3)Some 700 Air Force, Navy , and Marine Fighters aircraft were available for close support work in South Vietnam during this year 1965


(4)An excellent communications network was set up so that vietually any village or any military which comes attack by Viet Cong  may immediately issue and emergency call into the Tactical Air Control Center (TACC) in Saigon  which keeps an up-to-date situation report on th elocation and readiness of every attack air craft in the South of Vietnam. In 1965 , approximately 20 percent of the fighter strikes were response to emergency less than 15 minutes.


(5)The necessary close control has been maintained by a team of Forward Air Control (FAC) who fly low and slower over every target and mark it with smoke before it is bombed. About 150 FAC air planes, primarily Cesna O-1’s .


(6)A diverse Group of aircraft are employed for ground attack.The most numerous type is the fast Jet Fighters  which can responds quickly to emergencies, it included : The North American F-100, Northrop F-5, MacDonnel F-4, Douglas A-4, Grumman A-6, Martin B-57,and vought F-8,(D)  


(7)Troop airlifted into Tuy Hoa to protect rice fields (P) and  Swift helicopter “YN2” evacuation of wounded soldiers has saved many lives (P)


(8) The air attacks which reaced significant proportion in thei year have been unsuccesful , because they did not bring the surrender of The North Vietnamese and the Vietcong.(D)


9) September 1965

(1) September,1st .1965-

free airmail service was started.(PH)

Free airmail service went into effect in this day for all military personal letters, letter size tape recording and postcard in their generally accepted from are entitle to free transit.

Letter send under this free mail policy will be handle as US air mail.Your full military address to include name,rank, and service number must appear on the envelope.

The word free in th upper right hand corner must  be in Your handwritting. It cannot be typed  or mechanically marked .

Mail may be sent free to the foreign countries. Letter so mailed cannot be registered.They may be sent special delivery if an additional special delivery cxharge is paid. (info from IMNAHA).      

(The Vietnamese Quan Buu  Military Post also have free air mail with military without nominal value stamp or pre-stamp letter sheet, must write  the HQ & KBC number, but if sent to civillian must added special rate of stamp-auth)



10) October 1965


(1) October,3rd. 1965

The reciept of buying Toshiba 4 band radio 5400 dong with Hiem(revenue) 11 Dong ( 5x d dong yellow and one Dong red revenue) , from Le-Cong Radio 398,Dai-lo Dong –Khanh Cholon.

        The back of this document,  used to write “Giay Ban)


Zen toi la Bui Tram Phu to zuai so c/co/7858vcapngay 6.7.60 tai quan ngu tai so Nha 242/4 ben nguyen duy X-c co loan i cou may thou thanh hien Toshiba 4 ban Transior so;6,672 cho ba am thi cai cam cho thi la  5200,00 dong neu san co  ai can cho thi toi xin chui toi voi nho chuc chach.

            Mai ky ren yoi day ,B.T.Phu.(sign) Cholon  30.10.65.(OPH&D)


(2) American forces defeated North Vietnam units at the  La Drang valley


(11) November 1965

       (1) November,10th.1965

              The AVRN postal history  cover , send from KBC 4858 (AVRN 7th Infantry divisond 2nd regiment 1st Batalion with military stamp without NOMINAL value (Quan Buu ) type M1 ,but the military  stamp not cancelled  and  rare KBC red doble circle stamped ” G.D .M.A.G.V.N.  KBC 4.858  THU –TIN-VINH”  to Cholon CDS “CHOLON-VIETNAM 9-11-1968. In the back rolling Saigon Vietnam cds but the date not clear.

(rare AVRN postal history, why send thruogh  regular post office , not  military post that is why without “Quan Buu” stamped and the Military stamp didn’t cancelled,,KBC 4858 didn.t know the location, what the meaning of GDMSAGVN and Thu Thin-vinh?  may be after tsomeone ranslate the letter inside we will no the history fact-auth)


          The letter inside in vietnamese language :


       KBC 4858   


                                                            Thu’a Chi

Tu ra truong dten non t thang em chang co dip rao dten than hai bac cung cac chi . That loi vo cung em nghi Hai Bac va cac chi Tuyen.

Xhan mot hom ve phep nghe thoa bao co noy chi cho em Kinh Loi tham noi manh. Chac dto nay noi cung chang biet mot dtua chai re ra lam sao. Em dtung la dtua chau vo la phai khong chi.

Em cung cau nuong hai bai va cao chi dteu manh. Chi Bay. Chi Tam va anh Sau dto nay vao Dai Hoe ce weng anh sau chec saj ra truong co phai.

Em thi het hoc dtuoc roi Hanh Quan luon Manh tu tai I le Loi biet bao gi o’ co’dtoi Nhiem luc buon ghe.

Nghe noi anh tu vai quan dtoi Vay anh tu co’ dtuoc nay o’ Saigon khong chi. Mong anh dtuoc nhien may hon em.

Mot lan nua nho chi chuyen than noi hai bac, chi Hai vo cao chi

                                                            Em Chi

                                                    Le-Luu –Nghia



(12) December 1965


(1)December,25th 1965

Johnson suspends bombing of North Vietnam in an attempt to induce the North Vietnam to negotiate.(D)

(2)Late 1965,

Nguyen van Thieu was appointed chief of state late in 1965 by Nguyen Kao Ky, who became premier when the South Vietnamese generals decided to form their own government following the weak  civillian regime of Dr Phan Quat .


c) AVRN vs Vietcong in 1966


(1)January 1966


(1) Backbone of Airlift  is a group of less than 250 four engine Lockheed C-130 transport and twin engine Fairchild C-130’s. These are supplemented by a smaller number od de Haviland VC-2 Caribou which were transferred from the Air Force in this year.(D)



The receipt of Bien-Lai Tien(future purchase?) Muon Pho-Cholon (chinese area Saigon) 991$10 , tien thue pho 900$ and tien thue 1.2% ,tue cong ve rac 81&  With revenue Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem 2$00.

(The earliest VCH-Con Niem revenue collection for future purchase added for credit interest and country?,please comment–auth) 

(3)  January,31th. 1966

        Johnson resumes Bombing.


2) February 1966


(1) February,8th. 1966

Johnson and South Vietnam leaders issue a communique, in Honolulu , emphazing need for pacification in Soutrh Vietnam(D)

3) March 1966

(1)March ,10th.1966

Buddhist demonstrators against Saigon regime in Hue and Danang(D)

4) April 1966 no info

5)May 1966

(1) May,23th 1966

Government troops take over Danang (D) .

6)June 1966

(1)June,14th. 1966

A Complete document “Giao Keo” Saigon Thuy cuc with South Vietnam green  30 Dong revenue with red double circle Saigon Thuy Duc stamped date 14.6.1966 and Stamps 2 dong with Postal Circulair Date stamped Saigon-cholon 15.10.1966, rare combination never report before (OD&PH)

(2) June,16th. 1966

Government troops take over Hue(D)

(3) June,29th. 1966

American aircraft bomb oil depots near Hanoi and Haiphong (D)

7)-8) no info

9) September 1966


(1)       France President calls American withdrawal from vietnam during his visiting Cambodia.(D)


(2) September,25th 1966


(a)FREE POSTALLY USED COVER FROM MILITARY ACADEMY/ARMED FORCE TRANING SCHOOL NATHRANG KBC 4311 red airmail COVER from  Hop TD-894 (?, please comment-auth  ) TO So 1/TR 16/lg 4 Nho caiu trao cho me (?) Saigon. And the vintage photo of Nha Trang HQ 505 LST (landing ship Transport )-Phillipine navy , on the back of photo hand written “ Ky niem ngay uo ki he 56 Doa Nu trah quoc gia Su Phan Nha Trang”

Nhatrang   military cover Hop TD 894 KBC 4311with Quan Buu M1(Military Post) Stamp without nominal with not clear CDS of Nha Trang , not clear red double circle official Stamped  to Saigon .

(The earliest postally used  Military stamps type M1 during the Vietnam liberation War ,rare postal history-auth)

     Inside the covers the letter :




Nha Trang 26/9.66

Kinh anh !


Den hom nay mia la con 12 ngay se mau khoa.

            Em thu cho anh hay. “Heart picture” Ngoai Hue, neu  anh  thi ten nha t         hang thinh (ban em) choi thang ay choi dep lam.

Anh dten do choi va co the nho nha no nan com hoai lai dto a nha khoi muon nha.

No co thu cho em. Anh co gap no bao  no lai em co loi hoi ho tham no .

                        Thu anh vai hang, xin tam but Chine anh vui may mau.

            Em via Dah.

TB. Dia chauc thinh, Lunchi thinh 82 Chi Long Hue.(OD&PH)    


(b) Civil postally used cover with Thw Thao The Duc olympic 1 d and flower 3d stamps (rate 4d) send from Qui Nhon to Saigon, CDS Quinon-vietnam (not clear) 15.9.1966. The letter inside:


                                                                        Qui Nhon 22.9.1966

                                                                                    Em Ye’u

Moi nam gio sang anh da thuec day roi. Thoi guen anh tap  dtuoc trong nhung ngay o’ Saigon. Giaa phut nay thuc en hay un ngu trong chau an? Troi Saigon dta lanh  tro em ? han em dtang no nhung giao modtep.

Em oi! Em mo thy gi? Anh, Nghi rang ting yeu cua  chung ta chua dtu dte? Anh nghi? Rang tinh yeu cua chung ta chua dtu dte dti vao nhung gioi ngu than tum ma em tinh yeu cua anh chua dtu manh di chiem tran vin long un? Chung co lo tu hem anh roi ra dten Zui nhon dten nay, anh dta goi dten em toi da thu thu tu,trong khi dto anh chi ? nhon cua em co mat. Mat la thu trang gan thang ! Anh truong thu chuoc dtuoc tinh trang dto. Tinh yeu dtang dtot chay long anh, em but chung ? Anh nho em Kinh phung guea Khung canh vang ve cua in ro trong tins anh. Anh khao khat duoc gap em,dtuoc nhin tan mat em cuoi va nhat la anh muon hon em.

Em yeu mui ,anh lai nho dten truoc phi mot troi dti vao chan nui,………………..etc……………………………………………

(very long latter, if someone will tranlate I will put all letter in the blog, many “Anh” what the meaning ?-auth)

Hay viet tha cho anh den nhe ! Vieyt that nhieu vao ! Bao nhien l         oi em Viet anh cam thay van Chua dtu. Sap dten gio anh phai dte rua mat dte xuong van phong. Ban ngay anh ban lo cho hoc ninh dten bu dtau , Theo sau  so noi nhien hon.

                        Hon Em !



            (3) September,29th 1966

            The vietnamese letter from Phu Nhuan Thu nan :



        Phu Nhuan                            Thu Nam ngay 29.9.66


                                                Anh ve Saigon nhi phepgiao hi 12.9.66

Vi han mot tuyen, nam moi viet  Pho Hong duoi.

Da loi khay nhem duoi thi ji cua Hong ca ? ca le doi Hong da co 1 lei gi doi thang….Du sao di nua, Hong vuong nen cho anh biet vien co.

            Thai Hong da nhen duin the ma anh canh dau may thang ?

Hong ha hoi mien gap cho anh yoy Ichi nhan duoi thu nay de anh  yen lan.

Ve Saigon buon nhien va mat ly do phai nan Li that nghiep chua biet lan hay hoc nen thong di dai la toi anh tua.

Hong va manh vi vau di lau nha thung Le lho anh gie than ha vo ca gia guyen.



Doi Thi? 369 Truong Lai Bien 369

            Phu nhuan saigon.



(10) October 1966

(1)American and South Vietnamese leaders conclude conference in Manila. American troops strength in Vietnam reaches nearly 400.000 by year-end(D)





     (2) October ,7th.1966

     The Vietnamese letter used official sheet :




Viet-Nam Cong Hoa

     Bo Noi Thu                                                  7-10-66

 Nha-Vien-Thong                                                 AH


            Em moi lan doc thu A H thay an han vo coy voidto! An han vi H ma chan thu di phai nhien phai tranh hon troy dtoi A A cu tranh h hua Ha , hon phan them nhan h im nhan loi tat ca  loi lam noi guan troy lam vi H o biet lam vui loy A  ma o biet chup them nhien son lai dty len di soi hy dtui dta cho them truong Anh biet vi sao o vi H soisy dthuy dti gua rui ong thien tra ma H …..etc………(very long and bad written latter, what the meaning of “Biet” –auth)


11) November 1966


(1)Each of South Vietnam’s provices  and districts, there would be an Intelligence and operations coordination center (PIOCC or DIOCC)  where captured enemy documents would be read, prisoners interrogated , and dossiers maintained on all suspected members of the Vietcong infrastucture (VCI) .

Once adossier became large or convincing enough, the individual would be targeted for arrest by the Vietnamese Police, the military, or one of the provincial reconnais unit (PRU).

Phung Hoang had its origin in November 1966 when the Vietnam Stasion, MACV J-2, and the Vietnamese National Police cooperated to form a combined intelligence staff called CT-4. Its mission was to identification and neutralization of the Vietcong infrastructure in MR-4, which at thzattime corresponded roughlyto Gia Dinh Province plus the Saigon-Cholon metropolitan area.








d)1967-the second years of Vietnam Liberation’s war.


1)January 1967

(1)January,28th. 1967

North Vietnamese Foreign Minister Nguyen Duy Trinh says Unites States must stop bombing North Vietnam before talks begin.(D)


2) no info


3) March 1967


(1) March,1st. 1967

The best summin high-up of the war in Vietnam was written by Corelli Barnet in PUNCH , “ The Americans have yet to be persuaded that they cannot win their Vietnam conflict on the battle-field”(D) 

(2)  March,21st 1967

Johnson ends two-day meeting on Guam with Thieu and Ky, North Vietnam reveal exchange of letters betweenJohnson and Ho Chi Minh.


4) April 1967


(1) April,3rd. 1967

Nhiem Vu Rat Nang Ne Va Het Suc Ve Hang. Boi doi Truong Son du’o’c Quoc hoi va Chinh phu tuyen du’o’ng . Don vi anh luc Luong vu trang nhan dan (D)


5)May 1967

(1)  May,1st 1967

(a) Ellsworth Bunker arrives Saigon to replace Ldge as ambassador.(D)

(b) In this day issued a psecial first day cover with a soldier  with gun and people repaired the wheel of Tank, 1-5-1967 , the stamp about the soldier and civillian stamps, “DOI SONG DAN CHUNG, La Vie Du Peuple Au Vietnam , Premier Jour d’emission , First Day cover”

          (this cover found at Cholon Saigon-auth)


(2)  May,7th 1967

The Original handsigned of  the book ‘s writter , George M.T.Kahin ,on the inner page of his book’s “The United States in Vietnam” with his hand written For  Nugroho(in memoriam Indonesian Military Historian) with best wishes May,7th,1967 .Djakarta (old type,since 1971 Jakarta-auth)

6) June 1976

(1) June,10th. 1967

Rare official Vu quoc Hien , Luat  Su Toa Thruoang Tham Nathrang ( pri-soned Camp ?) covers to Cholon. With  Stamps 3 dong + 1 dong (rate4 dong) CDS Nha Trang 10.7.1976.

        Inside the official  Vu Quoc Hien letter.


Thua Ong,

Phuc dap quy tho ngay 2/7/67 Toi tran trong bao tin ong ro , viec chua ong Toa da goi ra de hoa giai (theo thu tuc) vao ngay 21-7-67.

                        Ngay do toibs thay mat Ong de di hau Toa.

            Kinh Thu.

(Please someone tranlate this important information, because rare official latter from South Vietnam still exist now due  to many refugees from this area and all the document were burned  before they put in the Truong Tam “Change of Thought” camp after the fall of Saigon in 1975-auth)


7)June 1967

(1) Unused Bankbiljet (Check) of Vietnam COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRY BANK in 196… branch SAIGON


(rare bank Chaque during liberation war, and the location at Ham Nghi street,  he was  very short time ‘s emperor and vietnam hero, his coins very rare,where that street now?-auth)







CHI PHIEU so A  09718                                  VN$………….

Cheque no.



                     HOI HAC DANH VON 50.000.000 VN$

                        TRU-SO : 93-95 ,DAI –LO HAM-NGHI SAIGON

       Nhan chi-phieu nay,xin tra………………………………

                                  So bac viet toan chu (somme en toutes lettres)




Do tinh cua ………………………………………………………………………….


____DUOC TRA’ TAI________________ .                             ……,ngay……..196….

            :     PAYABLE A                                      :

            :   VIET-NAM CONG-THUONG-HANG:

            :   S A I G O N                                       :



          COMPTE                     NG MINH TUYEN -32 819


     (2) July, 22th,1967

        The postal used official cover of Thieng Noi Hy-Vong Hop Tha 453 Saigon AN LOAT PHAM  , rolling type cds  SAIGON-VIETNAM 22-7 1967 with Stamps soldier and a worker  hands with his “scop” ,rate 0d80

(interesting low rate for official cover  0d80,    no destination because the cover’s type with clear window address,and the letter not included-please comment why and what the meaning of An Loat Pham and Thieng Noi Hy-Vong Hop Tha-auth)

8) August 1967

     (1) August,21st 1967

     The US airogram pre stamped John F.Kennedy 11 c Air mail USA, send from Hien,230 Fremont hall, Cal Poly San Luis 223 , California 93401-USA, rolling CDS SAN LUIS OBIS PO Aug 21 1967, to Ho Thi Tuyet Hong 16/18/3 Nguyen Thien Thuat Saigon South Vietnam and  destination CDS SAIGON VIET-NAM 26-8. 1967 , the letter in viet-namese:



Cal. Poly-San Luis Obispa          Chi nhat 20.8.1967

                                                Hong nien

Lan qua khong duse tin gi ma Hong, anh ui tuong la Hong da quen anh,khong con nha gi dten thang anh xa xoi nay mue the roi dong lue doi anh nhem diuse thy Hong va nhat minh ra loi da nghi con Hong, Hong cho anh xin nha, tu nay anh khong doi nghi tam bay  tam ba nhi nay nua , moi lan dua thi nen bouh chid thoi gio ma viet cho anh doi dong de gui la  chind qua am tam long don coi nay.

Anh thang cau de tiue ve qua tang ma Honh, anh quang khan mia Hong mau va kien dan lan anh thieh thu nhat day, hop y ve dung la nhy dien anh nhuoc tai lan. Hong khan that,anh khy biet ni Sao cho het su biet in cua voi Hong duoc, anh nung khong biet Hong nuon gi anh lo gi ang se tang Hong thei y Hong , thu San Ha biet nha ,Hong nuon gi anh nung  chuei y ca nuoc la……etc……..

Anh thi da gei ngu cua, co viet then, nha cho anh giu loi lin tham Hong lue nay ra sao ? anh rat nung tin Hong, anh khy quan duoc nhy  ky mien va thy luong ve Hay Chiu Honh vin ve manh an mey man.


9) September 1967

(1) Just prior October 1967

Just prior the South’s Vietnam October 1967 election, Hien and Chau supposedly met again. Chau, visiblyconcerned about his future, allergedly said he had decided to leave the military to run for the National Assembly from Kien Hoa province.


In that delicate exchange of nuaces for which the Vietnamese  and their language are famous, Hien understood Chau to be asking for help, both in money and in votes from Vietcong cadres.


There was not enough time, Hien said, to get Chau money, but he did report Chau’s desire for help in getting out the vote. Hien claimed  he did not know what in anything, his superiors had done about it, but he added slyly it wsas interesting that Chau had won his National Assembly seat by a wide majority.His interrogators were left to draw what ever conclusion from this claver gambit that they wished,


A report on Hien’s version of theChau contact was passed to Major Chung in accordance with NIC standard operating procedure for sharing data derived from interrogations conducted at the NIC.


            We know the report was quickly translate into Vietnamese and send to Binh, Quang and Thieu.


The Vietnamese questioned Chau, he admitted having met Hien once and having recieved Hien’s probe about setting up a meeting with the Americans. He claimed to have reported this to the Americans with a view to helping them set up a dialog with the NLF and Hanoi but that nothing had come of it. Chau said he saw himself as having acted throughout tisaffair as a Vietnamese nationalist. He denied haing violated any South Vietnamese laws.


Now the political nightmare started. Binh and Colonel Nguyen Mau, the head of yhe Special Brsanch of the National police, both asked me if it were true that Chau had worked under American.(D)


(2) September,3rd. 1967

Mc Namara,testifying before a Sanate subcomittee in this day, assert American bombing of North Vietnam is ineffective (D)


10) October 1967


(1)October ,3 rd.1967


(a)The government announced that the presidential election will held Oct 3 as scheduled with President Nguyen van Thieu as the only candidate,


(b)The announcement appeared to dash all U.S. hopes and afforts by U.S.Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker to make the presidential election a multiple race. Bunker had met two straight with Thieu in seeking a solution.


(c) In South Vietnam , Thieu elected president, KY vice president.


(d) Thieu won as expected in the ballothing.

11) November 1967  

(1)By the end of 1967

(a)following his electoral triumph, President Thieu sought to make his goverment more representative than it had been and to nuity politically and organizationally, only two of 19 cabinet members were soldiers and premier, Tran van Huong , was acivillian ,


(b) The combat troop had risen from 175.000 to 525.00.


(c)The Vietnamese and Vietcong matched and outpaced the US buil-up.


(d) By counting all by day which supplied the the communisr they kill in hundreds of skirmishes in rice-fields and forests and in attacks on village Vietcong by night, they thought they were surely winning the war. But these missions to seek out and kill the enemy didnot bring conflict to en end.


(e)American tactic proved of no avail in the Jungle of Vietnam. A helicopter gunship was not as effective as tens of thousand Vietcong and Viethminh, each armed with a rifle and able to live on adaily bowl of rice .It was impossible to kill them all.

Casualties would be replaced with new recruits, increase in American Combat troops with increased numbers of Viethminh. The Vietcong controlled much of Southern countryside.


(f) The very rare Vietminh propaganda ‘s picture  and North Vietnam stamps about the Vietcong shoot down the American ‘s  aircraft combat were issued this day(P & PH)


(g) Nganh Quan Y, who born 16.4.1956 had written about Vietnam in 1967 :


Thuchien loi day cua Bac Ho trong thu Nguoi gui can bo va chien si quan y ngay 31-7-1967:” Nguoi thay thuoc gioi dong thoi phai nhu la nguoi me hien, het long het suc cuu chua va phuc vu throng binh, benh binh”

Nganh quan y da tan tinh cuu chua va dieu tri khoi mot so lon thuong binh, bnh binh, trong do co nhieu truaong hop vet thuong va benh tat rat hiem ngheo. Rieng vien quan y 108, hang nam dieu tri tu 7000 den 8000 nguoi.(D)


(2) November,8th. 1967

The Postally used home made cover of NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corp) Saigon Bureu Saigo,republic of Vietnam,  send with Bu Chinh Vietnam Cong Hoa 1 Dong stamp ,CDS Saigon  18-11.1967 to Cholon.

The cover have made of half page -3 stencil brochure in Vietnamese charater :


Moi’ day mot thong tin v…………..

Trong ban tin tu Viet Nam gui ve…….

Pittsburg courier, da viet da so……….

Cho rang ho chien dau cho mot muc………………………………………………

Cuoc bieu tinh ‘hoa binh’ tai Hoa…..


            Hoa Thinh Don(TM),-……………………

Va cung la mot nhan vat quoc hoi…..

Ngo loi trong mot chuong trinh tro……

Quoc rang cuoc vieng tham moi day…….. da khien ong tin can phai ung ho……….trong cuoc chien dau gianh doc ia………………………………..

            Ong, Darius Marpaun—chu……Thien Chua Giao Indonesia—da tu…. bao, ong noi :’Cong san tai quoc….. bi loai tru trong mot cuoc dao chi….. Viet Nam chi la mot bu nhin cua…..Nam (Viet cong) la mot phong trao.

            Nhay 8-8, ong Marpaung…. trinh vo truyen thanh nhan……

            Ong Marpaung cung tuyen….cuoc tham Vien moi day cua ong….khao voi ong tran Quoc Bu’u—Chu…….Viet Nam—ya ong da duoc biet ….chuch khung bo cua Chong san va Mat….la mot chong cu chinnh tri cua  dan ….Viet.


            Nuu Uoc(TM)-Mot brnh…duoc xay cat tai Saigon,voi kinh…Chuc Cuu Tro Y’Te Nhi Dong Quoc Te….Nhan vien Virt Nam nhan lanh dieu….5 nam.

            Bacsy Arthur J.Barsky ,…..cho biet la benh vien se bat dau…tu 6 toi 9 thang sap toi.

            Den an cua to chuc gom he….. ‘Dieu tri cac tre em va huan luyen…

            Ong giai thich ‘Chung… toi nam nam Chung toi co the hoan…..Viet Nam va trao lai hoan toan cho…..benh vien do.

            To chuck nay la mot to ch….khong co muc dich chinh tri va tu….hoat dong co dich vu y te dac biet do gia kem mo mang.

……benh,vien dau tien thiet lap…….giai phau chinh hinh cac thoi.

……khong han che cong viec cua….. chinh hinh,trong khi’tai…xet nhu cau tai day va tu…..dieu tri nhung benh gi duoc.

….tien nhan va dieu duong gom do Uy Ban Cuu Tro Quoc Te.

            Tro Quoc Te, ong Morton Ham-burg…tiep nhan noi tren se do nhan ….oc cac tre em bi benh hoan.


(Histories’s Infornation from  Postal History covers. The historic fact  not only about postal services but also the information about foreign native citizen who joint the lieration war , from Indonesian Darius Marpung, Rusian Arthur J.Sparky,Germans Morton Hamburg .

I hope  native Vietnamese will be kind to translate this very interesting postal history and war history ’s informations ,especially for the three men family –auth)


(3)  November,16th. 1967

SO TUY THAN  like a pasport book ,Hong tuoi 1957, so quan 57 A.1777,010 , Ly-Lich:   the name (Ho Ten) Nguyen Trien Lan , born (Senh) ngay(date) 1.3.1937 tai Huon duong sign by Chu-su Phong Toyen Binh ,Nguyen Van Cau, vai tu coch B.I.V.V. and red double circle stamps fauna like bamboo design ,five fingers print Dau Lan Tay, Tay Phai and Danh-Muc , Nhung trong toi va kinh toi-Hinpaht in another page.

The end of the book we found a documen ‘Phieu Dung Lam Giat Chuyen van Form , sign by Doan truong (OD)


12) December 1967


(1) December 20th 1967

On this day , Prime Minister Tran van Kiem issued a letter of instruction calling for cooperation and coordination by all goverment of Vietnam (GVN) agencies in a program to neutralize the VCI (Vietcong  Central Intelligence-auth).

This letter gave the activity its legal designation of Phung Hoang, the name of a mythological animal that apprears only during times of peace and prosperity.


(perhaps the prime minister believed that invoking such a potent symbol would bring about the desired consummation).


(2)December,29th 1967

Foreign minister Thrinh have said on this day, that North  Vietnam will “Talk once the US halts its bombing.



4.3.3            Vietnam Liberation war 1968-1975

a. TET OFFENSIVE  , Vietcong attack  in 1968.


1)January 1968

(1)Sihanouk tells  Johnson ‘s emissary, ester Bowles,that he will not stop American forces from pursuing the Vietcong over the Cambodian border.(D)


(2) January,15th. 1968

BIEN VIEN SO 307 /Q6.QV STENCIL CETRIFICATE, SIGN BY NGUYEN THANH TRACH , TUNG-QUNG(?) THRUONG QUAN SAU FOR Toa So Tham Saigon, Luc Tinh Cholon knom 13 gia 8 Phuong Bien vien. With finger print without photo on ..nhon Tay Tro columm.(OD)


(3)After a decade of American tactics the communist planned a devasting blow “The Tet Offensive” against town in South Vietnam, was design as an all out effort to impress on American that the Vietcong were far stronger that they had supposed.

In preparation for Tet , was design as all-out effort and the North Vietnam had endeavoured to draw US troops from the towns by a diversionary attack on a nothern US base at Khesan .


(4)31th January 1968

(a)On Tet Holidays, the Vietcong and Vietminh launched “The Tet Offensive” against the town of South Vietnamm and mounted a huge offensive, penetrating several town s in an attempt to destroy the morale of the South Vietnamese and Americans , who believed  that their power was confined  to the countryside.


(b)It caught the Americans and the South Vietnamese completely by Suprise, because Tet was the National New Year Holiday period, dureing which a truce had always been observed, and because the town of South Vietnam had hierto been thought secure against the largely rural Vietcong.


(c)Score of Vietnamese towns were assault by  some  70.000 Vietcong and Vietminh , who created wide spread destruction  and even penetrate the heavily fortified US Embassy compaound in Saigon.



(d)The carnage was worst in the ancient city of Hue in central Vietnam, there the Vietcong overhelmed the South Vietnam Garrison . look at the vintage photo(ibid S,karnow)  ‘a wounded  GI helped by  his buddies  during the battle of Hue. The  toughtest  fighting occured  at the Citadel, which the Vietcong  held tenaciously American artillary  and aircraft also bombed and shelleted this city.”      


(e)In the end the communists were bloodily repulsed, but the terrible scenes of fighting shown on American television  screens conviced most Americans that US soldiers should be brought home.


(f)The ability of the communists to pene-trate  and even to hold their positions in a number of South Vietnamese town hitherto believed to be fitmly in South Vietnamese and American hands succeede in undermining American morale in their longest and most succesful war,


(g)The US President ‘s assurances that The Tet Offensive was the most disastrous Vietnam defeat of the war were perfectly true, but they carried little connection.(D)


(h)Tet offensive of 1968 was a campaining  “Liberate” the South before Ho ‘s death (ibid Stanley Karnow)


(b) Tet offensive Map (P)

2) february 1968

(1) Early 1968

After Tet offensive, Whasington was forced  to awful conclusion  that US could  no longer win the war(D)

(IMNAHA report a bogus fake first day cover with ilagalizes too sharp postal cancel Quan Buu 1.2.1968 on the second type Miltitary non nominal value, and fake  postmark” kho tet mau than de phong xuan ky dau.”

I have found the 2nd type Military stamp not cancelled by Quan Buu in sept 1968, but Quan buu cancelled on military stamps type 1 at april 1968, we can made comparative studies about the original quan buu cancelled-aut)


(2) February,25th. 1968

After twenty six days of Fighting, American and South Vietnamese troops recapture Hue.


3) March 1968

(1)  March,1st. 1968

The issued “ should another  206.000 troops be sent to Vietnam, bringing numbers there to almost three quaters of a million? The new secretary of Defense Clifford and the president rejected the increase.


(2) March ,21th .1968

(a)   After three weeks Vietcong occupation at Hue,  massacre 3000 people and buried them in hastily dug mass graves.      


(b) Before American and South Vietnamese troops regained control, the Tet offensive had caused them 6000 combat death. Thousand more Vietnamese civilian died, caught up in the fighting. For the Vietcong, the casuaties amounted to a devasting 50.000. AS a fighting force they was never recovered.


(c)The weakening of the Vietcong was not unwelcome in Hanoi. Indeede, in as Tet was a double victory for North Vietnamese because it undermined American confidence that the war would ever be won and it prevented the independent communist in the South Vietnam  from being able to challenge the nothern communist regime. The Vietminh henceforth played the major military role and so gained the upper hand in determining the future of vietnam.



(3)  March,31th. 1968


(a) Johnson announced his decision  not to seek re-election; he also indicated that there  would be a measure of disengagement from the war, reflecting the new consencus among his advisers, including former hawks, That at least freed his hand from the inevitable political infighting as the election loomed nearer and anabled him to concentrate on finding a viable alternative strategy in Vietnam .


(b)He also announced a partial bombing halt and invitee the North Vietnamese to begin peace talk.


(c) He says that he will not run for re-election(D)

(d) Propaganda picture anti Vietnam war, Presiden Johnson bring back home” daddy skull and bone” to his son (P)


4) no info


5) MAY 1968


      (1) May, 22th 1968

A very rare KHAI SANH’s certificate  signed by  Nhan chung, Ho lai and Tran-Hoc-lung in 22-05-1968. without revenue

(the rare collection after four month tet offensive without revenue,military free tax  dan used military area number Ku Buu chin(KBC) 3014(An Duc-Vinh Long) , please comment the complete form of Khai Sanh,s certifiacte below-auth)





                     KHAI SANH

:So hieu  250


:                                       ________________________________________________

     :                                        :Ten,ho au-nhi              TRAN-TUAN-TAI

     :                                    :Phai :                              NAM                                    :

            :                  :            Ngay hai muoi mot thang nam duong       :

     :                                       :            chin tram sau muoi tam(21-05-1968)          :

     :    SAU-Y-THONG-BO: Sanh: (ngay,thang,nam)…………………………………..:

            : AN-Duc 25/05/1968:  Tai   :…………………Xa An-DUC……………………………:

     : Chu-Tich K/Ho-Tich:   Cha:………………….Tran-Hoc-Luong……………………:

            :                                  :  Tuoi :………………….Hai muoi tam tuoi. ………………..:

            :     Signed &              :  Nghe-nghiep:…….Quan nhan……………………………:

            :       Stamped            :  Cu tru tai  :…………KBC 3014………………………………:

            :Vietnam conghoa         :  Me :…………………..TRANH-LINH…………………………..:

            :Vinh Long Chau.?,,        :  Tuoi :………………….Hai Moi hai tuoi……………………..:

            : UY-BAN  MINH CHANH :  Nghe-nghiep:……Noi Tro…………………………………..:

            : Nguyen-Tam-the    :  Cac tru trai………..Trai gia binh Trong doan 16BB..:

     :   CHUNG NHAN      : Vo :……………………Vo chanh……………………………….:

            :Chu ky cua UY Ban hanh chanh Nghe-nghiep:……..Quan Nhan………………………………..:

            : Xa An-Duc tren day :  Cu tru tai :…………….K.B.C.3014………………………………….:

            :Vinh-Long ngay 25/5/1968    :  Ngay Khai:……………Ngay 22 thang 5 DL 1968…………….:

            : TL Quan Truong CT    :  Nguoi chung thu nhirt: ..LE-HOANG-MINH………………………..:

            :PHO QUAN TRUONG  : Tuoi :……………………..Hai muoi chin tuoi………………………:

            :                                     : Nghe-nghiep:……….Quan nhan…………………………………:

            :    signed & stamped : Cu tru tai :………………K.B.C.3014………………………………….:

            :                                      : Nguoi chu thu nhi :..LE-HUU-HANH……………………………..:

            : TRAN-VAN-LAN         : Tuoi:……………………….Hai muoi lam tuoi………………………:

            :                                     : Nghe-nghiep:…………Quan Nhan………………………………..:

            :                                     : Cu tru tai :………………K.B.C. 4014………………………………… :

            :                                    :_____________________________________________________:

            :                                                                                                                                               :                       Lam tai ….AN-DUC…………..ngay 22….thang…05…nam..1968……..:

            :                                   Nguoi khai                   Ho lai                      nhan chung        :

            :                            TRAN-HC-LUONG     NGUYEN-VAN-THE    LE-HOANG-MINH

            :                                   (KY TEN)                   (KY TEN)                     (KY TEN)          

                ::                                                                                                                                                                                  :

                :                                                                                                                                      LE-HUU-HANH

            :                                                                                                           (KY TEN)              :


6) June 1968

(1)  June,5th. 1968

Robert Kennedy was assasination while celebrating his victory in California elections .

(2) The Vietnamese war may become the biggest question mark in airpower history. Even when the full records of the war become available, judgment of airpower effectiveness atill will be a matter of opinion as weel as fact.

The restrictions that always accompany a limited conflict have clouded  the vietnamese situation throughly, and it will be difficult for anyone to appraise the true worth of airpower in this war objectively.(D)


(3) A USAF helicopter airlift supplies to a Special Forces camp in the central highland of Vietnam (P), A foward air control (FAC) ground team keeps in radio contact with an airborn 0-1 Bird Dog(P), and Vietnamese Air Force A-1 H Skyraiders over Bien Hoa air Base

( I have the postal history sent from this base , keep reading you will find that-auth)(P)


7) July 1968


Finally in this day With some nudging from Bill Colby, then chief of MACV CORRD, President Nguyen van Thieu put his official stamped of approval on the program.




8) August 1968

(1)     Ho Chu tjeh da tang co thu’ong cho nganh xe quan su nhan dip Hoi ngi lai xe gi’o’i va tho sua chua gioi toan quan thang 8 nam 1968. La co mang nhung dong chu :

Yeu xe nhu con

              Quy xang nhu mau

              Vuot moi kho khan

              Hoan thanh nhiem vu

                           Bac Ho.

(2)  August,24th. 1968

Information from “NGANH XANG DAU QUAN DOI”:


(a)Ngay 13.6.1968. nganh xang dau da xay  dung xang 42 km duong ong dan dau vuot qua Nam Ban ,Dong Loc, Truong Bang.(D)

(b)Ngay 24.8.1968. Cuc Xang dau thuoc. Tong cuc Hau can chinh thuc thanh lap.(D)

(c) thang 11-1968 , tiep tuc keo dai them 230 km duong ong xuong phia Nam,doc theo duong chien luoc so 12, kip thoi van hanh xang tren duong ong,cung cap cho cac doan xe van tai cho hang vao chien truong.(D)




(3) August,27th. 1968

Air Mail Military Covers from Phong Dinh  with Military Stamp  without nominal value  but not cancelled, Nahrang circulaired date stamped  9.9.68 outside the stamp (send two weeks  from the date of the letter 27.8.68)

This civil letter from Nha Trang to Army personel KBC 4882 TSE  R Won cho/ AA I (location ?).

(This miltary cover or civilian  send by regular Phong dinh post office without KBC and Quan Buu CHOPPED,why military stamps used,please comment after read the letter below –auth).


Dem Jay Cho 27.8.68

                    Imh Hoang kinh men.

                    Phnong cham biet thn hoiu em ena phuong cgan dem voi amh la can mot su chom tre, chao la mam hi mong choi va trach hon phuong chan lom phai khong chi loim phai khong cho phuong chan xin loi anhe.

Imh hoang men Troi somh ra chi phuong chan, koi ban cho phuong chan mot noi miem san kho .Pjuong cham ng heo lam , ngeo tat ca hi imh yen cho den vat chat , cho khong nhn omh phoang Imong Imong chan Ai conbiet cho pjuong cham ngoi con gan tay do nay Moi khira dtnong ,phuong chan chi biet nhm xnong,nhn nhn lon cuoc dtoi.

IJ tnoi som mong ina phuong cham xau so any . Troi oi dtinh menh , Thuong che.cha bem cho Phuang chan mot hinh hai, one khong vam cho phuong chan mot mem, Im oni trong cnoa song du mot mem Im vni nho nho. Imh khoang si! Moiu Rhi phuong chan soi bong minh trong gnong, ma com thay Im than vo enng, nhong Phuong chan kip ngln,Imy minh,xan xi, nhing con dtuoc 8 hau phuong, yen lanh, trong khi co,nhien omh linh, cha ngheo tat, ca ma con phan chien chan o noi vong minh lay kho nhoc,Phuong chan nghi chan minh thi,dtang Im cac anh hinh kho nhoc dto nhat la cao anh o mien xa, khong ngo, phuong chan ctuoc dirm phuc anh bien thn den chnh mon biet dnng bhan ena Phuong chan,n ? Khong anh ching tim hien vi ve Phuong , chan ca, nh chi can biet phuong,chan co em gai xau xi va ong hao nan. Omh hay inong inong phuang chan trong tri nho, khi emh muon nghi chen phuong chan, vi su that luc nao emg phu phong va cay dong.

Phuong chan xin ching, but nhe, hen thu sau chuc omh chem nay  chi vao mong dep….

                        Em gai nho Tay thomh (Phuong Chan)

A anh con nho chia khong de phuong chom bien lan ma nho,

Jhn vo. N.H.Trang, cong gnyenh can da moi , Phong Dinh.(OD&PH)


(4) August.8th. 1968

Nixon elected president of the United States with Spiro Agnew as vice –president.(D)

9) September 1968

(1) September .14th.1968

A letter from True Giang ,




Co Hien

Nhan duitc thu c0 tri that phan van kho ngi, khong kieu Co new viet thu cho co khong, nhung rai to quiyet dinh thu chico, keo co trong thui hoan J mai, co Se nghu khong tot ve ngun ban qua co cua toi tri hanh bao tin khong vui co Ro hoang dta anh dung lia dto tri thanh that chia buon cung co va hien nay tri dang gui 2 la thui Cuo co goi cho hoang va 1 taan anh-toi xin loi co ve nanh dong khong dtep cua toi, vi toi va hoang lam2 nguoi ban than new toi da biet co qua nhung thu trore tren dtay toi xin goi tra anh. Cua Co ve Cgu.

Thu dteu dtay vai hay Co reo mot lau nua thanh that chia buon cung co neu Co Co gi muon noi toi khng dam tai choi.

Xin dung but chuo co may man lon. Kinh Chao.

T.B. neu can thu cho toi Xin de de : Ts H.V.J DDR KBC 4882 (location ?) Xin Co Vui Long Hui Bo, Sui Chau Tho Cua Toi. Cam Buu. (OD)








10) October 1968


       (1) October, 21th.1968

       The series 641 with JJ  Replacement code of  US military Payment Certificate  start from 31.8.1965 type to 21.10.1968, and this day began to used the BB replacement code until 11.8.1969, this token issued special  for used at South Vietnam field area. The design of US beautiful woman , nominal 5 cent- 25 cent-50 cent-1 dollar,5 dollar  and 10 dollar. The last use of this token in this day .

(I found all of this payment certificate except 5 cent JJ  and 50 cent JJ  and 5 dollars JJ . I found 5 cent BB and not yet found the BB replacement note of another nominal .  The collector’s name “TOKEN” because used only at special area South vietnam , private collection in fine condition except 5 cent everage good condition  have found during my visit in 2007 at HCM-city, but during my last visit 2009 I couldn’t found anymore –auth)


11) November 1968 no info


12) December 1968

(1) Until this day Somone was not the God father of The Phung Hoang  ( or Phoenix, to give it the name that the American hung ) as some would have it.program

(2)American troop strength in Vietnam at year-end is 540.000.








1) January 1969


2) n(1) Nixon’s policy of Vietnamisation played into their hand as they negoytiated interminalby in Paris. Their prime aim was to reach an agreement which would get the US out but would leave them able to continue the war within the country until final victory. So they resolutelu reject any proposal out foward by Henry Kissinger, America’s chief of negotiator in Paris,which required borth North Vietnamese forces and the Americans to withdraw from the South.

          (2)American bombing caused grievous losses, but, making use of widely dispersed factories and with supplies of arms from China and Russia, the communist leadership in Hanoi was prepared to continue waging for years to come.


(3)The Vatican rewarded Nguyen Bao Tung ( Native Vietnam best Stamps collectors) a medal( VIIth Pontificate of H.H. Pope Paul VI) for his book entitled “Journeys of Pope Paul VI”


(4) President Nguyen van Tieu picked General Tran Thien Kiem as premier in a goverment with other soldiers, technocrats , and folloers of former president Diem predominated. He had chosen to base his goverment on military rather then popular support


          (5)Paris talks expanded to include saigon government and Vietcong representatives(D)




2) February 1969


     (1) The original vintage photo of AVRN Vietnamese captain native with two photographers,  one surgent  and one  civilian  in the front of US ARMY , ARMY PICTORIAL CENTER.

            ( I found this photo at HCM city in 2007, who know where the army Pictorial center ? I think at Saigon, who was the Vietnamese captain and is he still alive, please comment- auth)


3) March 1969


(1)March,12th. 1969

Registered 460 overprint stamped  Long –Xuyen ,Postally cover with 3 dong stamp , CDS Long-Xuyen 12.3.1969, to Trinh-Van-Phan Bo-Moc –Vu Sai-Gon. This official letter from Duong-Thanh-Pinh Truong Trung Moc Bo-De Long-Xuyen(A-G)  

(Rare registered from Long Xuyen,from official offiice civilian without KBC stamped,trough  civil post office with special rate 3d , non official 6 d , what the meaning of the official office Duong-Thanh-Pinh ? please comment -auth)


4) April 1969


      (1)April,20 th.1969

The very rare postal history of AVRN” TRAN TRANG HOA M1” postal used covers with  South Vietnam military stamps type M1 ‘s  clear CDS Quan Buu  2045 ,8.4.1969,  with red double circle Quan Doi Cong Hua BUU-TIN-VIEN KBC 4308 send from Le van Vien B.V.3.D.C /L.Ngoui Chan KBC 4308 to  code Q.T , Tran Trang Hoa  219/19 Pham ngu Lao saigon with destination CDS bigger type (saigon ?) Quan Buu 8.4.1969.




( This postal hstory very best for showed , becaus fine condition and the samedestination with another postal history military stamps typ M2  24-4-1969 , this  postal history one from KBC 4308 never report the location may be Cam Ranh? , another KBC 4091  –Quan Trung Military school/training academy at Quan Tre- please comment –auth)




The very rare “TRAN TANG HOA M2” Quan Trung military Academy at Quantre postal history  with South Vietnam Military stamps type M2 not cancalled by Quan Buu CDS , send from Dai Doi Chi Hung Tien Doan Phong ve KBC 4091-Quan Trung  Military School/Training Academy at Quan tre , red doubble circles stamped “ Quan-Doi –Viet-Nam Cong-Hoa BUU-TIEN-VIEN K.B.C. 4.091 TOAN” and CDS Quan Buu Vietnam 26-4 1969 to Tran Tang hoa, So 219/19 Phan ngu Lao Saigon  with note :(Nho Chuyen cho Huyen Trang xin that that thar cai) , on air mail par avion envelope, no quan Buu detination CDS.

Another collection from the Quantrung KBC 4091 military acedemi :

(a )The photo of Quan Trung Military academy’s  Student, two student in the front of modern canon weapon, and one student with war helmet  was taken in another year february 1970.

(b) The ceritificate of Gunshooting bravet “ Chung nhan Then X6) from KBC 4091 –Quan Trung Military academy  April 24 1972 signe by Brig.general (Thieu-Thoang) Hoan-Van lac.


(The very rare M2 stamps and never found with CDS on that S.V.Military stamp ,  destination Quan tre, Military School/Training Academy “Quan Trung” , please comment the TRAN TANG HOA M2 ,the illustration as the cover of the Book Vietnam war 1 with T.T.Hoa M1 cover , please comment after read the letter inside the cover below for more information. I have seen the Fake cover of M2 stamps , report by IMNAHA. I am very happy to showed this rare postal historry with anothe M3 and Vietnam map cover , ICCS cover, if I the US Indochina phillatelic association send the invitaion to show this two  at their annual exhebation  because very difficult to get the US visa this time , please comment-auth)



                                                                                    Huyen Trang men !

La Thu ? dtai  tiu, minh chong thong biet viet ga han dto? Lan quon voi trang la ke? Lan cho Trang nghe truong hop duoc han hanh viet tho cho Trang truong hop nhu sau

Trang cuoc hanh quan luo soat thu dtech Minh dta luc Soat dtuoc so mang anh, vi rach nat vien Minh khong biet vo la to bao so nay  va May mau le Trong nhung Trang ngay vach nat dto lai con mu tien bay leu Phung Minh nghe nhat vay chu khong biet muoi dto co pha la minh tin hoang bon phung o?

Sau vi doi va hang gioi thiu cua Huyen trang, tu nhien Minh thay thich va vui vin vi chi ? Trong vai hang ngai ngai dto uo cung dta thew hien dtuoc phan nao ma long Minh hang mo uoc nhat la thich nhy chien Sat nang, vi moi mat buoi chien tat nang Minh thuong huong vi quc nha va xan dte nho thuong me gia va em doi.

Thei Minh cha them viet nha vi noi lan noi chen la Minh co the choc len dtuoc.

Minh xin nghing bat moi dtang va hen tho sau se Viet nhiem hon.Minh dtiem ma Minh so uoc nhat la Trang pha thanh tha voi Minh ten Minh Se Co gaiy thank that voi Trang moi van dte,



Tai bat : dia chi cua Minh hitch tai co chung nha china vi thong thung,dti nanh quan luon men nha co o han cu vay minh mien dtia chi cua anh bao co han cu dte lich lai voi huyen trang vi nha the thu se o la that lac :

                           Ha Ei vai Dieu

                              Dai Doi Chu Huy / The Doan phong Vo KBC 4091

                                          Liu Tiao lau Cho






(3)April,24th 1969

The very rare US Military payment certificate series 651 were issued with replacement code A-A in this day and the note used until 19.11-1973.

(This not veryrare because used during the war and before the fall of Saigon didn’t use anymore  and another series also issued in 1969 like series  661 BB in 1969 , 681 cc in 1969 and 692 EE in 1970 then in, many were change to US dollars for buying gold  due to the refugees, I have never seen this notes, only report but not confirm 5c,10c, and 25 c, the 50 cent only one report, the 1,5 and 10 dollars never report. Please comment why the series  651 AA very difficult to found?-auth)


5) May 1969

(1) May,10th. 1969

The Handwritten last wish letter from Ho Chi Minh at Hanoi.


“ Viet Nam Dan Chu Cong Hoa,Doc tap-Tu do-Han phuc.

Cuoc chong My,cu’u nuo’c cua nhan dan ta du phai kinh qua gian kho, hy sinh nhieu hon dua, song nhat dinh thang loi hoan toan.

            Do la mot dieu chac chan.

            Toi co y’ dinh de’n ngay do’, toi se’ di khap hai mien Nam Bac de’ chuc mung dong bao, can bo va chien si anh hung; tham hoi cac cu phu lao, cac chau thanh nien va nhi dong yeu quy cua chung ta.

Ke theo do , toi se thay mat nhan dan ta di tham va cam on cac nuoc anh em trong phe xa hoi chu nghia, va cac nuoc bau bin khap nam chau da tan tinh ung ho va giup do cuoc chong My, cu’u nu’oc cua nhan dan ta.

            Cuoi cung,toi de lai muon van tinh than yeu cho toan dan,toan dang,cho toan the bo doi,cho cac chau thanh nien va nhi dong.

            Toi cung gu’i muon ciu’oi cung cua toi ta. Toan Dang, toan dan ta doan ket phan dau, xay dung moi nuoc viet nam hoa binh, thong nhat,doc lip, dan chi va giau manh, va gop phan xung dang vao su’ nghirp cach mang the’gioi.

                                                              Ha’ Noi,ngay 10 thang 5 nam 1969





(not complete letter, maybe native vietnam will translate the Ho Chi Minh Letter-auth)



(4) the calour Photo of Ho Chi Minh (P)


(5) The cover of Vietnam Book propaganda  with national Flag “Viet Nam Dau Tranh Vi Doc Lap Va Chu Nghia Xa Hoi and Chu tjeh Ho’ Chi Minh photo, in this book  have illustrated the vietnam war photo


(a) Chu tjeh Ho Chi Minh


(b) Thi xa Cao bang sau ngay quan xam lu’o’c Trung Quoc rut


(c) Nhan dau cac vung xung quanh thj xa Lang So’n di so tan trong thoi gian Trung quoc xam lu’o’c.


(d) Xu’o’ng sura chua nong cu o’ cao bang bj bon xam lu’o’c trung quoc tan pha.


(e)Nha may san xuat phan dam lo’n nhat Vietnam o’ Ha Bac


(f) Hai hong,Phan xu’ong nguoi nha may co


(g) Xurong che’ bien muoi o’ Nha rang.


(h)Ruong trong lua tinh Hoa Binh


(i)Cy ruong bang may o’ tinh Quang Binh


(j) Hai che trong nong truong Moc Chau


(j) Nha may go dan o tinh Phu Khanh san xuat hang xuat khan,


(k) Mo rong ho chua nuoc o’ tinh Lai Chau


(l) Nha may nhiet dien Quang Ninh


(m)Thap khoan tren dong bang son Hong


(n) Hai Pong Xay nha o’


(o) Cac chi tho theu lang Binh Minh gan Ha Noi


(p) San pham cua mot horp tac xa huyen Kim Son


(q) Cua hang ban den giay


(r) Tran dia trong nyui cua bo doi Lang Son


(s) Pho lu bj thiet hai trong thoi gian Trung Quoc xam lu’o’c.


(t) Bo doi giup dan uyen Kim Bang dan mu’o’ng dan nu’o’c tu’o’i ruong.


(6) Nam 1969, nganh xang dau da ngien cu’u.thiet ke va che tao thanh cong may bom cao ap Truong Son;tiep do hang loat cac loai ong va phu kien duoc che tao,nho do co the chu dong thay the, sua chua va co nguon du tru can thiet, bao dam toan bo he thong duong ong van hanh tue trong moi tinh huong.


 (2)   May,14th. 1969

   Nixon proposes simultaneous withdrawal from South Vietnam of American and North Vietnamese forces (D)


  6) June 1969

(1) June,1st 1969

The Soldier civilian stamps were issued, the uncommon mint 80 pi.

( I found thi stamp on postally cover,look at registered Danang 11.10.69 and  Saigon 17.12.69-auth)



(2)June,8th. 1969

Nixon with Thieu on USS.Midway , annouces withdrawal 25.000 American troops from Vietnam.(D)


7)no info


8) August 1969



        The replacement note B-B of series 661 beautifful women were issued in this day to change the series 661 J-J.and also in this day issued new design notes series 681 army warfare design with replacement coed C-C (I only found the 5 cent series 661 B-B  notes in  good condition only  , very rare in very fine condition because this notes were used until 7.10.1970 only one year and after that the war became more battles everywhere-please comment-The series 681 found 5 cent,10 cent submarine design, and 1 dollar  airforce pilot in fine condition- auth)


(2) August,29th,1969

The uncommon mint Bannar Man stamps,50 pi, were issued.


9) September 1969

(1) September,3rd. 1969

   Vietnam National Hero, Ho Chi Minh dies in Hanoi at age seventy-nine, this day (RIP=Rest In Peace).

(read his handwritten last letter, on 10th May 1976, four month before he have  passed and his vintage photo in 1955 after the Vietminh war-auth)


(2) September,20th,1969

The Civilian became soldier “Tong Bong Vien “ stamps were issued, the uncommon was 10 pi.


       (3) September,24th .1969

       The  serial collections  of Vietnam Cong-hoa Buu-Bien reciept of Bien-Lai So : Nhan Cua O Tay Chanh ,so tien la 3542. with Coniem(revenue) Vietnam Cong Hoa Nha Truoc Ba Va Coniem 3X 3$00.

(very best the collection of revenue rate and variation of tax reciept  , from 21.12.1968 until12.4.1971,this were the first report of rate during the escalation of Vietnam liberation war :

No.       Date             Tax            Revenue 

                                                Rate    Type

a)      21.12.1968      3172       0$80   large coniem

                                                2$00  Nha truoc va

                                                5$00        “

                                             ( 7$80)

b)      22.3. 1969      2772         0$80  large coniem

                                                1$00  Nha truoc va

                                                5$00       “

                                               ( 6$80)

c)     24.9.1969       3542          3  X

                                                3$00        “


d)     23.12.1969      3472        0$80          “

                                                3$00         “

                                                5$00         “


e)     21.3.1970       9138        2×0$80       “

                                              20$00         “


f)       26.6.1970      8015        0$80           “

                                              20$00        “


g)     31.12.1970    9735      5X0$80         “

                                                20$00       “



h)      12.4.1971     8875     2×10 d         stamps

                                          5$00        Nha Tuoc Ba va



i)      8.7.1971        11.825   3×10$00        “

                                            2X0$80          “


(The 10$00 revenue rare, and used stamps in March.12th 1971, why ? look at March 1971-auth)


10) October 1969

(1)October.17th 1969

The very rare “Bao Thi”(The  Military Headquaters) Return to sender Registered airmails Cover from R no 908 ovpt Danang , with 16 d nam-quoc-te nahn quyen ed.1968 + 2 d-soldier civilian stamps (rate 18 dong) cds Danang 17.10.69 to Saigon cds 22.10.1969,  the addres cross , handwritten Bao(1) cross with red handwritten date 21/10,  and red squared box stamped “retour afsender “and straight stamped “not found’  with hand writen 8/12 and in the back Bao Thi 12/12.


(Rare registered letter from Military HQ-“Bao  Thi” Danang after Danang under Vietcong between Jan-March 1968 –auth), return to sender after seeking many battle’s area were seen   many destinations and post stamped  during vietcong war in fighting area Danang, this the first report,altough the condition not so fine but very good multi postmark & stamped still read. The best showed covers  –auth )  


(2)October,15th. 1969

     Massive antiwar demonstrations in Washington (D)

(3)American troop in Vietnam reduced by 60.000.(D)


11) November 1969


(1)November,8th 1969

     The President van Thieu photo in the day at Bien Hoa , S.Vietnam , he attends National Day ceremonies at military cementary near Bien Hoa . In most photos Thieu ( wearing dark grey suit)  accompanied by Vica President Cao Ky , who is wearing a Nehru jacket. ( image by



12)December 1969


(1)     December,17th.1969

The postal used cover from the ownwer of VIPITRA SA import-export,88.Le Van Duyet Saigon ,to Kinh giu Bac Si Le Cuu Truong,99 Nguyen Du Saigon, stamp 2d-soldier civilian (rate 2d in city) , CDS SAIGON VIETNAM 17.12.1969.

       Inside a  beautiful “Chinese New year greeting “in chinese char” on American navy boy holding flower and the picture of a habour and a trap lady’s fish tailed  post card.


(2)            December, 17th.1969

The AWA aerogram letter sheet without prestamps l, send from Nguyen Hien 374/1 Nguyeng ngoc Suong Phu Nuan saigon Vietnam with  3 stamps 2 x 1,5 d and 1x 3 d (rate 6 d)  to Miss Ho Thi Tuyet Hong , CDS Saigon Vietnam 28.12 1969,as regular civilian postal service , in the back hand written :



Phu Nhuan                             Thu bay Ngay 27-12-69

                            Hong men,

      Mot canh thi cua Hong da den tay anh va sau do mot

Thiep Noel nua da roi vai Sau tay anh nhung anh thuo vi

Tinh da khong co mot loi than hoi gi ca cho Hong , anh

co loi nhiem , anh an han ve ming , va anh xin hong dung voi goan

lay tho thu cho anh va de anh noi so ly do toi sau anh lai co mot tai di nho  vay.     

sau khi nhan duoc thu cua hong, anh hinh goi diem thoa cho hong hen ngay gap nhung mot phan o  tai dinh phu nuan khong hen doan thoan cong cong hai le o chanh day tung co doan hoa nhung cua may seu chu my anh khong muon phu va vi vay anh da kho goi duoc cho hong……….etc…………………………………………………………….

Va vi vay ma truong tho bay ngoi viet tho hong de ta toi hong lue nay ta sau, chai cong ru van huong . Anh xin loi hong ve ru kang tren lao thu tu hay diem thoi de xen con vrie sa sau toi anh se tiu cho hong sau dung buon ve nua nhe anh biet toi voi, tho cho anh









1) January 1970





(1)January, 10th 1970

The Airforce VNAF free postal airoplane and rocket cover,  send from “KBC 4652 LDPT”VNAF 4th Division Phong Dinh, to Dinh Vu So 332-1 “KBC 3319” Cam Ranh Naval Training center with CDS Quan Buu 10.1.1970. and red KBC 4652 double circle stamped . At the top of cover handwritten “ Thu Ta The Ve Bien Nhatrang mien Cac nay”(what the meaning ?). Inside the letter in Vietnamese language:


              Con Tho ngay 31.12.69

                                                Chu Ngen

Hom nay tap nhan dtuoc Tho Qui, tep Lay Lam Ngung, Vi Qui dta chon dtuoc nganh Hai Phoa theo tap nghi thi Qui se La chanh thuc La nguoi lungcua dai duong.

Vi qui Se dti tau bien Luc Qui nang Khoa nganh hai Phai Xem xen, voi nganh Bom dtau cua nganh H.Q.vey,Khi Ban dtuoc dti tau Bien Bau se dtuoc dti tat ca cac tinh cua V,N.

Tap lat tiet La dta mot Phen tinh nguyen dti nganh Xa thu, De Lau nguoi hung o Giang Nghung tap o toai nguyen dtuoc, vi tap dta La RQ ma o dtuoc tren Trei Anh Ban dtuoc, nhung Ban dti hoi Pkao Eoi Chung Cuoi o co vo dto vi no so Ban thut Sap Nha dto Q suen tap cang quen luc qui dti co gei Lai cho thieu Ba lo noi o?———.

Can dtoi voi tap thi o co nhung noi o co thi o dtuoc ngoi nhung nguo: Qui biet Ra con tiet nhiem nhung tap dtem tu choi vi  tap ho mat cam ve van dte am uong vay le lat ra nhung au o tap cung xen xen voi ban ma thu.

Con phep thi Bi cap roi tai du ky roi nen o duoc ve cuoi thu tep cung chuc qui dtuoc nhiem mai mang ve  suc khoc nan nay tap cung nhu qui au tet tai dton vi cung nhu noel vua roi nhung C.T.cung Vui vui dto ban.

Thoi tap xin tau dtung biet va mong tho qui dtien neu Ban co dti dtan coi tap o mai ta dta chi cu.

                                                            Thau ly

                                    Tap luc nay ngheo quc qui vi



(Free  airmail –rocket VNAF 4th Air Division  cover, postally used with red KBC 4652 and Black Quan Buu stamped 10.1.1972  from KBC 4652(Phong Dinh Air Force)  L.D.P.T (?)  to CTTT Chong Thu literaly mean Gouverment Building,Tao Tac literally mean Building & Construc-tion, CTTT means Corps of Engineers , Ve Bien Nha Trang mien Cac Truong, Dinh Vu Sro 332-1(?),KBC 3319(Naval Training center Cam Rahn). The back side of the cover pencil written nhan ngay (arrive) 17.01-1970. one week after postal date stamped auth), and the type letter fron the same sender to “Huyen Trin Qui” from Phong Dinh 20.2.1970. Huyen Trin Qui covers were the best collection for showed because many variations during the war 1969 until 1971-aut)


     (2) January,15th 1970

The Bird triangle stamps were isuued in this day and  the uncommon mint stamp 30 pi.




2) February 1970


(1)February,12th 1970

          The “Nguyen Trinh Qui civil Cholon “ cover, send by Lo Ngoy,5,Kom voi CL ,civil cover without Quan Buu cds and KBC stamped, rolling cds Cholon on South Vietnam Flag with USA-Australia flag,another design not clear send to H.V.H.P 12c/69 DVS 332 -1 tr D3 , KBC 3319-Can Ranh Naval Training Center.

(Nguyen Trinh Qui joined the Naval Training center at Cam Ranh, the other cover always to his station “Vung Tau HQ 503” , together with another Huyen Trinh Qui cover will very intersting collection to show,please comment-auth)   

(2)February.20th 1970

(a)Kissinger begins secret talks in Paris with Le Duc Tho (D)

(b) The vintage B-W photo of the Student of Quan Trung Military academy at Quan Tre  , on the back of the photo ,  handwritten “Ky niem Quang Trung K 1/70 KBC 4091 thang 2/1970 “(This vintage photo will best showed collection with the “Tran Trang Hoa M2” cover because from the same location  during the vietnam liberation war, and also with another “Tran  Tran Hoa M1 “ cover  because the same type military stamps, please comment-auth)


(c)Another “Huyen Trinh Qui “ cover, Free airmail flight-rocketvtype cover from KBC 4652 (Phong Dinh VNAF 4th Air Divison) L.H.P.T.(?) to D.V.S.332-1(?)  KBC 3319 (Cam Ranh Naval Training Center ). with KBC and Quan Buu CDS with letter inside :



Phong Dinh ngay 20.2.1970.

                             Qui Neen

Zap nhan duioc zho qui tap nung lam vi do la Bui tho ctan xuan qui van khoe cho con o xon minh cung nhu zhuong zap moi ve e bua truoc.

          Voi Khoan  ctau thang tu hay  cua thang Ba tap moi xin phep ve 7 ngay a qui co Biet anh thai da xung ngay 17 tai cau tha can cu vi q my.

          Cho anh thai cack tap vao A Cay Si Thoi Zan cunc qui cung ve vung Bon Ling Nbgfoi con Viet zap xai doi ve Sai Gon,Theo Tap chua ughi den Viec du ninh chua co gia vinh hon ning Liang ninh chi ca may ngau Ba ma thi nieu tap ve Sai Gon nen tap dtoi Hay o tien thi o nha Phai cho tap so se nhu anh thai tay thi kho nen tap Quyet dinh o lai. Etc………….

Choi tap co toi loi thein qui va chuc qui van Su Nho y muon o8 dtau thi vw dto vua/chua. Ven thu sau, mong bau.  


(During joined the Training center at Cam ranh KBC 3119, Nguyen Trinh Qui recived several letter , military and civillian cover, best collection with many different type postal histories covers-auth)


3) March 1970


(1) March,18th. 1970

     Sihanouk overthrown in Cambodia by Lon Nol (D)and his Photo (P)


4) no info

5) May 1970

(1) May,1st. 1970

THE CU TRI (Election card?) Saigon Quan(military) Truong.with native char : Tua qamp Voang Quan 8 , sign by Quan Truong saigon Nguyen Van Phav  with four A-D in the corner,the A have used. In the below of certificate “ Chu’y ,- Xin giu ky the de co dip dung sau nay. (OD)


(2)  May.4th. 1970

     Large antiwar protests spread across the United states. National guardsmen kill four students at Ken State University in Ohio.(D)

7)June 1970

(1) June .2nd.1970

The earliest  Chung-Chi Hop-Le Quan-Dich certificate Of   Bo Quac Phong Nha Dong vien” So Dong Vien So 3” with Military and People Emblem.




Ho Ten(name)     : Luu Khac Nhon

Sinh(birth)             : 2/2/31

The can-cuoc so : 319334

Cap tai                 : Q5/ 8 / 02 / 1961

Dia-Chi                  : 175 / 17 Nguyen Tri

                                  Phuong Cholon.  825661 SDV3/QD/31     



Co bieu-luc den    : 30/06/1971

KBC 4309  NGAY 02 JUNE 1970

Trung Ta nguyen –Van-Koi

Chanh Su-Cu So Dong vien 3

Hand sign. Yo 825661

Guoc gia ban den 30 SEP 1971

KBC 4.309 ngay 01 JUL 1971

Dai ta Nguyen Phuoc Nhung

Chanh Su-Vu So dong Vien 3


Si-Quan Phu Ta- Handsign .


(The first KBC with point between 4 and 309. at Saigon area-OD)



The Cu Tri “Election” card,sign by Quan Truong Saigon in this day.






                                         Viet –Nam Cong-Hoa

        A                              THE  CU  TRI                                                    B

                                               So : 03008398           


                  Ho va Ten    :    NGUYEN THI  CHAT

                  Nam va noi sinh :       1927        –         HDG

         Tru quan  :  03 CH      07   03     P  T  GIAN      633-  Z 

        The can cuoc so : 03908762  cap tai     SGN ngay   20.02.70

                                                      Saigon,ngay   01  thang   06 nam 1970


                  Chu ky cua Cu-tri                               QUAN TRUONG


                                                                                          SIGNED STAMPED

                                          Red official stamped             NGUYEN VAN-PHAV 

                                  “ Viet -Nam Cong-Hoa

                                          Do Thanh Saigon

     C                                 Toa Ranh Vanh                                                  

                                                  QUAN 8”


(3)June .14th.1970

The earliest Civil covers send from Qui-Nhon without used KBC number (before KBC  3040) send from CDS Qui Nhon  14-7 1970 to Saigon, with black propaganda Stamped “ Goi thu SAIGON bo de so Quan” (meaning:” Go to Saigon …?… Army”) ,


( the earliest military propaganda stamped.inside chinese char. Letter date 31.5.71 two month before ,because the war civil letter delayed send-auth). (PH)



(4)June,22th. 1970

     The “Huyen Trin Qui M1Military cover with military no value stamp from DAI DOI 3/2 KBC 3396 , RIVER  Mine group  91  Navy Saigon ,WITH RED CIRCLE KBC 3396 STAMPED to  T.T.T.P HQ 503 (HQ 503 was the LST;landing ship Transport at Vung Tau  NVH Navy,TTTP ?-auth) VIA KBC 3328(Naval Fleet Headquaters in saigon -auth), the militeray stamp didnot cancelled (from September 1968-auth) ,and Quan Buu CDS on enveloped . The B-W vintage photo of two soldiers in the battle field .


(The very rare  Huyen Trin Qui M1 NAVN ‘s cover  send from the Battle field, by HQ 503 “LST –Vung Tau” via KBC 3328-Navy Headquaters . This time Nguyen Trinh Qui was back to field area at Vung Tau,  I have several Huyen trin qui Cover from the same persons , but from different type of  free postal cover and  I also  have found five covers with military no value stamp type one green yellow tank and one type two red green guerilla army. The military stamp were only cancelled    26/9-1966  without Quan Buu and KBC stamped ,  postal CDS Quan Buu 2045, 8-4-1968 with  KBC stamped, but the other covers  military stamp wasn’t cancelled with Quan Buu and KBC stamped on eneveloped not on military stamps from September.9th. 1968, Nov.24th 1969 .

 Military stamps cancelled illegalized (CDS or Quan Buu) after 1969 were bogus or phillatelic creation because Military stamps only cancelled by Quan Buu CDS later date found  in March 1968 not after that,   the military stamps type 2, issued in 1969 and never found cancelled CDS quan buu,please comment  because IMNAHA found bogus fake illegal cover ,cancelled in 1968 at tet as first day cover. The six collection’s cover of the military stamps Quan Buu type 1 and 2 were the very best collection for postal history showed, please com-ment and invite us for the show in 2010 -auth).

INSIDE the cover was found   CHINESE CHAR’s Letter written like latin from right to left  different from original native china char:(free tranlate)


This letter was send from the Battle field at border area“TIN” (KBC 3966-2nd Battalion,not known location-changed location due to the operation field.)


Are you recived my  letter ? I have joint the battle at the border area “TIN”, we were fight until the Gunshot sound were stop, and we were win, the enemy some died and wounded. This time I just came to the province” Lung Ching” Vietnam.

The Battle very best at “Chup” in the “Chung nan Pantau” area (Chung means Center, Nan mean South , and Pantau mean half , where ? may be someone  will told us –auth), the battle around 21/2  hours and the enemy lossed much  with many died, the battle still exist and our  march foward until the enemy flea away .

I didn’t recieved your letter , may be beacuse the war situation. Where do you now ? at “Tin”border too ? How about the health of your  mother and sister&brother ?

(The only one  and very rare “Huyen Trinh Qiu M1 “ the battle field ‘s Cover send from his friend  Duong Dinh Son Dai Doi 3/2 KBC 3966- 2nd Battalion , always moving due to operasion field at the battle in the border :Tin” –please comment-auth)

7) July 1970



(I have seen the same medal in Rusian market Cambodge in 2007 but very expensived price, and I found at HCM city le Cong Key market with fair price, original because the owner name was scrabbed and still have pattina, please comment why on the front’s center blank ,something missing?–may be ROK military will gave information. Imnaha also have ROK-vietnam postal covers.At the other place I also found a pin with a hand hold flag red-white with one star in the center , Coan Thanh Nien ….Danang Vietnam ? not clear good patina,why two colour ? and a square bronze patina pin”Dai Hoi I Ngia-Binh 1977, please comment -auth).



8) August 1970 no info


9) September 1970

(1)September.13th. 1970

(a)Another ”Huyen trin Qui” cover ,  prepaid Stamped free military letter sheet type light blue, send from  DA 83/8 ND(?) via KBC 3119( airbone 6th Battalion Saigon) to 27/10/2 Huynh Ainh Cua (?)  Tan Dinh Saigon, but without Quan Buu and KBC stamped (may be personal delivary).

     The letter written in native vietnamese char :




Mien Gioi  t vien ngay 13/9/70

Khin Phia

Ba, Ma

Nhan sewe phu chi maino qua va doi da dac bat ven say gui ve than gia sing qa chi.

            Ba Ma ngoai ny con van manh va phu dia sinh lam rat monh pin nha, ma’a! Chi hai chi chac dta kha toi phai khong ma, gia Sinh minh pan bang an chu o con qu ma ong hanh to cho lon chac lua roi chu gi phai o ba Ma.Vai hano vo tham Ba ma vo cau chuc na dinh manh khoe bang on.

        Con  cua va ma.(OD&PH)


     (b) Letter sheet pre stamped M3, send from DD 83/8 ND KBC 3119 (Airbone 8th Battalion saigon) to Saigon, send by courier, no CDS Quan Buu & KBC stamped, M3 type a-light blue colour. The letter :


                                              Mien Gioi tra ven ngay 13/9/70

                                                            Kihn Phua


            Nhanh tuoc thu  am maino qua va vai da dtac ven say geu ve tham gia sinh va cho. Ba na nguoi nay con van manh va nha na sinh lam nen rat nong tin nha, ma a   ! chi hoi chi chac dta kho toi phai khong ma, gia sinh minh tan bang an chu a con vu na ong thanh to cho con chac lua roi chu gi phai o ba ma

            Vai hang vo tham ba ma va cau chuc gia dinh manh khoe hang on.

                                                                                    Con cua va ma


Vi trong nguoi tuoc khoe nen con nhay noi dtay

            Ma nho ge cho con xin S lon man ruot thi l

            Kho dtay nha ma dte con dung.



            (c) Letter sheet pre stamped M3 type 2-drak blue, send from KBC 3043/HQ ( never report,not know location &institution) to  trung si I THAI /TL/QV, KBC 3921(not known institution & location), send by courier , no CDS Quan Buu and KBC stamped. The letter inside :

                        Em Thu !

            Da hon tuan li nay thanh nho pho Tay-Minh Vang Long nguoi tinh nhay-Du. Bon anh dta phai truoc them mot tuoc quan tranh hanh mia, Anh dtat moi hy vong em cha anh sec dtang quoi cho anh nhiem. Nhung roi ! Bon anh dta dti ra.Nhiem Thien –Ngon man lua va mo hoi.

            Em Thuong !

            Mot sai nguoi bon cua anh dta nga giu mot cach dton dtan khi anh va ung bon bi tuoc  lanh tren xa them , theo sat voi cai tien dtoan sat vung trin gioi ta va bon.

            Nhan la thu thu hoi ma em voio chien ngay 26/10/71 trong luc anh tong sap sua dtua hon ve ban mong hom ngay sau nhung dtem thiue trang con mat ma lam viu.

            Em! Anh khong tuong truong chuve anh co thu hong dtem thiu suot , chin trong vov con truon ngu liu nao cung nhu thiu duc mon moi. Hioi dtem la, bon thuoi ,mot ly ca phe sua , ca cao loi thiu an thi khoi noi, ga co , vat co cav dtong co. Dam nao vai ngui trong bon anh thanh phien nhan, nguoc lam viu, ke lam dto om nan chao co, con goi co,..cung vi the tuy…….very long letter……etc………………………………..

            Vai hong cho gia dinh, nha co ranh bim thu cho anh hay va anh cung se tin thu ho em dti em va tinh dto lo phan nao ve anh, goi ve thu cua anh long thung nho cua nguoi chong xa vo, cha xx con,xi gia dinh hanh phuc



10) October 1970

(1) October.7th. 1970

(a)Nixon proposed “Standstill cease-fire” but repeat mutual-withdrawal formula next day(D)


(b) American combat death in Vietnam during last week in this month numbered twenty-four.(D)


(c) American troops strenght in Vietnam down to 280.000 men at year end.(D)


(d) In this day , the new series 692 with the replacement note EE of US military payment certificate were issue and used until 15.3.1973. This note very difficuot to find .

( I have never seen this note, maybe someone will showed us their own collection-auth)


(e) The official free postal cover of Bo tai Chanh “Nha Tong Giam Doc  Thue Vu” with the re official stamped, send to Saigon  CDS Saigon Vietnam 7-10 1970 and round E.K Saigon no date round sramped.

(what the meaning “ Bo tai Chan “Nha Tong giam doc Thue Vu”?

      , official cover with official stamped free postal cgarge.-auth)


11) November 1970 no info

12) December 1970

(1)  December.10th 1970

Very rare “Huyen Trin Qui”Free airmail flight and rocket covers, postally used with Postal cds  Pho(ng Dinh) (10).12.1970  and not clear red  official Double circle stamped “Viet-Nam Cong-Hoa NHA TRANG ? “ SEND TO    KBC 3319 (Cam Ranh-Naval Training center/military school) HQ 503 Vung Tau(LST,Landing Ship transport NVH Navy Vung Tau) , but din’t found the postal man made with handwritten in  red ink pen:” cross and  another adress C-KBC 3328 “ (send via Navy Headquaters)

     To open the mysteri of this covers, please read the letter inside that cover :


Xu Biwn Ngay 10.12.1970

Qui Ngen

Cap nhou duoc thi Ban sau ngay tap tro Ve ctun nvi co nguo hen trao lai tap, tap nung lam bei ti tap nhon thu dai ngaoi quc ca co le ban kiet cho vi tep o co han gai, baw trai den cung mot cton vi ca dan mang kho quan du. Con gia Dinh o Ca vi rhi moi thang moi Ve thi tap o la vet ve, kan a kan cu Biet ngay tap ve ctun Vi Bi nhop het mot ctem,roi bi phat lam j dem Ban ngay shi Phai Truc Dien pkoai nen tap o CS Phi gio  hoi cum cho kan, Vi hom nay. Lauc Vi Ce Binh Thuong.

            Bo dong I thang nghi Thi Ve Phong ngu cho cten toi hom sau lai lain Va nhoi lam Buun Vo tan o cu viec nao Viec cho het duoc , cho nen doi tap qua Ben ctay tap moi du luc jauve Thi Lam Ngi Hia thi hoi met ty jhink jhiong moi nghi,com bay gio.  Etc………………

            Thoi yen gio lam roi tap  xin tau tan cting no’r ctay nho meng thu te……. etc(OD&PH)



(2)  December.12th 1970

     The civil postally used covers without the sender ‘s name send from Saigon CDS 12.12.1970 with rate stamp 6 Dong +3 Dong (9 D) to Parto (Patton ?) Ca USA, Mrs V.J. Eletto, without sencored  , the earliest civil letter to the American’s wife from saigon (PH)



d. Vietnam liberation war in 1971


1)January 1971


(1) The native  vietnam best stamps collector , Nguyen Bao Tung best seller book is “20 years of the Vietnamese Philately”(1951-1971) written in four language (Vietnamese, English, French and Chinese) Published by South Vietnamese Ministry of Cultural Affairs in 1971. This book gives a brief  history of philately followed by a  short account od Indochinese stamps from 1886. It lists special flights and cahects before catalogueing the stamp.

Technical and topical are through. Part two in English, it contains a foreword on the Geography, history , religions and customs of Viet-Nam, following which there is a simplified listing of the stamps and their topical motifs. The French parts contains an introduction somewhat similar to english section, and the fourth part is in Chinese . Finally the stamps are list for a third time cross referenced by Scott and Yvert catalogue numbers. ( If somone had this book please comment to compared with my informations because Tung only stamps, no revenue ,photo and document history –auth)



2) February 1971

(1)A major test of “Vietnamization” took place in South Vietnamese Forces in this month, when South Vietnamese Forces invaded Lao without American adviser .

       They performed poorly . The Life photographer who had been covering Vietnam for a decade , was killed during the operation.


3)March 1971

     (1) March, 12th,1971

     The reciept of Tax by Buu-Bien Vietnam Cong Hoa, Nhan Cua O Ytauy Thai ,so tien la 8875 signed by truong ty, with revenue type Nha truoc va coniem 5$00 and Stamps 2 X 10 d.

(the only one Stamps used as revenue because the shortage of 10$00 revenue, and the situation very bad, -auth)


4) no info

5) May 1971


     (1) May,31th.1971

The rare “Huyen Trin Qui” free military postal vietnam Map with paralel line cover, send from Dai Doi 3/2 KBC 3966 (2nd Battalion, unknown location)  with red KBC Stamped 3966 and Quan Buu date stamped 31-7.1971, send via KBC 3328 (Naval Headquaters saigon) by DVD (?)  HQ 503 ( LST-Landing Ship Transport NVH Navy at Vung Tua), inside Chinese langguage latter. The same type of cover send  in June,7th.1971 and October ,5th.1971 .


6) June 1971


(1)June, 9th 1971

The decision was further reinforced when President Nguyen van Thieu pressed through an election lam on June,9.1971, which would limit the number of presidential candidates.  

The bill-disigned to cut the number of presidential candidates to give the winner a more convincing majority-stilpulated that prospective presidential candidates must have then nomination papers endorsed either by 40 deputies or senators or by 100 members of elected provincial councils.

Presiident Thieu consequently entereed the South Vietnamese presidential elections with only one opponent former general Duong van Minh, who later withdrew.



The Military and Naval operation on Vietnam coast stamps were issued , the uncommon mint with ace  40pi ( I found this stamps in HCM city-auth)

(3) June.25th 1971

The Civil covers send  from CDS Qui Nhon 25-6- 1971 with chinese char letter, to Saigon with rate 2×1 dong + 4 dong stamp(6 Dong), with propaganda stamped “In International aid day 22.08.1971”  with  chinese char letter inside,(PH)


7)July 1971



The reciept of Tax by BuuBien Vietnam cong Hoa, nhan cua O tang Tai, so tien la 11.825 with rare ravenue 3 X 10$00 and common 2X 080 (rate 21$60),

(the last serial reciept of Tax paid via Buu Bien during the escalation of vietnam liberation war-auth)

(2)July 14th 1971

The rare”Huyen Trin Qui “ free military  city’s dot of Vietnamese map cover with  paralel line border trade mark  two peagons and red-blue line via airmail , postally used with Quan Buu cds 14.1.1971, and red KBC 3966 , Free airmail covers from Dai Doi 3/2 KBC 3966 (SECOND ARMY BATTALION LOCATION ?) TO DVH Vung tau HQ 503 (LST –Long Ship transport NVN-Navy) via KBC 3328(Naval fleet Headquaters Saigon) 

     (The same type of Covers send with Quan Buu Stamped 14.5.1971 and 31.9. 1971 from the same sander and recievers address.

          From this three cover were found only two letter in chinese character, my  best friend have tranlated

(a) The letter send  31.5.1971

(b)  the letter send 10.7.1971 from chinese native military , Mr Yang Tung San to his vietnamese friend, Mr Huynh Trinh QUI  via LST transport NVN navy at Vung Tau (HQ 503):





I am very happy to recieved your letter in July and thank you very much. My friend told me that   letter -writing  will  upgrade our skill . If you don’t mind please asked my girl friend  Lim who stayed at Sikung why she didn’t answer  my letter anymore since 1970, I have send to her two letters but she didn’t answered.

Before she write a letter to me twice per month, she was my girlfriend since at the same  school (classmate).

My girlfriend have said in her letter that I am not handsome, but  onother person told me that I’m not like that.

I hope you will help me to solve this problem ,

I am brokenheart, pessimistist and BO Hoat (Heart Illness) , because many my friends have married and they have their children, I want to be like them.

Your area very beautiful, that is way please help me to buy Picture Postcard from your town, because my brother like that card for send to his friend. Please tell me the price of the card and I will send you money for purchused.”


( this the first and last used of the border line Map with blue city ‘s cover. There was a report of this kind of cover used after 1971, that cover bogus, phillatelic creations because after  10 th .11. 1971 the new Map blue city without  paralel borderline  was used with native Han Khong (Air Mail) and blue line- OD&PH) and after that in 1983 another type Map Cover without paralel boderline with red dot city, I have seen this red dot whitout paralel line 83 edition, used by The ICCS –Indonesian garuda Mission Vietnam 1974 with guinine 9 d  Soldier helping wounded ,1972 2dition, but I think this postal history covers from Pleiku,Hue and Danang were fake because the rate to low for foreign country ,Indonesia- I have the original cover  ICCS not official postal history cover , look at 1974-auth)(OD&PH)

8)August 1971


     (1) August,3rd.1971

                Diep Van Kinh Goi “Stencil official invitation from Viet-Nam Cong-Hoa Bo Chong-chan ,Saigon Thuy-Cuc Khu Cholon red stamped  , stamps 0d50 and other stamp off, CDS Saigon- Cholon Viet-Nam, to Hoang Thi Hoan , ngu tai no 9 h Nguyen Kim.






            _________                                          Cholon,ngay  3 thang 8 nam 1971

SAIGON THUY-CUC                                                S0………./ STC/KCL


                                                            D I E P   V A N 

                                                                 Kinh Goi


                                    Ong , Ba  …..Hoang Thi Hoan……………………………..

                                    Ngu Tai so:……9h…Nguyen .Kim…………………………


            Trivh vau :  V/v gia ho thong quoc  va dau thuy –luong- ke


            Thua Ong, Ba


                        Tran trong tin ong , da ro :

            Cong tac gan ho thong nuoc ve dat Thuy-Luong-ke  tai

            Dia chi …..Treu……….can phai dao duong noi mat nhua

            Do d’o phai xin gay phep dao duong do Toa Do-chanh cap

                        Hien nay Khu toi da ghi die chi tre’n vao danh sach

            Xin phep dao duong ao …….71…………… ngay  28….4…71….

            Thao thu tu ngay dong tien.

                        Khi nao nhan duoc giay phep tren Khu toi se cho

            Thuc hien ngay cong tao trong vong 1 tua’n 1 e , Nguoi ra

            Ba khong phai dong them mon tien nao ca. Neu co ke mao

Ngay ba’ng Dien thoi so 50.532 hoac 24.683 . Viec lam

Nay khong nhung Ong, Ba khong bi mat tien ma con giup

Cho Saigon Thuy-Cuc bai tru tham nhung.

                        Kinh chao Ong, Ba’

                                                            TRUONMG KHU CHOLON

                                                                        Red stamped


                                                                  HONG NOOC DIEN


9)September 1971


(1)         September,3rd.1971

The official cover of Nha-Thuoc Phu-Cat ,Duoc Si Hu-Rac-Huu , Hue send with rate 6d native dancer stamps , rolling CDS Hue Viet-Nam 3-9.1971 to Kinh Goi,Hop-Thinh Cong-Ty Saigon.

10)October 1971

     (1) October, 5th,1971

The lattest used of free Vietnam Map with paralel line and blue dot city , this the same of “Huyen Trinh Qui free vietnam paralel line map “ cover send from KBC 3966-2nd battallion not know location via Navy headquaters Saigon by” HQ-503” LST navy NVH at Vung Tau.  

     (2) October, 21th.1971

Another rare “Nguyen Trinh Qui civil cover” send by Nguyen Chi My KBC 3402/2 (AVRN Strategic Army corps Military Zone 2 location Cantho) , civillian cover without Quan Buu cds and KBC-stamped , with rolling cds Cantho Vietnam 21-10n1971 on 6d stamps , via KBC 3328 Naval fleet Headquaters Saigon by DVH Vung Tau HQ 503-LST NVH navy.

( The same sander to Nguyen Trin Qui ,in November ,9th 1971, the best collections for show-auth)


   (3) October, 25th,1971

          The Gia Bao Thi certificate from Luat-Khoa Dai-Hoc Duong         VIEN DAI-HOC SAIGON of the Laotian ,  signed by Chu ky Doi-Hoc Duang, Nguyen Thuong Kien Doc-Su Hanh chanh.


     VIEN DAI-HOC SAIGON                               so the sinh vien : 2759 bi S

LUAT-KHOA DAI-HOC DUONG                   Mon nhiem y   : phap vau

Noi thi : Truang Suat

Phong Thi : Giang Duong So Phong Doc sach

Cho Ngoi :  3 Nhom 3                                        GIAY BAO THI


                  Tran trong bao de ………………………………………………………

      Ong(Co,Ba) ……….VO THI THAO……………………………………………

      SINH NGAY 10-04-52       tai …………..Pak Song (Laos)…………….

      Sinh-vien ban  …Cu Nhan B…………………..Nam thu……I…………..

      Duoc biet ……..Co………………………………..da duoc ghi danh thi

      Khon……II………………………………………Nien-khoa 1970 – 1971…..

      Ong (Co,Ba ) phai co mot tai noi thi ho ……..  1430 …………….

      Ngay ……..17 thang 11 nam 1971………de du thi va mang then

–         The sinh-vien do Truong cap ve nien khoo

                  197 0 – 1971

      –         Giay bao thi nay

      –         But va muc (giay thi va giay nhap bai se do Truong phat)


                                                      Saigon , ngay 25  thang  10  nam 1971


                               Truong Dai Hoc            T.U.N. KHOA TRUONG

                              Luat-Khoa                Thu Ky Doi-Hac Duong




11) November 1971


(1)November ,9th 1971

     Another rare “Huyen Trinh Qui Cover Prestamped cover  6d, send by Nguyen Chi Moy-civillian – KBC  3402/2 (ARVN strategic Army corps Military zone 2 ,cantho ?) , civil cover without Quan Buu and KBC stamped,but trough  postal CDS Cantho-Vietnam 11.9.1971 (reinverse CDS) via KBC 3328 –Naval Fleet Headquaters Saigon by HQ 503- LST NVH navy at Vung Tau.


(2) November,16th 1971

The first Fish thematic stamps issued, the uncommon stamps 100 pi

(I have two postal History of the fish stamps 2 d , one as revenue with coniem 30$00 revenue 2,12.71  and postalhistory covers 23.3.1973, please look at that interesting information-auth)

(2)  November.19th. 1971


(a)The earliest used Vietnam Liberation map enveloped without border paralel line, blue city and blue line Han Khong –Via airmail cover.

      The free Han Khong cover with trade mark Cam Tu Son Ha send from Dai Da 3/2 KBC 3996 (2nd Army battalion location ?) by LST NVN  ,Navy, Vung Tau HQ 503 via Naval Fleet HQ Saigon ( KBC 3328) with Quan Buu CDS and red KBC 3966 stamped .(PH)

(This covers was the same sender and recievered of the three border paralel line map blue city , two peagon trade mark, covers above the first earliest report(PH)

also found the Liberation Map Cover without border paralel line  but with Red Dot city, used 1n 8.4.1983 with 2x 20 Xu military stamps ,  from Hue To F-1. QI T/P H.C.M – read at chapter Vietnam after liberation.

 I have found the same Hankong cover but with added stamp 2x 1 dong  but without Quan Buu stamped, date not clear, only red KBC 3119 stamped, send from Dai Doi 83/8 ND-written above cover “Co Quoc Danh Du Traca Nhiem “  KBC 3119 Airborne 8th Battalion saigon  to Tan Dinh(?) Saigon.but with “The rolling & clear type Small Quan Buu clear new CDS” 11.12.1970  (the first military covers send to civillian the military postal rate 2 Dong,  – the first report of this type rolling Quan Buu cds ,  this military Quan Buu new postmark were the earliest used because in november 1970 still used the old not clear Quan Buu post mark. If the old quan Buu postmark used after december 1970, the cover was bogus or fake cover  -auth)


(3) November.2nd. 1971

Bo Quoc Phong “Chung Chi Tinh Trang Quan Dich” certificate  sing KBC 4.309 (CHOLON) by Dai Ta Nguyen Phuan Nhung, Chanh –Su-vo S0-Dong-Vien 3.



Emblem       VIET-NAM CONG HOA        : Co hieu luc den: VA MUOI MOT  THANG TAM Soldier &         BO QUOC PHONG                         : NAM MOT NGAN CHIN TRAM BAY MUOI       

Civillian     ______________________          : HAI (31-8-72) .

                          CHUNG CHI                   :                               KBC.4.309, ngay 02 NOV 1972

                TRINH TRANG QUAN-DICH      :                              Dai-ta Nguyen –Phuoc Nhung

                         _______________              :                               Chanh –su-vu So-Dong-Vien3 

Ho Ten          : Luu-Khac-Nhon                :                                                 signed

Sinh : 2-2-31                 Tai : Cholon        :___________________________________________________

Can Cuoc So : 02133550 ngay :12-8-69: Gia han den:

Cap tai           : Quan 5                             :                            KBC,         ngay

Dia Chi : 175/17 Nguyen-Tri-Phuong CL:

            TINH TRANG QUAN-CHI              :

            ______________________              :

-Tai hoan gia canh so 825661, ngay     :

 2-6-70 .Co hieu luc den 30-6-71           :

-Duoc chuyen qua lop tuoi Don Quan :

 “Chung-chi’nay khong co gie tri nreu :

duong . Su co bang cuoc Tu-tai hoac  :

van hong tuong duong ben la.”

Co hieu luc den : Ba Muoi Mot Thang  :

tam Nam Mot Ngan Chin Tram bay Muoi Hai(31-8-72).



12) December 1971

(1) December.2nd 1971

Saigon Thuy Cuc “Giao Keo” ,  with red double circle stamped and sign  by Nguoi Yeu Cau Cung mCac Nuoc on 30 Dong Revenue, and added stamps 2 X 0,50 Dong + 2 Dong (rate 3 Dong) with saigon postal date stamped

 ( may be this for legalization by postal , same in Indonesia during Indonesian Independent War-auth)



e.Vietnam Liberation war in 1972


1)January 1972


(1)In 1972, after military duty , Nguyen BAO Tung have made weekly phillatelic program on Vietnamese  television , gave the viewers through his collections, the history of Viet Nam, oriental culture.


2) February 1972


     (1)February,3rd 1972

The native homemade cover with green and red pen strip border , send from Saigon rolling  cds Saigon vietnam 3.2.1972 to TP.Qui HQ 503( Vung Tau), KBC 3328 (?)  in pencil writting, no sender name with stamps 3d native vietnmese lady playing a traditional music.


( the interesting cover ,why no sender name, and The pencil writing, my be the little boy send to his father who joined the military operation at Vung tau? Please comment-auth)


(2) February,12th.1972

The postally used cover with vietnamese  US,Phillipine and australia flag stamps, the latter date12/1/69 cross 70, postal cds not clear, hand written recieved 12.02.1970, almost one years no communication, from saigon to KBC 3319 HVHP 12/69, DVS 332-1 tr 73 (Cam Ranh Naval Training center) , without Quan Buu and KBC stamped.The letter inside in Vietnamese language :


                                    Cholon ,ngay 12/1/70

Ziu nien,


            Toi vua nhan ctuoc thi Zui vaisang nay. Toi ret vui bung va voi

ho an cho Zui ngay dtay.

            Thoat tien, toi in dtoi cam on loi Chiu tung cao qui cua Zui, nhung Zhui a, Chuong trinh dte I nam nay nang lam

Nut la thoi lai theo ban C thi cang Phai nut hon; Vi mon Triet hoy va Sinh Ngu 1 nang ne ghe dti nen toi pha ban tam toi 2 mon nay nhieu hon ca; dtai Biet la mon triet no vua triue tuong lai vua Khi Khan thi lam dao toi co thi ly ho mot cach tron ven dtuoi-toi  phai dti hoc them lop luyen thi  mo vao dtau thang nay vay nue toi tuong cung chua tham  nhuan dtuoc may.

            Nhung du sao dti mia toi cung pha gong cong dtat gioi dti mia, toi …………………………..etc………………………………………….


Toi man phep dting but noi dtay , hen zui, chui Zui  luon vin kgoe va se huong thu nhung ngay Xuan xap dten mot canh tren ven.

                                                                                    Ban Zui



(if someone want the complete letters please comment and translate ,auth)


3) March 1972


(1)March.23th 1972

Air mail cover from KBC 3176 (location ?) to Saigon with KBC 3176 and Quan Buu Stamped, rate stamps 2x 2dong (4 Dong) (no information location of KBC 3276-PH)

4) April 1972



The uncommon “Plane over Dalat” stamps were issued, especialle in couple two or block four.

(I have found this stamp on postally cover send by express (khanh) label from Vung Tau to Saigon,mixed with the stamps soldier on Vietnam map 10.12.1972-auth)



              The very rare Gunshooting  colt, M16 and M60 ‘s green bravet Sung M16 “CHUNG Nhan Then Xa” from KBC 4091, Quantrung Military Training center at Quantre, after joint the training from 17-22 /4/72 signed by Brigardir General Hoan-Van-Lac.








:                                  *                                             :

                            #          #

:_______________________# Colt     M16  #_______________________________:    :

:    : __________________ #  M 18    M60    #______________________________:     :

:    :____________________#                      #_______________________________:     :

:    :_______________________#######__________________________________:      :

:    :                                               @@

:             :                QUAN LUC VIET NAM CONG HOA                                 :    :

:    :                                     ______________                                                     :     :

:    :                          CHUNG NHAN THIEN XA                                                  :    :

:    :          Chu Huy Truong: TTHL/QUANG-TRUNG                                                     :     :

:     :                 Chieu Biet Nhan Cua  Hoi-Dong Giam kheo Ky                                         :     :

:     :                   thi dua ta…….Sung M 16…………nam 1972                                        :     :

:     :      to chuc ngay ..17-22/4/72 …… Tai..TTHL/QUAN TRUNG                                          :     :

:     :      chung nem…..B2/ND KIM NGOC SON..quoc 73/138.334                          :     :

:     :       da van mung………M 16…………vo song so tem .53.80 so nang                 :     :

:     :       duy cap  huy-hien……Thien –con Uu hang …….                                         :     :

:     :                                                                             KBC…4091 ngay 22/4/72          :     :

:     :  9124/TTHL/QT/KH/KH                      Thien –Tuong HOANG –VAN-LAC            :     :

:     :                                                                             SIGNED                                        :     :




5) May 1972



     Trong cuoc chien dau chong phong toa thang 5-1972 , nganh xang dau cung cac nganh thep, dien than va nhan dan cac dan toc tinh Lang Son, chi trong 15 ngay dau thang 6-1972 da ti cong xong he thong  kho va tuyen ong tir bien gioi ve de kip thoi tiep nhan mot khoi luong lon xiang dau,cung cap day du cho cac nhu cau quoc phong, dan sinh.

          Sau do, tiep tuc xay dung 6 tuyen ong tu Lan Son.  Quang Ninh toi thu do Hanoi , hinh thanh mot mang luoi ong dan dau lien hoan,vung chac suot tu Bac den Nam.

6)June 1972     

(1) June,15 th 1972

     Uncommon mint”Vietnam armed” stamps were isssue

7) July 1972


(1) July,11 th 1972

“Huyen Trih Qui KBC-4026 ” Free airmail letter from KBC 4026 (location ?) to HV/HP 2 c HSQ/CN (?)

Huyun Trinh Qui ,KBC 3319(Cam Ranh Naval Training Center), with red KBC 4029 and Quan Buu 11-7-72 Stamped.

     (Inside the letter from KBC3397 (River Patrol Group 52 ,Navy, Cat Lai ) date 8th June 1972 (may be this letter send from KBC 4026 not yet known location, three day from the  cat lai front, or from another cover, this letter from this location have never report before-auth), the letter



            KBC 3397 ngay 08-07-1972


Chin Qui Luong men’

            Lau qua hoim nay  midi ranh dte bien tho tham may cau cui dtay, moy Su Hiong cau ma may cau rat nhien.

            Tu ngay ve dten gio chang noi dan gi may  cau anh dtinh rau quoi coi dtam ra loin bicing moi chuyen vo anahDien nay viet tho ra  cung chi biet mong  loin Sao cac can em cua toi luon manh la  anh vung .

            Sao chuong trinh hoc dten dtai roi nhi qua giai dtoan 1 chuk rang co gang quen tat ca moi cu’c kho binh teu dti roi ve nong ru’o’u voi ong anh nay cho vin nghe may can yei qui ma’tui.

            Be Hong goi toi hiam may can dtay, be’ Hong gai loi Hiam may cau dtay.be Hong Saji loin chi dau cua may cau roi dtay.

            Ham uo anh dau ba ma anh laao cte xin cuoi  Hong vei xon loin t ca lang dteu cleoi voi nhung roi co tai la ruoc co ban toi cung vay thoi phai Khong maij cau en.

            Huh Dien mo cae cau mong sao maij cai Thuong nhan nhu anh em Ruoh ctc cho tin ctu’ot  lain anh ca ngho may cau.

            Mong thu hoi an ma may cau roi nhien ,Ve giang dtoai phe quc chung dti bo deu chi nhung toi tien qua troi na.

            Thoi chuc nay cau em cuo tui luon vui manh cte ngay thang gian Kho Quan truong troi qua man.

            Thruong Nhien. GD 52 TT(?) KBC 3397 ( river patrol group 52 ,Navy, at Cat Lai,.)  Sai-gon van binh thuong HQ 503(Ving Tau navy ?) dao moi dteu nhen qua ghe nay loin buon ghe ven o chang vinh tai nua. (OD&PH)


8)August 1972

            (1) August , 18th,1972

The rare prestamped  taiwan China aerogram letter sheet, send fromTaiwan China CDS 18.8.72 to Cholon south vietnam, the letter in chinese language:

“I have recieved your letter , say hello to our family. I did.t fill well because after 29 years married my wife from the village-women , she didn’t the parent , but still have sister. “ this family latters. 

( this aerogram very difficult to find because the People Republic of China didn’t like the name of Taiwan china, they asked to withdraw the aerogram, in Republic of China Teipe this aerogram didn’t listed.

I also found another aerogram with CDS Taiwan china CDS 8.10.74, please comment from China Taipeh about Taiwan-auth)


9) September 1972


     (1)”The soldier helping wounded “ were issued, the uncommon was mint 100 d.


10) October 1972

(1)  October,21th. 1972

The Vietnamese Card ,So Quoc-Gia Danh-, Bo tai Chanh, Nha Tong Giam-Boc Thue-Vu Signed by Cham Su Vu So Quoc-Gia,stamped Nguyen Vau Hai, Danh-BO 21-10-72 :


Ten Ho                  : Nguyen Thi Chat

Ngay va noi sinh : 1927 tai Hai Duongt

Nge-nghiep         : Noi Tio

Dia-chi : 633/20 Phan thanh quan Saigon.

So Quoc-Gia,Danh-Bo without photo)


11)November 1972 no info

12) December 1972


(1) December,10th. 1972

The “Khan” urgent express mail from  Vung Tau CDS 10.12.1970 to Saigon cds 10.12.1972, rate stamps 3 x 10 Dong (30 Dong), type of stamps  Plane over Dalat (2x10d) and military on Vietnam map(10 d)  stamps.

(Rare civil express covers with uncommon   Plane over Dalat  and soldier on vietnam map -auth)


f. Vietnam Liberation War 1973


1) January 1973


(1)A ceasefire was finally agreed, the Americans would withdraw from Vietnam within sixty days and the settlement would be left to the Vietnamese.

(2)The North Vietnamese soon resumed the conflict and despite massive supplies of American arms, the badly led South Vietnamese army crambled completely.


(2)         January, 10th.1973

The civillian postal used cover from CDS Saigon 10.1.1973 to Binh To Saigon 11 , rate 9d , stamps soldier help victim. Inside letter in chinese language :

“ I have recieved the Chinese new year card, Sin Tjia, from you that made me  very happy , thank you very much.

          Father and mother   always thingking of you, they hope you will be advanced and success.

          The  Ship couldn’t landing at saigon, I don’t know when we can meet agai .

 Are your weight up and became more fatty ?

          There were many  regulation from the Army “,


     (3) January,25th.1973

Name card cover with rate Stamp 3 d, send from CDS BAO LOC 25-1.1973 to  saigon, the name card :



                   DANG VAN-TU

                        Don Dien Hoang Hue


                             Trin Mung nsm moi

                                     Quy Suu

                                                Rap chieu bang HOANG-HUE  

                   Cinema bao Soe   98.THONG-NHUT – DILINH




2) February 1973



(1) February.5th 1973

The Military free mail pre-stamped letter sheet type dark blue send from Toan Dai Doi 6 khoa 29 (?) KBC 4027 (National Military Academy Dalat ) to Nguyen van Tai KBC 3790 ( location ?) with “BLACK KBC 4027-Dalat Military Academy (THE ONLY ONE Black KBC  stamped, may be the red ink not availabled) without Quan Buu stamped and not clear CDS, the letter date 5.2.73 to Kinh Yi Trung Ta Nguyen van Tai KBC 3790 (Location ?) , the letter hand written   :


KBC 4027 ngay 5.2.73

                        Chua Bhu,

            Hom nay chan xim co vou loi ve tham Bhu Thim va voi em vi thoi gian hep chau xin thu loi ve su cham tin  cau.

            Mai dau xuan da qua chan cung xim kinh chui bhu Thim duoi  luon an khang manh khoe va caiu luon tan toi bhai baih da ra truong roi chu thruong ? bhau xin chu noi voi thay chau dung ban tan nhun ve chau jeo truong lo dio dtay dtu ca nhung gi chau bien ve cho thay chan diu dtung nhung fi chai Viet  Dung ban tam nhim qua vi chau

            Chau chi xin chua noi liom mung 4 tet chau so xin chu noi voi thay chan la chau se viet thu ta loi sau vi su khong y tu va bat can cua chau.

            Vu thoi goan han hep nin phai mot thoi pan cau san thu moi dten thay chau sau thu luon  nay. Mot lan nua chau chui  chi luon manh, Thim va coi em vui tuoi va  chau xin dung but.

            Kinh dton, Tan Khan Sinh dai doi B/29 KBC 4027.



(2) February.14th 1973

Bo Quoc Phong ,Chung Chi Tinh Trang Quan-Dich , sign by Dai Tu Nguyen Phuoc Nhung Chanh Su-vu So Dong viet 3, This certificate same with the  certificate 2 nov 1971, belong by the same person , but different type used “ Tai hoan gia canh duoc chuyen lap toui don quan,

Co hiewu luc den : KHI CO LENH MOI (?), (THIS    CERTIFICATE WITHOUT THE LIMITED YEAR USEABLE. Different from the 1971 certificate.OD)

3) March 1973


(1)March , 23th.1973

     The rare cover send from KBC 3176, not known institution and location, with cds  Quan Buu 23-3.1972 on stamps 2x2d fish stamps(rate 4d) and  also on cover, red KBC 3176 stamped  to saigon.

( Unusual Quan Buu cds on stamp from unknown location KBC 3176, the same type cover also found from KBC 4974 unknow location in 8-12.1973  rate 10 d and 21-12.1973 rate 7d . I thing the unknown area were the moving operation area where no post office there and the military postal service take over the postal service that is why CDS Quan Buu on regular stamps and different rate, please comment-auth)


(2) March,26th .1973

President Nguyen van Thieu holding agrarian reform law were issued due to the third annyversary of that law, the 10d rare in mint and uncommon in used, very rare in block of ten.

( I found this rare stamps on [postally cover, send from KBC 6984 to Saigon 3 , Quan Buu military postal date stamped 9.6.1974 without KBC stamped, please look at that postal history discussion at the date chronology  –auth)



4) April 1973


(1) The war unpopularity in the US grew strong, and following the Peace talks, the US agreed to withdraw its forces in April 1973.

     US Secretary General Henry Kissinger  and Vietnam envoy Le Duc To agreed to Chaese fire, and in this Year they had win the peace,s  Nobel prized .

(Although the war still until two years more in 1975, in the year the same US President Barrrack Obama win the peace’s noble prize, the criteria was who first had an idea for peace near same with the Vietnam ceasefire 1973, please  comment-auth) 


5) Mei -6)June 1973 no info

7) July 1973

(1) July,1st .1973

THE CU’-TRI Election(?) CARD , ISSUED BY Quen-Truong Quan Saigon with stamped Toa Han Quan 10 Saigon,


Ho va ten    : Nguyen Thi Chat

Nom va nai sanh: 1927 Hai Duong

Tru quan : 724/26 Phan Thanh Gian

The can-cuoc so o3908762 cap toi Saigon ngay 1970.

CHU Y: Xin giu ky the de co dip dong sau nay. 9In the corner ,A-D, and the A was used.(OD)


7)-10) no info

11) November 1973

(1) November.2nd. 1973

ID CARD “THE CONG-CHUC” Bo Quoc Phong, Quan-Luc Vietnam Cong-Hoa, with jellow and three red line armour-ed,



Ho va Ten       : Trinh Van-Te

Ngach trot      : Thu-ky CN/B2/3

So truac tich   :   blank

Chuc-vu          : Thu-Ky

Dan-vi              : Dai doi THD/Bo TTM

KBC 4180(location Hanh Dinh ?), ngay 02/11/1973


Doi dai Truong Dai Hoi Tone Hanh Dinh

Bo Teng Tham Muu Q.L.V.N.C,H (?)   

12) December 1973

(1)December,8 th. 1973


The Green orchid cover send from KBC 4974 (location unknow ?) to Cholon with rate stamp 10 Dong , KBC 4974 and two Quan Buu CDS 8.12.1973 one on Stamps, and another on cover  (Unknow location KBC 4974-PH)

 (No information the location of KBC 4974 and unsual Quan Buu cds on the stamp ,there was another same cover in December ,21th.1972, rate 7d . Please someone who know the institution and location of that KBC 4974please send the information through comment ,thanks-auth)



(2)  December.14th 1973

The cover from Nguyen  Loah Sang,  Pres La Cour D’Appel  de Saigon Advocat, to Ong Giam Doc Saigon 2, CDS Saigon 14.12.73, the stamp off.(PH)


(3) December,21th 1973

The same Orchid cover, send fromKBC 4974 (unknown institution and location) , the Quan Buu CDS 21.12.1973 on 2x 3d and 1x 1d stamps(rate 7d) ,also Quan Buu CDS on cover, and red KBC 4974 red stamped. To Cholon quan 5.

               (This cover made me crazy because at once I think one cover only because same like the twin with the other one in December.8th 1973, but different rate !0 d and 7d , and why Quan Buu postal cds on regular stamps, this the only postalhistory like that, May be the regular post office didn’t open because of the battle around that area, please comment-auth)






(3)December, 24th. 1973

     The rare civil postal cover from Binh Minh , cds Vung Tau  24.12.1973 send via  KBC 3328 Naval fleet Headquater saigon by HQ 618 – PGM –Patrol Gunboat medium to Tai Binh.

       (Unusual tranpostation PGM HQ 618 at Tai Binh-auth)









g.Vetnam Liberation War in 1974


1) January 1974


(1) American service men , 110.000  had burnst their draftcard and 40.000 young men had evaded call-up by leaving for neighbouring Canada and for Europe.(D)


(a)Air mail covers from Indonesian KONGA V/ICCS Region V Saigon send to SKOMDAK III (West Sumatra Police Headquaters ) Padang-Sumbar, overprint INDONESIA , with stamps rate 81 Dong (7 stamps) with CDS TAN AN 30-1-1974 ( My first Postal History of Vietnam war was Given by Police Mayor. Suroto to me as Medical Police Inspectur in 1975, from this postal history I started to collect Vietnam war Postal history –auth)

(b) ICCS Communications Center Ton Son Nhut, the photo of Indonesian Garuda Mission army and Police in the front of that centers (This photo was given to me from Indonesia national  Police Captain who joined the Garuda IV Indonesia ICCS Vietnam auth)

(c) Unused Free Port Special letter sheet Garuda IV Indonesia ICCS Vietnam, Garuda was “Eagle” Indonesia National emblem.(PH)

(d)Indonesian Mayor General Wiyogo Atmodarminto , commander of the Ivth Garuda Mission to Vietnam inspecting his men (Photo-D)

(e)The Indonesia participation in Upholding World Order ICCS in Vietnam 1973.-1975 under Garuda IV,V and VII.

In performing its task, ICCS met many difficulties due to the fact that certain points of the parisb Agreement on ending the war between the US and Vietnam, were conraversial. This led Indonesia to pull out GARUDA VII from Saigon in April,27,1975 the annexation of South Vietnam by North Vietnam waas the reason for the first Asean Summit in Bali to stress again the urgency to preserve political stability in South east Asia.

(f) The ICCS Vietnam plaque of Garuda IV Mission in Vietnam (Memorabilia)


2)-4) no info

5) MAY 1974

       (1) May, 7th .1974

The very rare President Nguyen Van thieu holding the agrarian law, third commemorative, send from KBC 6984 –uknown location , the Quan Buu cds on stamps and on cover to Saigon.

(the same type of cover from unknown location KBC 6984, may be the battle area which no postal service there, the very rare Nguyen van thieu stamps 10 d postally used by Quan Buu postal service without KBC staped, only one ever report, please comment-auth)


6) June 1974


     (1) June, 9th,1974

     The very rare postal cover with rare 10d Nguyen van Thieu holding agrarian reform law stamps, send during the liberation war from KBC 6984 (not know area ?) to Saigon-3, Military CDS Quan Buu 9.6.1974 .

(  This is the first report of rsre Thieu stamps on postally cover during the year 1974 , if someone have the same  at the year 1975 before the fall of Saigon , please report and show us-auth)


7) no info


8) August 1974


(1) August 1974

     The Watergate scandal had re-moved Nixon and his successor President Ford knew only too well that the American people wouldnot saction a renewed US involvement in the war


9)- no info

10) October , 8th.1974

     The rare Taiwan China bird fly aerogram letter sheet, send from Taiwan to Cholon south Vietnam CDS K(A) Taiwan China 8.10.1974.


11) November 1974

(1)November.27th 1974

The rare regional taxes revenue red brown colour “Gia Binh Mien Thue” ancient building design 40$dong , used for legalized the fotocopy of document” Truong Nu Trung-Hoc Chilang 1 Gia –Dinh. Thanh-Tich BieuHo va tan Hoc sinh : Nguyen –Thi-Nam ,So Danh-Bo: 38/69.

 (rare regional revenue from Gia-Dinh, also look at the pin from Dai Hoi Gia Dinh -1977-auth)


(2)Nam 1973-1974, nganh xang dau da khan truong cung co va phat trien tuyen ong voi chieu dai tong cong gan 5000 km, dua xang dau vao den Loc Ninh, Dong Nam Bo; xay dung mot he thong kho tang du tru co suc chua lon voi mang luoi cap phat toa rong ra cac huong chien dich (D)


12 ) December 1974 no info


h.Vietcong victory war in 1975



1)         January 1975


(1) National Front for liberation of South Vietnam.(US called Vietcong) from 1963-1969


    (2)Provinsial Revolutionary Goverment of Republic of South Vietnam 1975-1976


(3)Vietcong victory war in1975-THE FALL OF SAIGON


(4)January.6th. 1975

Vietcong capture Phuoc Long province , north of Saigon (D)


The very rare civil cover from D0 Thanh Cholon Viet Nam CDS 23-1.1975 with  rate stamps 25 d (20 +5) , inside the letter and name card in chinese language :


“My letter not sistematic, don’t laugh it.  this time  the Battle everywhere, the situation didn’t secured. The criminal and the badman everywhere and the price of good s up everyday.

        The Gouverment administration  very bad and they didn’t gave happiness. My work just finished , the time pass so fast , i didnlt fill that the new year come , I hope in the new year we will happy.

        With this letter I send my two photos don’t laugh when you see that .


                                We Siong




                             ________                                in chinese :

                Chuyen mon sua son cac loai     We Chi

                                     May may ben le gia tien re      Singer machine

                                    So 904/10 Duong Nguyen Trai         service





2) February 1975


(a)Motorbike tax “VIET-NAM CONG-HOA = THUE XE TU DONG= 19975 SO XE EO 2474” in the back


     BIEN LAI SO     : 1218

        NGAY              : 1-2-75

        SO TI’EN           : 7500 $

        NO’I CAP        :  GD


round red official stamped”Ty Phep Vu Vietnam Cong Hoa Gia-Dinh


(until February 4th the South Vietnam “Viet Nam Cong Hoa “ still have the power, and they still charged the motorcycle tax-auth)

(b),February, 1st.-28th 1975

      Very rare and informative collections best for showed,the small pocket  dairy’s book  ‘Lich Bo Tui 1975” of Trung –Tam Bao-Hiem Cong-Ty Saigon with handwritten information every day froem Saturday February 1st until 28th 1975 .

(very rare document historic collection, never report , only one because this was private handwritten information-auth)


(b,1) Front Cover


      The illustrated  High Building (?), LICH HO TUI 1975, THANG-2-1975, at the bottom  Doang Thuong Ngan Hang



      Chung Chuc Tan Xuan

              Red round wheel type




            68  , Dai-16 Nguyen-Hue (Lau 1)



                 BAO HIEM va TAI BAO HIEM

                        TAT CA CAC LOAI

(b.2) Backcover


            Thoan Thuong Ngan Hang

            Cong,TY HAC VON 500.000.000.500 GUE DU

                         Tre Se Truong Vung :68 Nguyen-Hue Saigon

                      Dien Tin : DITIBANK

                                 So’ Q.G.D.B : 170-592-21-003

             S’ Thuong Moi : 2466 B

                          Ho’n Thu          : 2372


                                    CHI  NHANH


                   TONG DOC PHUONG :

                                    48-50 Tong Doc Phuong

                                    Saigon 5-01  :        37469              

                  BINH DU’ONG             :

                                    1,14 Von Duyet

                                    Binh Duong-DT : 79

                   – Nhon cac  kho a’n ky thac

                   – Thuc hien moi nghiep vy ngan han’g

                   – Phuc vy o’n cho’

                                                – Lich su’

                                                -Nganh cho’ng

                                                -co’n moi

                        VONG THUONG  CHA’NH

                         PHAN CHU’A TA VUAN

#Inside backcover

Calender 1975 from january(Janvier ) to December (Decembre) every day ‘s  with Heoro or saint day , like 1st January : M Jour De L’AN, 31th December : M.S.Sylvestre, 25th December: Noel(Christmas)., and centimeter schales from 1 cm to 10 cm.




Saturday (thu bay) , 1 , February Thang Hay


                    Ngay 21 thang Chep du nam GIAP DAN


                              NAM AT MAO




                 KINH CHUC VI THAN CU










     Sunday                           2                    February

    Chu nhat                                               Thang hai


     Ngay 22 thang Chap du nam GIAP DAN




                           Doi Dai ve Cha





                        DOANH THUONG NGAN HANG





               Monday                3                 February

               Thu hai                                     Thang hoi


(same as above,after this not included)

Dai lau-7-40

11-2-75 Hong cije a quan  nua

Thuoac hut au cam roi dti lau

Dten so hu 8-10/ C’ est lache

,de faire le faux.le jauos

C’est la lachee a’ qui de l hac

De faublesse.Thap tu nhat sinh

Nen cun vot.Thap loec chung

Sinh noi bo. Diox ca the

Gran nay ma mot wsec theiu-

Dtay nai co du ich gi?

5-2-75 Sang nay, nong cafe

Thuo lac 150$ ay com roi dti

Laen chau dot so. Den so

8 kem 5.(handwritten)

      Ngan Hang cua gioi Doanh thuong



(the complete informations of  Lich Bo Tui 1975 will put at the date that  written in the that pocket book’s dairy, this collection very interesting and best for showed after copy in the bigger format illustration and translate in English, please someone help me to translate –auth)


(2)February.5th 1975

North Vietnam General Van tien Dung goes south to take command of Vietcong (Vietnam revolutionary liberation) forces(D)



(3) February,6th.1975

6-2-75 (hanwritten) . Deu do’ muon gan 10 g  Toi na vi moi o nhen lo nghi vu vo, Co chou Dat dti lu do voi co, ain tria nghi co’ sang bea khu VH choi, au pho ,ga 150, chau dat nong muoi 90$. Lui bon ngoi nghi mot nai nuod phut ma ve , ve lai sang bui HC ngoi nghe ong xuan ve Soan noi ungi mot lac moi toi vo Sang phan TV lam utcc. Buoi chien noi tuyen ong ve ie nho ung roi lif law wei nha thuong.(Lich Ho Tui 1975)



7.2.75(handwritten).Thang pho nec tai vi xe va bo lao, hoi buon au com ra dti law din so.(Lich Ho Tui 1975)



    (5)February, 8th.1975

8.2.75(hanwritten) .Hom nay vi law dai biet rat vui ve. Dai so 8-15 C.S. ha? Gray to rat vui ve can thuong, nhung co nga lai thoi khong can, thuef ches chua co suong dai, ve nha. Buoi sang o nha co aia yho bi 150 $. Lai au them 50# Soi cho chau Dat thuoo la Ba tay kang.

Su tat dtuoc 1.2.3 ngay lai di lam nu nha thuong tu hon tha 6, hom nay thue hai chu nhat hoi dti le?, choan chu nhat hoi nga dte chin, thue boy thi lioi gat gong, au banh tuong nhong dtuoc ngon vi gray phai luon sau thuoc thuom. Mang dtuoc nau moi, moi su an lanh xia thieu chua ra em cho gra donh dtuoc moi su lyui am. Va ruong con dtuoc thoe manh. Hom nay thu hai. (lich Ho Tui 1975)



At this page of Lich Ho Tui 1975, handwritten in Vietnamese and Chinese char

          “ Nhat loan xuan thuy nhat phuong dtau thuon co danh, nhan tu khoe lai, Bach-tach bau duyai grai-ai lao, Hong hoa bat haong ho-thanh khai. Hiiu tri xuan khu khong dte thu, Sau khiep trau xau co yem dtoi, Lien lo duen chuong die vau su Kim chi hoang kinh co boy lai.”

          The chinese charcter tranlate “

“    “ (may be from the friend of the pocket dairy ownwer, because different style written, please comment-auth)


     (7) February ,12th and 13th 1975

     On this two page of Luon HO Tui 1975 pocket dairy, handwritten in two type character Chinese and vietnamese

                   The Chinese character translete :

                   The Vietnamese character :

“ Mot ang xuan dtai  nuoc chay quan , trai xua du –loch bai tai danh, Tho dte dta trang tho cong loa, canh thien hoa vang chay dtinh, Chien xun goi xuan thuongbla biec,nui kinh nho bui phu rao xang xa loan biet ngu xasa con dau nay thay non bong khaes van tanh”


(8) February,17th.1975

     17.2.75(hanwritten).Hom nay hay 17.2.75 u’c dau thon ma nua, nguoi thay lon lang de cgeu, tuy van e am muon viet dtuoc nhien nhung so yui khong chiu no phan cong. Vi vay hoi buon va dti cham tac phan khong viet nhanh dtuoc,Khong buit muoi dto viet cua vau so chuyen nghe co nhu vay khong va ra the nao?

Nho ngay xua tuen lau noi nae khong biet vi con ngoqua.Ta con cholon me noi, luc namg u may boy uic noi.

Thang cu dti voi cau truong Hoang. Thu tu, hom qua ngay ay-2 dti lam nhu thuong buon twa dti choi ve ngua bin Ho, ong K dau chuoc dep, minh noi dto buon la ong An biet K le tuo xua choyen mon.(lich ho tui 1975)



     (9) February, 19th.1975

Hom nay thu tui 19.2 moi vuoc vous cua a, bay gao lu dta 11 tuoi mau mat chu khong vi bui , dtat vin voi(Lich Ho Tui 1975)



     (10) February, 20th.1975

20.2 Deu so gan 8 –moi, suoc dau thom cho khoe,dten goi viet nay chua ce dtoc gra nao dai  21-Dao gao dten lua thua.

22.Nho Phuong Di loui gre nay moi co mot dtoa gra 9 koi 5, au di but de la con vu satoan, viet la polition phu impotante. It est ga co h de char char a u qui , ous don ne la na’moine u est fauih di char char ce qou vous von lay.(Lich Ho Tui 1975)


3)March 1976


(1)March,1st .1975

Civil ID


Ho Ten          : Nguyen Van Thay

Lan Nam      : 5 So danh bo 337168

Ngay va noi: sann 03 02 1962

Dieu Hoe      : Dinh Tuong

Con on         : Nguyen van Noy

Va Ba           : Nho thi San

Dia chi         :23/73 Nguyen Van hoc Chau


                   Gia Dinh Ngay 01 Thang 3 Nam 1975


                                  Hieu Truong


                              Red Stamped

                  Nam Thi Chy-Hoc Chan Gia





Nay buoi trisa ra sag ngain canh nho chay, nong chai nad oc 100$ ve au them 50$ dau phong (lac0 Din bi lau cvee ce ong o ben TTP phy yledin cua sang muion gap ong PT dti nor tuyen (lich bo tui 1975)

Below a phrase written in Franch character :

“ Une sowice de l’air lec printerps sous l’ear courant d’aeton.

A travers le jachis, le voyage ed l’homase de talent

Le paernu est insen’t sur la piveu blachi,en soullant.

Le spectacle qui pas de fleurs jave ni soent ‘n est pas juli.

Les osseau en se rappelen du joun tengo ons d’ailterce petie’les feuillage government vertes.

Le mortague a peur d’attein du les ponotiene qrasecouvremes avec les plantes orgenses et bleues .

Le routives d’autos reyaux par l’ e’criture nobli soisuteneart das lignes de jadis.

Apparn au gourd d’hai de joyenx montagre le visiteur n’y exeste pas. (lich ho tui 1975)


(3)March, 6th.1975

     Xe nhan con nho 6/3/75 (lich ho tui 1975)




(4) March,10th.1975

     Duong loi vo chu nghan cua co so (lich ho tui 1975)


(5) March,13th.1975

Cong vree dtoc sais and in english :”weeding through the old to bring fourth the new Confusius advocated virtue, benevolence and righteourness  no characteristoes of the upright rules, and Mencious advancing the confusian tradition, argued for the innate goodness of human nature”

In another page a letter in vietnamese character


Nguyen cau Mang

Dien mot ben ma Hai mot ben Nho ai non thuy buoi chan lan thu kau  suong nhat ba chom cuc, am vang may che niet ngoi dten Linh thay nhin biu com thay cho, Ho thanh ha? Nui dta thay ten.

Dong A kai may om den be .

Huong khoi lang dtay dtuc vung ben.

Minh mong cua dta luc nui vong quanh, Lap vong lo xo dta gap gheuk.

Khe tham hang sau xay tac dtong, Tra xanh muoc biec ve voi tram .

Thuyen buong truong Hbo tam lanh lang buon khaeh dton von boy ai chanh.

Tho tac kheu thay bay dtat kheo, Ha doung ueng mot canh xinh xinh .

Dong chou nguyen hue bien


(lic ho tui 1975)

     At Li Ho Tui 1975, page  February 20,21,22 23,24 and 25th ,        another information written in Vietnamese :

“Nua o-at mot tioi tuon dte thai .Gia gam gai, khap dtat quat cong lin.Sam nao dtong ca tuoi may tan-tac .Thoang anh lec, tic chop vu doi dtem.

Khap lang xom nha nha xien toi mai.Nua nhu ten vien vut ban tung hoanh tung hoi oi ve dai trang so hoi, Trung gio gain rui rit huy tre xanh.

Mua xuan lam tam nhe roi troi xuan dtain am long ngui tinh ten.Phat pho may canh hoa dtai,Nhon nho khu nhac tien canh, Lai cang nhu ve tranh tuyen voi.

Qui toi ce heu,co dau, codtan trang,co cau hui tinh. O caydta,co mai dtinh, Co bay thon nu xinh xinh duc dong.

Mua thu co nhung ha lang, co cay dtu buoi xuan sang dap din. Gia vi vu ti erg sao dien, Ru hon nue ta chien chien tien dte Cho lang co lam qua qui :

Banh dta, banh dtuc,banh lac, banh day. Dau thon co tup quan gay Tinh qui nhue bat nuoc dtay du tam ngo tu nhue khoch quo cu oi.

Veon qui tham mat huong nhai,luong cau. Thang tu chanh com goi dtau.Huong seu ngat ca vuon rau ac beo.Thang hai hou buoi roi nhiem, Ong ong ba em haon dap diu tun hoa, Khum khum gran muoyi ao nha,Cau tre lu tre vui dtua tap boi.

Tieng ga tua lang choi va, Tieng chien en gay,buon oi le buon  ! Ngay ngau gio ky nua dton, Mai tranh re nhung le buon va vo.Dem dai nhep tuong vong dtua, Loi ru di oi ngau xua vong ve.   Nho nhung sau mat le thu,xa xoi nghe day hon qua nao nung.

Cac tinh thuong du

Hoi Ninh , Lang-son, Lao-bang, Bai-lau,Tuyen-quang, Ha grang, San-La, Lai-Chan, Yin Bay, La0-Lai, Hoa-Binh.

Cuc tinh Trung du

Quang-yen,Bai-grang,Thai-Nguyen,Phu-Tho,Hanh –binh

Cai ting Trung chau

Bai Minh,hai Duong, Hung Yen, Kiui An, thai Binh,Ham dtong, Ha Nam. Ha Dong, San Tay, Ninh You va Phuc Yai.        


At page Februarym 26,27,28th, information written in vietnamese  and France :

Hoi van thon que

O lai qui la noi nguoi sinh tuong,cung dtat dtai,hanh phuc huong lau ben. Gac ngoai tai nhung loi noi huyen thien, Koe thanh thi voi bao niem trang le.Ve ky tu, ron rang chi dtang be.Day xe hoi, thanh lich the ma thoi cheu momang, ao ndoc hao, ban oi. Hua nhiem dtay,nhung cho thoi rat itchi cho bang rung xanh,dtang lua chin, voi co hua, voi nghe nghiep quen roi. Cao quy thay roi ong viec sinh sa laoi ngu coc dte muoi nguoi bon bi.

Aux paysans

Paysans, notex aux champs

Aux voix quivous drout la ville et sewervealles. Nou vry pas voty eaur, paysans ,nes a vui os!

A l’appel du cites, n’ouvrez pas vos oxilles. Alles donnent, helas, moius que elles d’out promis.

A vos champs, a vos bois,demeurez doic fidels. Ai mez vos doux valleus, aimez votre miteer!

Auguste est le travarl le vos mains patervelles.C’est de votre labour qui vit le monde entica.

                                      Autran (la vic rural)

On demontre qui la conolition

Necessaire et sufficante pour qu’um fraction irreductible puosse etre nuise seus forme de fraction decimal exacte est qui sou denominateur nei contience pas d’autre factueur premier qeu 2 et 5.

Dien Kim cam va dtu dte’ cho mit phan so khong thi pham hien thuo phan so thiap phan chung kae nghia lomau so xhy co chua nhy gia to tau tie 2 va 5.


GHI CHU-page 1

Hanh dien I    : La agusi Viet Nam

Hanh dien II   : Khong gi qui hon su suy nghi

Hanh dien III  : Dung nen lua doi tinh thuong hay tinh yen

Hanh dien IV :  Doi la mat

Tinh thau cuoc chien dtau

Hanh dien V  : Doi quan he

Dao dtuc o nhung viec nho, viec nho lam cao dtiep tinh than  cua ta.


GHI CHU-page 2

Dai Phat thanh Vietnam

58 pho Quan Su hanoi.






After three GHI CHU PAGE, we found on the Lich  Bo Tui  1975 information :


1) Dia chi, so dien thoai can nhu(telpon-auth)

          Canh-sai cu’u cap  : 17

          So cu’u hoa              : 18

Bo Chi Huy CSOG Thi-do :268 Tran-hung-Dao Saigon

DT 20.093,21.376, 23.576, 21.794,21.795.

BCH CSOG Quan 1: 11,Mac-Dinh-Chi-DT 20.029,24.029

          “          Quan 2: 73,Bac-si yersin-DT.20.095,20.643

          “          Quan 3: 245,Le-vin-Duyet.DT.20.027,24.924


          “          Quan 4:24,Doan-nhu-Hai.DT.21.58,24.188

          “           Quan 5: 359,Dong-Khanh.DT 36.154,36.595


               “           Quan 6:114,Pham-van-Chi.DT 36.141,36.595

               “           Quan 7:184,Ben Nguyen Duy,DT 36.138

               “           Quan 8:143.Tung-Thien Vuong,DT 36.113


               “           Quan 9:   DT 40.868(Dac Khu 9)

               “        Quan 10: 336. Nguyen-Tri-Phuong.DT.36.896


               “         Quan11:270.Binh-Thoi – DT. 50.092

So Canh Sat Lu’u Thong: 341,tran-hung_Dao DT. 23.554


BCH/CSOG Gia Dinh. 18 Chi-Lang – DT 20.802



     TU SAIGON :

Angkor            560  cs              Long Thanh            90 cs

Ba Ria              110                    Long Xuyen         190

Bac Lieu          276                    Loc Ninh               135

Banmethout  353                      My Tho                   71

Ben Tre             86                      Nam Vang            240

Bien Hoa          30                      Nha Trang            448

Binh Tuy                   174                      Phan Thiet            198

Chi Mau         344                      Phan Rang           321

Can Tho         169                      Pleiku                    538

Chau Doc      245                      Qui Nhon              677

Cho Lon             5                       Rach Gia              248

Da Nang        972                      Sa Dec                  143

Da Lat             302                      Soc Trang              231

Gia Dinh             5                      Tan An                      47

Go Cong          58                     Tay Ninh                  96

Ha Tien                    338                      Tay Vinh                198

Ha Noi        1.760                       Thu Duc                     15

Hue              1.079                      Thu Dau Mot            30

Hon Quang    124                     Vinh Long               136

Kon Tum         599                      Vung Tau                123

Long Hai        116                      Xuan Loc                  82



Ten Tinh                                       Ten Tinh Ly


An-Giang                                   Long-Xuyen

An-Xuyen                                   Quan-Long

Ba-Xuyen                                   Khanh-Hung

Chau-Doc                                  Chau-Doc

Chuong-Thien                           Vi-Tanh

Dinh-Tuong                                My-Tho

Go-Cong                                    Go-Chong

Kien-Giang                                Rach-Gia

Kien-Hoa                                    Truc-Giang

Kien Phong                                Cao-Lanh

Kien-Tuong                                 Moc-hoa

Long-An                                      Tan-An

Sa-dec                                       Sa-dec

Vin-Binh                                      Pu-Vinh

Vinh-Long                                   Vinh-Long



Bien-Hoa                                    Bien Hoa

Long-Khanh                               Xuan-Loc

Phuoc-Long                               Phuoc Binh

Phuoc-Thanh                             Phuoc Vinh

Binh-Duong                                Pu-Cuong

Binh-Long                                   An-Loc

Binh Tuy                                      Ham-tan

Gia-Dinh                                     Gia-Dinh

Hau-Nghia                                 Khiem-Cuong

Phuoc-Tuy                                  Phuoc-Le

Tay-Ninh                                     Tay-Ninh

Con-Son                                     Con-Son



Dartac                                        Banmethout

Kontum                                       Kontum

Lam-Dong                                  Bao-Loc

Phu-Bon                                      Hau-Bon

Pleiku                                          Pleiku

Tuyen-Duc                                  Dalat



Binh-Dinh                                    Qui-Nhon

Binh-Thuan                                 Phan-Thiet

Khanh-Hoa                                Nha-Trang

Ninh-Thuan                                Phan-Rang

Phu-yen                                      Tuy-Hoa

Quang-Nam                              Hoi-An

Quang-Ngai                              Quang-Ngai

Quang-Tin                                  Tam-Ky

Quang-Tri                                   Quang-Tri

Thua-Thien                                 Hue


Thi Xa : HUE-DA-NANG- DALAT- CAM-RANH- VUNG TAU.                 




                                  NAM CUONG

                      Tong Phat Hanh Sach, Bao

                   Cung cap dung cu Van Phong

                    Va dung cu Hoc Sinh.


                   185-187 , Nguyen Thai Hoc

                                  SAIGON 2

                        Dien thoai  : 23.867   





                                      TIN THAI


      Giam doc     : Ba HUYNH THI DU

                  32 , Lac Long Quan


                            S A I G O N   2




               Dai Ly , Bot mi SAKYBOMI  Va



        Moi cuoi thang tu 25 duong lich DOANH THUONG NGAN HANG

Kinh tang Lich Bo Tui cho thang sau.Kinh moi Quy vi Than chu den hoi .So Ngan Quy hoac tai can Chi nhanh D.T.N.H.


(Very interesting information have found inside the pocket book ‘Lich Ho Tui 1975 during the vietnam liberation war in 1975 very difficult to found the unique document collections, please someone helpme to translate the vietnamese and Franch character information, please comment-auth)


(7)March, 11th.1975

Vietcong capture Banmethout(D)

(3) March 15th1975

Thieu meet with his commanders at Camranh, orders nothern provinces of South Vietnam abandoned.(D)



10)  March.20th 1975

Thieu reverses himself, order Hue held at all cost(D)

(5) March .25th1975

          The Hue city falls to Vietcong(D)


(6)  March .39th1975

Vietcong capture Danang.

(7)  March.31th 1975

Pilotbeuro in Hanoi direct General dung to push toward Saigon in the “Ho Chi Minh campaign”(D)


4)April 1975-The last Month of Saigon US-Vietnam regime.



(1) April 7th1975

Le Duc Tho arrives at Vietcong headquaters at Locninh, to oversee offensive

(2)AS the North Vietnam army thrust south, millions of refugees fled in terror toward Saigon .


(3) South Vietnamese refugees are slung into hold of a cargo ship as they anxiously strive to flee the advancing Vietcong.(P


      (4) Prior  to the Fall of Saigon

Nguyen Bao Tung (Best Vietnamese phillatelist)  former captain of the republic of Vietnam’s Army (ARVN) , was the commander of the 34 th MP-CID ( Military Police-Criminal Investigation Detachment) in Saigon.

In his collections contains President Nguyen van Thieu stamps on cover bored the signatures of the president and official seals of Goverment.

In 1975 he wrote about stamps for “ de la Timbrologie”, “ Le Monde  des Phillatelie, Bien-Tong Ji-Pao (in Chinese)

( Who was the owner of this very rare covers , please showed us, I have the Thieu stamps 10 Dong,  postally covers with KBC stamped, when I have seeking the information via Gogle exploration I found this Nguyen Bao Tung informations –auth)


(5)April.8th 1975

The Military “Gia Phep”Dao Biet certificate issued by Chu ky va dau,trung ta by quan tieu Doan truong tien Doan- complete certificate look at no (19).

(6) April .21th1975

(a)Vietcong capture Xuan Loc, last South Vietnamese defense line before Sai-gon (D)


(b) With the North Vietnam army encircling Saigon , President Thieu officially resigned on April,21th 1975 

(7)April.23th 1975

President Ford, speaking in New Orleans , calls the war “finished”(D)

(8) April.26th 1975


(a)Thieu leaves Saigon for taiwan(D)

(The president Thieu stamp 10 dong was issued march 26th 1963, the first day covers reported in vietnam postmark catalog  with postmark” ngay nng-dan vietnam” and I have the very rare  postally used on cover -auth)


(b)President Nguyen van Thieu turned the government over to Vice President Tran Van Huong, but Huong resigned a days later, turning the office over to Duong van Minh, who was acceptable to the North Vietnamese officially surrendered as the North Vietnamese tanks rammed through the gate of the Presidential palace on August 1975.

(Thieu originally took refugee in Taiwan , but later moved to Londen, where he lived several years. He had a vary quite life, avoiding the limelight and granting few interviews. He later moved to US living in affluent Boston suburb. Slowly, he began to reemerge, travalling to portion of the world, talking with symphatic groups in 1989-1990.

In an organizing groups to support change in Vietnam , he said that he no longer wanted a leadership position thetre (“I am old too old to take power again’) but wanted to lend hisexperience to those pushing reforms. He said he hoped to return someday to his homeland.

As of 1996, Thieu was still living near Boston, holding to a quiet life. He to the repoter :” I read ( discuss) the work in my home “. Thieu died on Saturday September ,29th,2001 ,in Beth Israel Deaconss Medical Center , caused of death unspecified., he was 78.-auth)

(9)April,28th. 1975

Vice-President Tran van Huong transfers authority as chief of state to General Duong van Minh (D)


(10)  April 29th1975


(a)Option IV

evacuation of last Americans from saigon, begins, Ambassador Martin Depart(D)





a US helicopter evacuated American and a few lucky Vietnam-ese to the safety of a nearby US warship a day before the fall of Saigon (P)


(c)The fall of Saigon as the last Americans and accompanying Vietnamese were lifted from the American Embassy in a frenzied evacuation, seventy helicopters carrying 1000 people to safety on the US warship lying offshore.


(d) But hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese officers and civil servants who had been loyal to the American-backed South Vietnam regime were left behind .

 (11) April 8th1975

The Military “Giay Phep” DaoBiet

certificate was issued at KBC 4.709 (Cholon) sign y Chu ky va dau , trung –ta boi quan Tieu-doan-Truong tian Doan 5 Nhay –Du .


(a)phan 1 : Don Xin Nghi Phep

Cap bac : Binh-2 Ho vaten : Nguyen Van dong So quan : 67/813418 Don Vi : TD 5 ND/DD53.

So ngay nghi phep : 04 ngay ke tu : 08,10.75 den 14.04.75.

Ly do : An thuong hanh quan

Lam tai KBC : 4.709

Mai nhan don. Chi’huy truong KBC 4.709.

(b) Phan II: Kien Cua Cap Chi Huy Trung Tham Quyen Cap Phep

(c) Phan III : Quyet Dinh Cua Gioi Chuc Tham Quyen Cap Phep

Hiay phep so : 274/ta 5/ DD

Quyet Dinh : duoc q huong them

Duong-su nghi phep

Ngay du duong va phai ve trinh dien ngay 14.04.75.

Cap bac, Ho va Ten,chuc vu va so dien thoai cua

Noi nhun : Duong Su-Dan Vi cao phep, Don vi quan thu ho-so.(OD)

(the latest document issued by the Vietnam Cong Hoa Army (AVRN), 12 days before Vietcong Captured Saigon, best  collection for showed ,please comment-auth)



Vietcong Capture Saigon, Colonel Bui Tin  have  surrender to Vietminh.





(13) April,31th. 1975


(a)Victory, South Vietnam was completely liberated and Vietnam reunified , the stamps issued by Saigon Regime terminated its circulation.(D)

Hundred thousands of Vietnamese officers and civil servant who had beeen loyal to the American –backed South Vietnamese regime were  taken to camps and joint the rigid “Re-education”, where some spent months and other years, a Vietnamese Gulag.


(B) Trong cuoc Tong tien cong va noi day mua Xuan 1975, bang he thong duong ong va cac kho chua, bo doi xang dau da cung cap 96 van tan xang, dau, mo, nhanh chong tra nap cac loai nhien lieu cho hang ngan xe phao, may bay, ham thuyen , khi tai may moc cua cac quan chung, binh chung, cac quan doan, su doan, bao dam cho bo doi va binh khi ky thuat co dong than loc, nhanh chong trien khai tien cong dich tren cac huong.

Khoi luong nhien lieu tieu thu nam 1975 gap 25 lan khoi luong nam 1954,gap 16 lan khoi lluong tieu thu trong chien dich Xuan He 1972(D)


(c)The final communist drive to take Saigon in 1975 was officially dubbed the Ho Chi Minh Offensive, and afterward become Ho Chi Minh City (ibid Stanley Karnow-p171)


4) May 1975 no info


5) June 1975 no info


6)July 1975 no info


7) August 1975


(1)August ,7th 1975

     Rice Distribution coupon from August to December 1975, every month 7/8/75 50 kg, 1/8/75 100 kg and 18/7/75 100 kg.with stamped Ba Thu Thien.





The Stencil coupon were issued by Thanh Pho Saigon Gia Dinh , Uy Ban Nhan Dan Cach Mang Quan 10.


Hieu Mua Dau Lua Han Thang

Cap Cho Dong Bao To Khai Gia Dinh.

Ten Ho Gia Truong : Nguyen ThiChac

Nha o’ :724/26 Phan Thanh Bian Saigon 10.

(Moi lan ban deu,nguoi quen Ly cat o ra giao cho Phuong trach nhiem kiem soat)



(3)        Official Cover with Stamped,without stamps, send by courier.


Vietnam Cong Hoa Phu Thu-Tuong,

Nha Tong Ginh Boc Cong-Vu.from Trung Tam Huan Luyen Quan Doc Tu Nghiep , 10 Tran Quoc Toan Saigon to Kinh gui : Ong Tran Hieu Nghia , 30 Nguyen Van Hoc, Gia dinh saigon.

(The earliest official cover and letter ,Porsonal delivered without stamp and postal stamped.)(OD)


9) September 1975 no info

10) October 1975 no info

11) November 1975


(1) November.27th 1975

The rare Ho Chi Minh cover with Ho Chi Minh stamp , Khong Co Gi Quy Ho’n Doc Lap Tu Do,  send from An Hai to Truong Nong lam Su-bao-Loc but the stamps didn’t cancelled, the leter inside


                An Hai 27-11-75

                        Em Truan !

Hom goi cho, con quen nhung mon tau dan, san dac ma auc ten, o nha goi cho env,nhung mon con thieu.

Gia dinh tat ca von binh an, lam an van nhu ngay hao.

        Hot ga goi ten env nen hong soi coiu dtuong cho bo. Co gi em nhan voi dac nor ho, Chi.(OD&PH)







4.3.4            The Saigon – Thanh Pho Ho Chi Minh during Unity Vietnam 1976-1980



 a. The Vietnam after the fall of Saigon in 1976.



1) January 1976


(1)Information from Qaaderni UNHCR by Sadako Ogata “An Instrument of Peace”

      In 1976 International public opinion becomes aware of the dramatic exodus by sea from Vietnam

The expression “Boat people” become famous throughtout the world, other people flee by land also from Laos and from Cambodia.(D)

2) February 1976 no info

3) March 1976 no info

4) April 1976 no info

5) Mei 1976 no info

6) June 1976 no info

7) July 1976

(1) July.2nd1976

     (a)The National Assembly of Vietnam decided to change the name of country into The Socialist Republic Of Vietnam.(D)

      (b)At the moment stamps issued by The Provisional Revolutionary Govern-ment of South Vietnam and The Democratic Republic of Vietnam  had run their course and merged into the postage stamps of the Socialist republic of Vietnam with the inscriptio “VIET NAM” . The last set of these two flows of revolutionary stamps feature the map of Vietnam, peaches and apricot in blossom nd the inscription “Vietnam is one, the Vietnamese Nation is one” and “Independence ,Unification and Socialism”.


(2) Native Vietnam document with Indonesia information 1975-1976.


        Sau that bai tham hai o Viet nam, camp-pu-chia va Lao de quoc . My dang gap rut cung con va dieu chinh cac tuyen chien luoc chua chung o chau A va Thai Binh Duong.

(a). Bam giu nhung vi tri con lai o Dong Nam A.

        Tang vien tro quan su cho In-do-ne-xi-a tu 20 trieu len 42,5 trieu do-la trong nam tai chinh 1976. vien tro quan su cho Phi-lip-pin 35 trie do-la trong tai khoa 1975-1976.dat muc cao nhat ve vien tro quan su cho nuoc nay tu 25 nam nay.

(b). Cung co tuyen”phong thu chien luoc”Dong Bac A,

(c). Co ve lap tuyen ngan chan o”vung Long chao Thai Binh Duong”

(d).Tang cuong lien minh quan su My-Nhat.

(3) Native Vietnam Propaganda:


 (4)2nd August 1976

 Pre stamped 60 Dong letter sheet with + 50 % stamped, and the cross line, Thu May Bay Aerogram letter sheet , not postal cancelled, personal deliver  , the letter :

                Anh Dien

Sue nay anh den nha, em ca dtua co chia anh coi mot cai thu tien quan Doan goi cho em Coi xong em luong anh cuoi nhung khong ngo anh lai co coc mat buon buon (co dtung vay khong anh ) cons buon gi the ?

        Anh oi! Sau keu coi xong anh co’ y’ nghi nhu the nao cho rieng em teh coi xong cai thu ay la con mim cuoi mot nu cuoi khong de soa em dta khong ong an ngai doc cho ma nghe coi ca Vay cai thu sao ma no gia doi den vie, dten khi nho coa nu tkhong het coi lung boc , hoi tham suc khoc ,nhung luc binh ung thi song chet moic bay.

        Anh! So di em muon anh coi voi em khong muon dau anh mot dien gi ca vu cho anh viay so cham lo chu dtai cua cap tien doi coi ban them em !!!!!!!!!! Nhg khong ngo anh lai buon, em mong anh dtung suy nghi va dtung buon vi la thu dto nha anh hua voi em nha anh cu em ?

        Nam nay em thu vew y khoa cho’ khong veo Nha nhei nam yoeu q Su phan nhu y dteonh mo uoc anh vay anh co mon keung ha anh.

        Neu co buon em dtreu gi thu noi cho em met hoeie thong cam cho con cho dtung gian em nha anh, hoac la 1 minh mang lay roi o noi gi dten di coi nho nho nhe anh.

                                Em cua anh

                                Sign Thieng

                                21.55 2/8/76.

8) August- 10) October 1976 no info

11) November 1976


(1) November 2nd1976

Jimmy Carter elected president of the United States (D)


     After the Vietnam war , in 1975 a mass exodus of Indochineese began, both by land toward Thailand and by sea ( The fammous Boat people) towards the region near the Indochina pennisula : Malaysia, Indonesia etc.

       More than one million people were involved and clearly the host countries were unable to bear the heavy barden of all those requesting asylum.

As the trime a kind of international resettlement bridge was organized , directing refugees mainly toward the United States,France, Canada and Australia, countries which in their turn successfully organized their integration .(D)


12)December 1976

       (1) December,22th. 1976

       A Chrismast card lady with candle, and written in chinese character, send inside the Cover from  Binh Minh(VinhLong) CDS Binh Minh 26.12.1976, the earliest new name with dai Hoi Dang Lan Thu IV stamps to TP Ho Chi Minh,the neww name of Saigon City, CDS small rolling type T.P.Hochi Minh I 27.12.1976. (this was the earlist T.P.Ho Chi Minh CDS,please report who have the earliest one-auth)
















b. Republic Socialist Vietnam in 1977


1)January 1977


(1)january ,21th 1977

The day after his inauguration, Carter pardons most of 10.000 Vietnam war draft evaders,(D)

2) February 1977 no info


3) March 1977

(1) Assistent Secretary of State begins talks with Vietnamese officials to explore US recognition of Vietnam.(D)

(2) The constant stream of refugees from South Vietnam by sea (The Boat People) and overland to Thailand, Malaya and Hongkong also aggravated Vietnam’s neighbours.

     The United States accepted hundres of thousands of Vietnamese , and more recently, numbers of “Amerasians” , the mixed children of US servicemen and Vietnamese.

(3) The Boat Man photo in Indonesia newspaper(OP)

(4)     The Boat Man in Galang Island Indonesia where they were checked before transvered to another country, and the Mobile Brigade from wset Sumatra had tasked in that area, (some document and Postal History will discuss in specialized postal history discussions.auth)

4)April 1977 no info

5) May 1977

        (1) May,15th.1975

        The beautiful green cover with red flower  send from Tra Vinh CDS 15.6.1977 with Dai Hoi Dang Lan Thu IV stamp of Buu Chinh Viet nam via CDS VINH-LONG 15.6.1977  to Than Pho Ho Chi Minh the new name of Saigon city, cds Bigger CDS  Vietnam *THANH-PHO HO-CHI-MINH* 16-6 1977  small type Vietnam*Tanh Pho Ho Chi Minh I 17.6.1977.

(rare postal history with four cds destination after the Vietnam  liberation War, please report the earliest of Tanh Pho Ho Chi Minh CDS,auth)


c.Republic Socialis Vietnam in 1978


1) -5) no info

6) June 1978

     (1)Vietnam Join Comecon, the East European economic community.(D)

7) July 1978

(1)Tension between Vietrnam and Cambodia buil up, relation between Vietnam and China deteriorate (D)

     (2) July,12th.1978

     The Special cover Vietnam Map with Communist flag , Dai Hoi IV Dang Cong San Vietnam with Ho Chi Minh 12 d stamp with red Map , send from cds  TP Ho Chi Minh-15250   to Tran Phu Quan 5 cds rollyng small type 15250.TP Ho Chi Minh.


8)-9) no info

10) October 1978

United State postpones plan to normalize relations with Vietnam

11) November 1978

Vietnam and Soviet Union sign a friendship pact, which the Chinese term a “threat to the security” of South east Asia. Vietnam starts to trepress its ethnic Chinese minority, thousand flee the country.(D)

 12) December  1978

(1) December,15th.1978

(a)Carter announces full-scale diplomatic relation between the United States and China(D)

(b)Relations with her nothern neighbour reached their nadir when Vietnam invaded and occupied most of Kampuchea and expelled the Chinese-backed Pol Pot regime. The Vietnamese –installed government was ostracised by the International community and Vietnam was condemed.

(c) Thousand of “Boat people” begin to flee Vietnam (D)

(2)  December, 25th. 1978

Vietnam invaded Cambodia


d. Republic Socialist  Vietnam in 1979


1)January 1979


     (1) January,18th.1979

     The private cover send from Nha 14 Toi Vi cds Tan nghia Viet 62551 to Phu Nhuan Gia Dinh cds TP Ho Chi Minh 75400 and small rolling CDS 75000  TP Ho chi Minh-3- *Vietnam*

2) February 1979

     The chinese mounted an armed attack across the Vietnamese border. (D)

3) March 1979

     The Chinese armed forces withdrew  as Beijing put it “taught” on Vietnamese a “lesson’ . There in the 1980s  the Chinese maintained a threatening posture on Vietnam’s nothern border with occasional armed classes, but  relations have become musch less tence since Vietnam withdrew from kampuchea in 1989.

     Vietnam remained isolated until the early 1990s, and no large-scale international aid or capital investment hand reached her. The potential of the hardworking and adaptable Vietnamese continues to be unexploited. A people who saffered so much deserved a better fate, and there were increasing sign that the United States felt she had a moral responsibility to help.

4)April 1979


(1) April,29th.1979

HO CHI MINH CITY , PHIEU VAI 1979 LINEN DISTRIBUTION 4 METER ,  WITH 10 CM TO  40 CM, TWO COLOUR TYPE RED AND GREEN WITH Vietnam Socialist ermoured and So  Thung De Hiep stamped. This coupon were the earliest HO Chi Minh City document after the fall of Saigon in  29th April 1975 (OD)

5)-6) no info

7) July 1979

Information from UNHCR (ibiet Sadako Ogita)

The situation in south east Asia is serious due to the presence of large members of Vietnamese, Laotian, and Kampuchean refugees.

An International conferenrence in July 1979 achieved very successful result : 260.000 resettlement places, contribution for 160 millions dollar and the opening of two transit centreres placess contributions for 160 million dollars for resettlement (D)

Between 1978band 1980, China settles 263.000 Vietnamese mainly of C hinese ethnic origin with other arrivals in following years. They will become 283.000 , sttled in 194 state farms and fishing operations.

UNHCR intervens with project to assist their integretion.

It is UNHCR policy to turn to resettlement of refugees in a third country when other solution are not feasible. For example, a high number of Indochinese refugees have been resettled in the United States and other Western countries.(D)


8)-9) no Info


10)  October 1979

       (1) October, 7th.1979

       The Green cover with red flower send from Cam Ranh Phu (no CDS), to CDS TP Ho Chi Minh 15100.


11)-12) no info  


e. Ho Chi Minh city and VIETNAMSE BOAT’s PEOPLES IN-1980.


1) no info

2) February 1980

In this month, Indonesia Police Mobile Brigade Kompi-06 West sumatra Padang Panjang have joined the “Halilintar”operation at Pulau Galang in order to keep the stabilty situation during the Vietnamese Refugees processing the island near Riau Island and Singapore, live temporary at the  refugee Camp “ Vietnam Refugee Galang Island Camp”.

Since June and July 1979, many Vietnamese refiugee, thousands with small boats flee from Vietnam, they were called “Boat People” many died in the sea due to Boat crash due to many mans in small boat.

As a humanity , Indonesia  give an Island of Galang where the processing by United nation were made.


      3) no info


4)April 1980


(1)The Operation of Indonesia Armed Forces (Police were in Armed Forces that this time) were  called “HALILIN-TAR OPERATIONS”  , from  the Mobile Brigade-man I have found Postal History, document and memorabilia :








(1.1)April.12th 1980

Order from the Command of Halilintar operations, The Chief Staff Navy General(laksmana Pertama) TNI(Indonesia National Army) Kunto Wibisono with  the “Panglima”(Chief) of Halilintar Operation  Command(Komando Operasi Halilintar) issued at Tanjung Pinang Riou 12 April 1980.(D)


(b) Postal History


(2.1)Military cover from the Command of halilintar Operation to the command of Mobile Brigade Police Second Leutenant fajar Prihantoro, this cover sent via courier.(PH)


(2.2) Official Military Covers send via courier, from Komando(command) Satuan Pengaman (stability unit) and Perawatan (care) Pengungsi (Refu-gee) Vietnam Pulau(Island) Galang to WA(deputy) Dan (Commandant) Ki (Compi) 0-6 SB(Moblie Brigade west sumatra) at Tanjung Pinang. With the sign of the Deputy H.Prihantoro when he have given this cover to me.(D)


5)-9) no info


10) October 1979

(1) October 4th 1979


(a)Vietnamese refugee Pulau galang emblemed cover send postally CDS Tandjung Pinang 4.10.79 rate 60 Rupiah  to  his wife Padang Pandjang west sumatra .(PH)


(b) Return to sender registered covers I have send to the Police Pos Command of Vietnamese Pulau galang, with  Sial Sdh berangkat (They have departured)


(c)Official letter sheet Vietnamese refugee Pulau galang (M)


(d)The Sticker of Vietnamese Refugee Pulau galang.


11) November 1980

No info

12) December 1980


(1)     December,8th.1980

The  civil homemade cover send with Military stamps 1976-1980 ,  2×12 (?) from Tinh Ha Son Binh to Than Pho Ho chi Minh.


































a.V ietnam (Constantino,Renato “The Making of Filipino” A Story of Phillipine Colonial politics” page 205& 231, first printing 1969,… panay avenue,Quezon City,Phillipine)


(1) The United States has asked her Allies to join her in warning communists “Against further aggresion in ear-torn Indochina”


(2) The next subject on which Senator Recto opposed the US position,and President Magsasay’s as well, was vietnam.

(3)Describing Vice-prosident Carcia’s prompt expression of support for United States intervention as ill-advised, he cautioned the Foreign Affairs Department against making ,without prior consultation with Congress, statements which might involve the country in war.

He pinted out that the Phillipines is in No Position to issued such “threats” because it is just a “small power” He expressed the fera that “ we may just be like hunring dogs sent out to bark at wild boars. Not physically able to fight the boar, we back out at first sign of conflict”

     Besides, he reminded the govern-ment that sould ourt threatening words involved us in war , our mu-tual defense agreement did not con-tain the categorial assurance that united States would come to our defense.

(4)President Magsasay said “ the last vestiges ( of the old-style colonialism) are now disappearing from Asia”, but the oppositioned Senator Recto said :

(a)“ Westren colonialism is far from dead, and it is not correct to say that it has reached the last vestigial stage.Of course  it is doubtful if it can conquer again or re-establish itself upon the vast areas of the globe that it controlled in the 18th and 19th centuries, but this certainly is not due to lack of willingness or ebthuasiasm to do so, but rather to impressive evolution of the nationalism of many subject peoples since the closing years of the last century, starting in Asia with our own successful revolution against the Spanish colonial government.”    


(b)“ Freedom-loving Asians correctly believe that it is not for any Westren people now to decide for any Asian nation what principles of foreign policy it may adopt or  repudiate”


(c)I am definitely against the commitment of Filipino troops in the war in Indochina. There is no cause, no reason for sending our fighting men to assist a colonial power to  perpetuate itsef against the Liberation ambition of the native population”


(d)Recto advised the United states to drop her”supercillious and patronizing attitude toward “Asia for the Asians”if she wants Asian cooperation”

(5) Magsaysay Reacts.

This veiled criticism of magsaysay and the more open attack  on Americans and pro-Americans like Romulo had an immediate repcussion.

(6) The Brownell doctrine,

 Foreign policy, Indochina, and Japanese reparations each provided a new battle ground in the worsening relation between Recto and Magsaysay.

     The United states through her defense secretary that Filipino soldiers would not be sent to fight abroad, Recto felt that the Filipino people should be made to understand that “unless full gaurantees are secured from America” .

(7) The clash between Recto and the President Magsaysay

The clash was the paramount feature of party politics at that time. Everyone’s attention was focused on this duel between formidalbe adversaries.


(8)Liberal Representative Diosdado Macapagal, implementing his party’s pledge of support to Magsaysay and perhaps trying to drive a deeper wedge between Magsaysay and Nacionalista Party leaders,

enumerated in radio address the following ten “fundamental” conflicts between Magsaysay and Recto

 ( the complete history will list in UC’s next book “Phillipnes Unique collections” –auth)

(9)The fundamental’s conflict about Indochina-war :

(a) While the president Magsaysay is for joining the U.S. in warning Red China from intervening in Indochina, Senator Recto has opposed such step as like a dog rousing the wild boars from its lair only to run away.

(b) While the  president Magsaysay has dropped Asia for the Asians as a policy, Senator Recto has vowed  to make it a basis of our foreign palicy.

 (the historic informations  about the Phillipines and Vietnam Independen-ce war will put at the chronologic collections information. I hope after read the historicbacground we know that in phillipine, were senator recto opposides the President Magsaysay policy about Filipinos joined the Indochina war, detailed read the Renato Constantino books-auth)


b. ibid Stanley Karnow,1994



(1)After the defeat of the French by Ho Chi Minh and General Giap in summer of 1954 , there appeared the chance of negotiated solution .

(2)The Geneva conference of that year had resulted is a number of agree-ments and compromise.

 (3)The lighting was ended, and Vietnam was divided slose in the 17th paralel, with the North Vietnamese controlling what became the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, recognised by the communist state; in the South arose the anti communist Republic of Vietnam.

(4)Vietnam , it was proposed, would be unified again following elections in July 1956.


(5)Two crusial features of the Geneva Accords were thus Vietnam were remain unitary states whose future would decided by elections, and that no foreign troops were permitted to assist North or South Vietnam. But from the start prohibition against the inroduction of foreign’s arm and amunition’s was a dead letter.


(6)Eisenhower and Dulles  regarded the Geneva Accords as appesement of communism and a defeat for the free world.

They dissociated themselves from the agreements but promised not to overturn them by force provided there was no aggreasion from the North. They also expressed doubts about the all-Vietnamese elections and inssted that they be held under the auspices of the United Nation.

     (7) on the 3rd June 1945

(a)the Cochin-china as an Autonom Republic under the Federation of Indochina and the Franch Union(D)

 (b) The Republic Democratic Vietnam still under the union under French,and Economy-politically  united too with other Indochina area in the South.(Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia  ?-auth)

(c)Republic Vietnam willn’t be developed if not united with other area because in the nothren more Industrial  and in the South very rich agriculture especially rice.

 (d)All of the South area were under the French powers, and there were made the Goverment like the Dutch have made in East indonesia area out of Java and Sumatra .

(e)In this Situation The Independent Of Republic Vietnam not full in Politically and economically.

(f)When the Independent of Republic Vietnam , French have promised wilnot gunfigting in the southern area Cochin-China, and there will made “People ‘s referendum” to choose to join the (j)Republic Democratic Vietnam or Not  as the Humanright to self determination and  this referendum will profillacted the war .

 But The french army were came to that area and accepted the Indepen-dent Republic Of Cochin-china under French Union in June 1946.

(g)The new Republic of Cochin-china have the Annamese native president dr Nguyen van Tinh, before they made as secret referendum to choose  accept or not to join the Republic Democratic Vietnam under Ho Chi-minh .

(h) The Republic Democratis Vietnam had protested that situation, and became small war during Ho chi Minh meetings in Paris.

(i)During Paris conference, French have made Dalat Conference with delegation from every French’s and they have accepted to made The federation Of Indochina,  the same Dutch made In Malino Indonesia.

     When Ho Chi Minh heard that situation, The Paris conference was banded, and the small war have begun again but Republic Democratic of Vietnam didn,t have power because the French have the power in Indochina, the same situation in Indonesia some Java area under Dutch.

(j)The Killing, fired, kidnapped, terrorisme from the two side as the same what we saw in Java and Sumatra Indonesia.

(k)The Frech army used 6000 Duitsch army who signed the contract to joined the french arme forces after Franch occupied Rhine area in Germany (Duitschland).


(l)After the French have enough armed forces, the Allied army from British departed  from Indochina.

(m)Although the Situation in Indochina were same in Indonesia , but difference situation that when the Dai Nippon have surrendered the French official and Armed forces still in Indochina put as prisoner of war and the French authority more strong than in Indonesia.(OD)


   (n)Since the Vietminh had prevailed at Diienbienphu and still menaced the French elsewhere in Indochina, Pham Van Dong predictably came on strong. He insisted on a political settlement first, under which the French would withdraw and leave the Vietnamese to resolve their own differences- a formula calculated to panic Bao dai Regime and virtually guarantee a Communist triumph. He also arguedd for  recognation ofthe Pathet Lao and the Free Khmer, the Vietminh-supported Communist movements in Laos and Cambodia, contending that they deserved legal status and control of territory in their countries.(I have the original photo of Pham van Dong from the  photo collections given the Indonesian official during Afro asia Bandung conference 1955-auth)

 The French rejected these demands , Pham van Dong refused to yield- and the conference slid to a stand still.

(o) Zhou Enlai showed at geneva for the first vtime, he’s primaray  ain was to carve an agreement that would deny the United States a pretext to intervene in Indochina and again threaten China. Thus he sought a settlement that would give the French at least a foothold in their former possesion, to the exclusion the Americans.

Such an accomodation inevitably required a sacrifice of the Vietminh’s objectives. But Zhou put China’s priorities first. Besides, Chinese foreign policy throughout the centuries had been to fragment South East Asia in order to influence its states, and Zhou subscribed to that tradition. A divided Vietnam suited the Chinese better thatn a unified neighbor- particulary one that had quarreled with China for two thousand years. Similarly, China’s security would be served by restraining Vietnamese ambition in Laos and Cambodia. By curbing the Vietminh, moreover, Zhou hoped to display his noderation to India, Indonesia and the other nonaligned countries of Asia. Indeed, his appearance at Geneva was a prelude to his performance soon afterward at the Bandung Conference, where he and the Indian Prime Minister Jawalharlal Nehru embranced as they launched their campaignnto preach the “Pancasila” , the “principles of peaceful coexistence”( I have the original photo of Nehru, Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh during Nonaligned Country Afro Asia Conference Bandung 1955, auth)

(p) The Vietminh showed no signs of elasticity, and Bao dai had just appointed the intractable Ngo Dinh Diem to his prime minister. But Zhou Enlai intervened. He arranged to meet Mendes-France covertly on June 23 1954, at the French embassy in Bern, the Swiss Capital.

Zhou had discarded his usual severe tunic for a gray Westren business unit, and he meant business. He told Mendes-France that, in contrast to the demands of the Vietminh, he favored a cease-fire first and a political accord afterward. He would urge the Vietminh to stop meddling in Laos and Camboda, and to respect the sovereignity of these “two Vietnams”- a direct blow to the Vietminh’s dream of unifications. The possibility of American military bases in Indochina worried him. Beyond that, he said, China’s only aim was peace in the region, adding that his government had “no other ambitions(and) poses no conditions”.

Worse awaited the Vietminh leader two evening later, at a farewell dinner organizes by Zhou. The guests included a member of Bao dai’sdelegation, Ngo Dinh Luyen, theyounger brother of Ngo dinh Diem. Pham Van Dong was astonished and dismayed that Zhou, a Communist comerade, should have invited a “puppet” of the French. But Zhou went even further, obliquely indicatingvin his silky manner that China favored a permanent partition of Vietnam. Turning to ernment to be established in Saigon open a diplomatic mission in Beijing:” Of course, Pham Van Dong is closer to us ideologically, but  doesn’t rule out representation from South. After all, aren’t you both Vietnamese,and sren’t we all Asians?”

(q) The conclussion at Geneva was to be misinterpreted, if not misunderstood, for years to come. The only documents signed were cease-fire accords ending the hostilities in Vietnam, Cambodia and laos.

The Agreement between France and The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, as the Vietminh officially called itself, wasnot a political settle-ment .It provided for temporary division of Vietnam pending a nationwide election to be held in the summer of 1956. The French forces would meanwhile withdraw from the north, and the vietminh from south. Except for the United States and the Saigon regime, the other participants merely gave their oral endorsement to afinal declaration noting the understandings.

(r) The Eisenhower administration , crusading against its foggy notion of an international Communist conspi-racy, reluctantly pledged to abide by the Geneva agreement. In a separate statement, however, Bedell Smith warned that the United States would view “with grave concern…any renewal of aggression”- a caveat President Kennedy used seven years later to justify his comminment to the Ngo Dinh Diem government. Diem also rejected the Geneva accords, which put half Vietnam under Communist control, and he predicted that “another more deadly war” lay ahead for Vietnam. His forecast was prescient, after eight years of conflict and four hundred thousand soldiers and cibilians dead, the agony was far from finished(D)







d .ibid,Grenville,1994)



(1)The South Vietnamese government, headed by the Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem , refused to sign any of the treaties but carried out the military truce conditions.

(2)Eisenhower’s conduct in 1954 marked another turning point in the tragic history of Vietnam and of the United States’s involvement in that tragedy, which lwd to extensive sacrifices in men, material and, a decade later social cohesion.

   What Eisenhower and dulles refused to accept was that no firm line had been drawn against further communist expansion, further erosion of the westren position in South east asia, though they had no wish for the US to replace colonial France or to exploit South Vietnam.


4. 2.2 The Chronology of BO DAI-REGIME WAR  COLLECTIONS .

(THE Federation Of Indochine ,SAIGON REGIME)


a.After The Japanese surrendered-1945



1)June 1945


(1)June ,3rd 1945

The Cochin-china became an autonom Rep. under Federation Of Indochina and  French union  with  General Nguyen van Xuan as the president (D)


2) July, 1945


(1)The Postdam agreement, British Allied forces were to occupy the southren half of Vietnam up to 16th parralel.

    The commander of the British occupation forces, Major-General Douglas Gracey, exceeded both the postdan mandate and the orders of his superiorAdmiraln L. Mountbatten.

    Short of troops of his own, Gracey relied heavily upon Japanese forces to keep Saigon and the surrounding area under his control and out of the hands of Vietminh. (ibid Kahin)

3) August 1945


(1)     August.5th 1945

Japanese Surrender and Saigon in Chaos .

The French had crumbled, devas-tated by the defeat of Japanese whose troops in Vietnamwere waiting for repatriation.


4) September 1945


(1) September,22th 1945


(a)A day after their release, Franch soldiers went on a rampage, shooting entries, they poured into the Saigon city hall and ousted the Vietminh’s so –a called Provisional Executive building, raising the French flag from the rooftops .

(b) Then, their ranks swelled by angry French civilians, they coursed through the city, broke into Vietnamese homes and shops, and indicriminately clubbed men, women and even children.

 (c)Gracery and Cedile, appaeled by the spectacle that they them-selves had inspired, pleaded for calm but bit was too late.(D)


(2) September,23th 1945

 General Gracey rearmed the bulk of the 5.000 French troops interned in the Saigon area and permitted the French to launch a coup d’etat on this day.


(3) September,24th 1945


(a)Responding to the French frenzy, therefore, the Vietminh launched a general strike on this day. If any one date marks the start of the first Indochina war, it might be that day.




(b)For the strike and its aftermath initiated a momentum of conflict that, despite periodic negotiating attemps, could not be stopped.


    (c)By morning, Saigon was paralyzed. Electricity and water supplies had halted. Shop were shut and offices closed , trams stood still and even rickshaws had disappeared from the deserted streets.

(d)Anticipating the worst, the city’s twenty thousand French civilians barricaded their houses or fled in panic  to the security of the rambling old Continental Palace Hotel  

( I have the Book’s illustrated picture of this hotel in 1964-auth), the billet for French and British officers.


(e)The crackle of gunfire and the thud of mortars soon resonated tthrough the city, as armed Vietminh squad attacked the airport,, burned the central market and stormed the local prison to liberate hundreds of vietnamese inamets.

(f)But the most brutal episode occured at the Cite Herault, a residential suburb.

(g)At dawn, Binh Xuyen terrorist led by the Vietminh agents slipped past japanese soldiers supposely guarding the district.

    Smashing doors and windows, they broke into bed rooms and masacres one hundred and fifty French and Eurasian civilians, sparing neither women nor children.

They dragged more than a hundred others away as hostages, mutilating many before freeing them later.

(h) Predicrably , communist historian omit any mention of this atrocity in their accounts of the period(D-ibid Stanley Karnow)

(4)As his country descended into Violence , the Vietnamese  faction’s clash with each other and with Frenc , Bo Dai left the country to Hongkong.

(5)Not Yet collections in this month

(Very difficult to find the collections after Japanese surrender in Cochin-china, different in Indonesia we fine the Japanese occupations coll, after japanese surrender, because they still have the power and will tranversed the power to  the British Allied forces , but British came too late in the end of September and early of October 1945.

    The Collectors must be carefull, because  too many  fake revenue and postal histories  in Vietnam on this time and sold very high dollars-auth)


b.French vs Vietnamese in 1946


1) January 1946

(1)January.31th. 1946

     The Government has signed a decree on the issued of Vietnamese notes.

     During that period, and even for some previous years, the Banknotes issued by the French have been circulating all over the three parts of Vietnam,cambodia and Laos. For some time when petty notes became rare, the people had even to the art notes into two halves to used as change among them.

     Afterwards , when the French colonialists returned, French currency continued to e spent again in the French-occupied regions. Together with their conspiracy to re-occupy Indochina, the French colonialist have created various goverments in the South, controlling a number of regions and setting up L’Institue d’Emission des Etats du Cambodia,Laos and vietnam .The figure on the back of Banknotes issued  by the issuing Institue have shown us whom the national s

S overeignty belong to.

2) February 1946

No yet information

3)March 1946

(1)March,6th 1946

A clash had been prevented French would recognize Vietnam as a free state within the French Union – the new name for the old French empire and Ho would permit the presence of twenty-five thousand Franch troops in Vietnam for the next five years. But the final confirmation of this accrd never came.

4) April 1946


     (1) When the French colonialist returned, French currency continued spent again in the French-occupied area. Together with their conspiracy to re-occupy Indochina.

     The French colonialists have created various government in the South, controlling a number of regions and setting up “ L’Institue d’Emission des Etats du Cambodge, du laos et du vietnam. The front page same, but the backpage  different with Elephant (Vietnam), Angkor statue(cambodge) and Kiln (Laos) also the picture of the state’s king .

The banknote  One piastres yellow-red with the king picture and The house monument, five piastres -green

With Bodai picture(vietnam), and  monument of Laos and cambodge, 10 piatres yellow brown-along bay Haiphong picture(vietnam), Laos dancers, Cambodege lady; 100 piatsres blue-pink , Bodai picture (vietnam), Laos ‘s three lady and cambodge  lady with flower, the highest nominal 200 pisatres, Bo Dai picture & Elephant(Vietnam) and Ankor statue (Cambodia).

 ( I found the 200 piastres Bo Dai & elephant picture in very find condition at Russian market Phom Phen Cambodia, the 200 piastres Angkor statue pictures very rare I never saw the very fine conditions many in bad condition-auth)


5) May 1946


D’Argenlieu went through motion of further talks with the Vietminh at Dalat, a lovely hill town in the South. But he parried the big issues, like Cochinchina’s status and Vietnam’s sovereignity, contending that they could only be discussed at a higher level meeting, scheduled to take place in France,


(2)May 31th 1946

on this day ,Ho depated for Paris.


(3)No sooner had Ho left Hanoi


(a)D’Argenlieu resorted the old fait accompli ploy, in violation of the March agreement and without informing Paris, he proclaimed a republic of Cochinchina in the name of Franch.

(if someone have the collections of this puppet Republic of Cochinchina please comment and send the illustrations because I have never seen, in Indonesia there were the same puppet republic and I have fount the postal and document histories of that puppet state, read Indonesia Independent War-auth)



(b)The Cochinchina isuue also aroused the French in Saigon, who inundated the government in Paris with telegrams and petition, some even protesting against the presence in Franch and his”agitation and troublemakers”

(c)At the same time , d’Argenlieu tried to subven the negotiation by convening his own counter con-ference in Dalat, to which he invited selected Vietnamese, cambodians, Laotians and a delegate from the “ Republic of Cochinchina” to discuss Indochina’s future. The french did nothing to diswavow him-and may have even secretly approved his machinations.(ibid,stenley Karnow).


6) June 1946


(1) June .22th 1946.

The green paper land-house tax paid 9$50,without revenue, with black colour catho village francaise Indo-chine type.

(rare document at this time, why not republic of Cochinchina because at the document still used The old village and province of  Francaise Indochina stamped , this proof that Republic of Cochinchina only the puppet republic without power-auth)


 (2) Under an agreement to remove the Chinese forces, Ho Chi Minh agre-ed to the return of the French army to Hanoi in 1946. Troops are seen here entering the city. The welcoming cro-wd was composed mostly of French residents (P-ibid Stanley karnow)


(2)In 1946, as they moved to install their new government in Notrhern Vietnam,Ho Chi Minh and his followers organized verious associations- including this youth group, whose members were trained to sing political songs extolling Vietnam’s indepen-dent (P-ibid stanley karnow)





7) July 1946


(1) July.,1946

After eight weeks of haggling, the Fointaibleau conference yields only a draft accord that reinforced France’s economic prerogatives in northern Vietnam without resolving the Cochinchina problem.

Ho sent his delegation home and stayed on in Paris alone in a last angguished effort to settle what he publicly glossed over as a”family dispute”(D)


8)-11) August to November 1946

Not yet information


12)December .1946


(1)D’argenlieu , back in Saigon , went further  conversation with Ho were “ henceforth imposible”. He asserted ,proposing instead that Vietnam return to its”Traditional monarchy”- in short , Enthrone Bo Dai again, who had by then left Hanoi for Hong Kong.


c. Frence vs Vietnamese -1947



(1) the Photo of  Ho Chi Minh ,seated, incasual attire, flanked by his senior comrades (left to right) Pham van Dong, Truong Chinh, and Vo Nguyen Giap.

(Truong Chinh borrowed his pseudonym, which mean Long March, from the famous exploit of the famous Chinese Communist in 1934-ibid Karnow)


(2) The Cao Dai , Hoa Hao, Trot skyites band other , all striving to outbid the Vietminh, had taken as extrimist tack and tension spiraled with the emergence of Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns for hire.(D)


(3)Early 1947.


(a)Bo Dai might have been a week , unprededictable, corruptable play-boy, but he was no fool.

 When the French sent represen-tatives to Hong Kong in early 1947 to lure him back to the throne , he insisted , as Ho did, that Franch must first accede to Vietnam’s Indepen-dence and unity,


(b) His stand heartened anti-communist like Ngo Dinh Diem, who urged him to stick to his position.

(c)He also worried Ho, who ordered  the murder of two Vietnam-ese nationalist engaged in promoting a Bao Dai alternative.

(d)Ho engaged in a more mode-rate maneuver:

 as well reiterating his eagerness to remain within French Union if only French would recognize a free ande Unified Vietnam.

     He spoke sweetly about Bo Dai  , saying that “ he may be far from us in distance , but not in our thought” and lastly , he reshuffled his cabinet, confining its Communist to a handful of keypost and demoting Giap, whom the French considered too aggresive .(D)

     (4) Not yet collections



(1)January 1947

Not yet information.

(2)February 1947



The very rare Haipong Chinese consulate’s ID for Chinese overseas at that city during the Vichy-Vietminh war without Chinese  revenue.

(This the 1947’s only one and very rare card and interesting document collections of Vichy-vietminh war that found at saigon ,best for showed.

My oppinion about this collection:

, (a1)without chinese revenue because that time no revenue issued due to the  Chinese civil war between the Kuomintang nationalist (Chiang)  and the Chinese Communist (Mao ) ,

(a2)The Collections was found at ex Saigon (HCM city)  may be   this  ID was belonged by the immigrant refugee from North, after the Vichy-Vietminh war at Haiphong and  the  the landreform and communist action in the north (D)

(3) – (8) no info

(9)  September 1947

(a)A possible transaction between Ho and Bao Dai  alaramed the French. In September 1947, Emile Bollaert , the French high commisioner, offered to dissolve the saparatist “ Republic of Cochin-China “ invented by Admiral D’Argenlieu and foster a “self –governing” Vietnam, with France responsible  for its defense and diplomacy.

     This was essentially a revival of the nineteenth-century protectorate, and Ho called the proposal “too narrow” yet signaled a willingness to bargain.


(10)-(11) no info


(12)December 1947


(a)December.7th 1947

A group of anti-Communist Nationalist, some on the French payroll, rushed to Hongkong and persuaded Bao dai to talk with Boliert.

     They met on December.7.1947, abroad a French cruiser anchored in the Bay of Along, north of Haiphong, with a spectacular coastline of limestone needless rising from the sea.

     Bo Dai wanted a firm French pledge of Independence, but Bolieret persuaded him to sign a Protocol” that so hedged the magic word with qualification as the render it mea-ningless, Bao Dai had been trapped.

     A comic sequence followed. Trying to escape his commitment to resume his imperial duties, Bao Dai fled to Europe, where he shifted from one city to another, hiding in cinemas by day and cabaret by night as Boliert chased him like a process server.(D)


 d.Prologue Bo Dai regime in 1948


1)-4) 1948

Not yet information

5)May 1948

(1)May.7th 1948

The “Quittance De Loyer” receipt ,recu de M Nguy Thuy, 220$ , with Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal revenue 2 x 30 cents (rate 0$60), sign at Cholon le 7e Moes M.Ty. 1948. the receipt with the hand written recu d’M,Nguy Thuy no.161 38$05 ,another receipt without revenue.

(Best quality revenue history collec-tions for showed in France -auth)


6) June 1948

(1) June,8th 1948

     (a)Bollaert eventually won, and they return to the Bay of Along on June.8,1948.

 There , in Bo Dai’s presence , Bollaert signed an accord with General Nguyen Van Xuan , former head of the “Republic of Cochin-china” and now chief of a new Vietnamese national government.

     France “solemly” recognized Vietnam ‘s Independence but would keep control its army, finaces and foreig affairs .

     Bao Dai was dissatisfied with this small “ step in the negotiations between Vietnam and France” and wentr back to Europe, asserting that he would not wear the crown until “ true unity and real independence” had been attained.

     French-spomsored Vietnam’s independence regime lacked credibility from the start.

     Nguyen Van Xuan , its prime minister, was a ludicrous choice for the job. Educated at the prestigious Ecole Polytecgnique in paris, he was an exaggrerated product of the mission civilisatrice.  A naturalized French citizen who had spent most of his life in France, he barely spoke Vietnamese.

     The French had promoted him to General, the first Vietnamese ever elevated to that grade. And as head of admiral d’Argenlieu’s pet project, the “Republic of Cochinchina” he had been an active foe of Vietnamese unity.

The Communist branded Xuan a “puppet” he was also anathema to the colonial French.


7) July 1948

(1)July.14th 1948

The leaflet of  Chinese memoriable death’s announcement of Mr Lin Pao Lin sent to family or friend in Chinese character language:

“he was passed with peace situa-tion in June.24th 19.40 pm  and all the family and friend have gave the symphatic’s homoured etc,

 The announcement letter were sent to all family and friend abroad.

the rare chinese overseas ‘s tradition with ephemera

(This unique collection  willn’t found anymore in modern times, best historic document for showed in Chinese area  and will discused completely in another book : “Unique Chinese overseas in Asia’s collections “ copyright reserved-auth)

8)August 1948

Not yet information

9) September 1948

 not yet information

10)October 1948


(1)October 18th.1948

The Reciept of buying bycycle with the ephemera ‘s Propaganda pictures of Bycicle from Cycles Miror Paris,from Nhut Tang Hung Cholon Furniture Generales Pour Cycles & Pousses, Cholon 18 October 1948. buyed by Mr Nguyen van Hai , Patent No 8336, price 1189.64 , tax 1 % 1189, and timbre (revenue)  250. total 1204,03 with Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal 2x 1Piastres and 60 cent revenue 

.(Unique Revenue and bicycle’s thematic ephemera history collection-auth)

11) November 1948

(1)The postal used cover from Paris rolling prestamped 10.00 franc with  area code =PARIS 24= without the sender adress, to  Monsieur Nguyen Nang Bu. 32-rue Phan Tanh-Gion Saigon (Indochine).

     The letter inside typewritten in France  from Ecole sentrale de T.S. F section electricite & Applications engineer, the Chief of Services Correspondance send salute  to acept his letter  November 19th 1948.  

Il set heureux de  constater que les cours vous donnent entiere satisfaction et il souhaite qur vous en tiriez un bon resultat.

For  the regular corespondent adress ‘a le Librairie technique et Commerecials -28 , rue d’Assas Paris.

(The earlies postal services between Saigon- Paris after the War and during Vichy-Vietminh war to the Cochinchina- please comment –auth)

12) December 1948


(1) Late 1948

In Paris, successive christian democratic and Radical Socialist coalitions stalled on granting autonomy to Vietnam. General de Gaulle, pontificating on the sidelines, predicted that “the French solution will accepted sooner or later (D)



e.The State of Vietnam(1949-1955)  

Bo Dai Regime in 1949

1)January 1949


The receipt of Xuong –Thang Horlogerie , No ,43,Rue Georges Guynemer ,Saigon ,as Facture non B 26 ,Saigon 7 Janvier 1949, Contant paid  232$90, with Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue 60 cents.

(best Antique watch tematic ‘s collection  for show-auth)


     The State Department Officials felt that while the US sought to favor Bao Dai, it could not “ irretievably” support a local administration that “might become virtually a puppet government separated from the people and existing only by the presence of French Military forces”(D)

     (3) January ,22th 1949

The rare inland Francaise cochin-chine postally used cover from CDS VINHLONG COHINCHINE 22.1.1949 TO Monsieur Tran v. Thanh Inspection du Travail 459 boulevard gallieri Saigon, at the back of cover the distination CDS SAIGO  R.P-COCHINECHINE 23.1.1949  WITH 3X10  Indochine stamp and two other stamps off .

     Inside the cover the green paper ‘s letter  in vietnamese :

                Vlong ngay 22 janvier 1949

                Kinh anh than men

Hai tho dta goi dti ma chua


Vay ham moi dtuoc kinh chue

Anh  Lang nam moi dtuoc van su

Binh an.

                             Eru gai anh

                             Mai njo cen

( If someone will help me to translate the letter please comment, I will put the letter at Undindentified collection, please comment-auth)

2) February 1949

(1)After Bo Dai living in Hongkong and China, in 1949 the French persuaded him to returned home in Vietnam.


3) March 1949


(1)March.8th 1949

     Vietnam’s figurehead Bao Dai and Franch’s figurehead president Vincent Auriol signed the Elysee Agreement , so called for the lavish presidential palace in Paris at which the ceremony took place.

     The Franch reconfirmed Vietnam’s independent (etat du Vietnam ?-auth) and going beyond mere promises, outlined measures to incorporate  Cochinchina in a unified Vietnamese state(Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia?-auth), but France still retained control of Vietnam’s defense, diplomay and fnances.

Helpless and frustrated, Bao dai remarked soon afterward :” What they call a Bao dai solution turns out to be just a French solution”(D)


4) not yet information








5) April 1949


(1) May.16th 1949

Postally used covers inland vietnam from CDS  Saigon R.P-Cochine Chine

19.5.49, the adress was broke off , because someone off the stamps to Monsieur Tran van Thanh Inspection du Travial 459 boulevard gallieru a Saigon.

     Hand written letter inside with vietnamese character, saigon 16.5.49

     Anh rat yen Kinh cua em

     Anh che rang muon naim gui hanh ………………………………………….

                Chua and manh ra via

                     Hoi Anh

( if some one will help me to translate , the whole letters will put in the blog as unidentified collection, please com-ment -auth)




6) June 1949

(1)June 12th.1949

The Land house tax paid without revenue , of Cantho Village de Tan  with Cantho Francaise Indochine symbol stamped.

(The latest Francaise Indochine cantho village stamped-auth)

7) July 1949

(1)July 1st 1949

Another state Department report acknowledge that the Vietnam Communist were making progress mainly because the french had been so” niggardly” in their concession that they “have thus far failed to created an effective puppet regime capable of drawing nationalist element away from vietnam”

     The french military effort had “ dwindled to footling punitive campaign” and not only was this sapping France’s strenght, but US equipment sent to French troops in Europe was ‘ being squandered in Indochina on a mission that can only justified in term of Gallic mystique”(D)

8) August 1949

Not yet information


9) September 1949

(1)  September.13th 1949

The receipt of Maison nBan Thanh&Cie,Ameublement, 13-rue Chansseloup-Laubat saigon for paid 2020$00, added Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue 4 x 1 piastres(rate 4$00). For buoght two kind meubeler 1 tu boc mat boing go gia tien 2000$00 and 1 toon qo 20$00, coniem (revenue) 4$00

 (The very high rate revenue , best collection for show-auth)


     (2) September, 15 th 1959

The Postally used cover of Ecole Centale de TSF Paris send to Monsieu Nguyen Nang Lu Saigon, with rolling prestamped  5.00 franc with propaganda  =PARIS 24= areal code.

The latter inside typewriter , Section electricite & application Modernes Esigment Techinue “Ecole Central De T.S.F” informed about him to be AGENT TECHNIQUE RADIO-ELECTRI-CIENT ( 2 parties), Livres-Quetioners-Divers  ( the second latter from Ecole Central TSF Paris to Saigon and the postal rate down from 10.00 Franc to 5.00 Franc , may be the situation more favourable and the Factory name on the cover-please comment why ? auth)

10) October 1949


(1) October.18th.1949

The Receipt f Maison Dong Nhan,Ameublemet, proprietarare Tran-Duy-Ta, 346 Rue Chasseloup-Laubat Saigon, paid 3050$00, added dtong thi 1 phan tuan 30$5 (?) , but revenue only 2x 50 cent Indochine Francaise timbre tax .

(interesting because  in another receipt five days later the revenue 4$00 for paid 2020$00, but this day 1$00 but with added Dtng Thi 1 phan tuan 30$5, what kind of tax this, please comment-aut)

11) November 1949 no infor

12)December 1949


(1)The original black and white private photo at The Tomb of Emepror Kai Dinh in Hue :


  1. The Native Vietnamese family seated in the front of dragon at stairs of tomb, man and wife, sister in law and three kids. At back “Dec/1949”
  2. The Nativese Vietnamese  seated on the dragon at the stairs, wiar short traosers with French hat , at the back of photo written in vietnamese :

Chup tai So’ Thu

Hoi hoc jau annie

     Lyce’e P.Ky


  1. Two kids , one with hat riding  the Horse statue and his younger brother  stayed in the front of the horase statue pull the Horse’s mouth string. Beside the Horse statue, there was the Vietnamese civilian with native hat statue.

(all the photo I have found at Ho Chi Minh city ‘s antique shop during my visit 2007 (a) and (b), (c) during my last visit 200-auth)


f.Bo Dai Saigon Regime in 1950

1) January 1950

(1)early 1950

(a)United States and Britain recognized Bao dai’s government (D).


(b) The US only recognized by  only several American Official.


(c) Charlton Oghurn,another State Department ‘s Bureau of Far east Eastren Affairs, excoriated the emperor as “ a figure deserving of the redicule and contempr with which he generally regarded by the Vietnamese, and any suppsition that he could succeed or that a french army in Indochina could possibly be an asset to us could be entertained only by one totally ignorant of Asian realities,

Another State Department expert, Raymond B.Fosdick, selivered an even more passionate diatribe in a memorandum that Potrayed the Bao Dai regime as “doomed”  and went on to foretell the future with remarkable prescience :”This shabby business probably represent as improvement over the brutal colonialism of early years, but it is now too late in the history of the world to settle of this cheap substitute” (D)


(d) With the recognition of Bo Dai’s regime, The US establised a full-fledge embassy in Saigon headed by Donald Heath , a veteran diplomat entranced by the French cause. They forbade US military advisers to supervise the use of American equipment, and  they barred them from planning sessins. They either refused them intelligence  or fed them misleading information , and they reacted fiercely to sugges-tions that they accord more latitude to Vietnamese nationalist. Top French official even suspected that American’s real aim was not to help them but to supplant French politically and economically.

Nor did the French , despite their’ solemn pledges’ yield more thatn a thin veneer of Independence to Bo Dai’s government.

Though they trained a few Vietnamese officers, they hept control of the army, breweries, and factories as well as imports and exports. They also devised a financial agreement under which piastres, the Vietnamese currency, could be exchanged for French Francs at a radiculously favorable rate, and those with licenses made fortune.

(e)One well-placed figure implicated in the traffic was the son of Vincent Auriol, the president of France.

Not that granting power t Bao dai at this stage mattered. He spent most his time at his lodge in Dalat, having delegated his nominal power to a new prime minister, Tran Van Huu, a rich landowner and Naturalized French Citizen. But the authority in his entourage belong to Nguyen van Tam, his security director, a gnarled creature known as the Tiger of Cailay, his native village in the Mekong Delta, where he had served the French by crushing Communist-led  peasant uprising. The Vietminh had killed two of his sons in retallion, and his speciality in Saigon was tracking down real and inncuos enemies of the French, whom he liquidated brutally.(D)

2) February 1950

     The stamp, a 3-piater value of dullblue color bore the westren attired Chief of State, ex-emperor Bao-Dai (scott#9) along with the stamp on First Day of Issues are the official govern-ment seal and Bao Dai’signature .

The South Vietnam  stamps collection began with the Ex emperor Bao-Dai ‘s return to his country as Chief of State, ranging in value from several hundred dollars to thousands od dollars each.  (Nguyen Bao Tung’s collection)

( I have the mint stamps of dullblue emperor Bo dai 3 piastres faund in HCM city-auth )

3) March 1950


(1) March,9th .1950

     Acheson advised Truman to allocate $15 million to France for Indochina.(D)

4)-5) Not yet information

6) June 1950

(1)June.28th 1950

     Three days after the Korean war broke out, Achenson persuaded Truman  to order an “ acceleration”  of assistance to the French.(D)


     Eight C-47 cargo aircraft flew across the Pacific to Indochina-  not only time that The US to act illegaly in Vietnam.(D)

     (3)Mid 1950

     Washington’s recognation of Bo dai sparked economic and Military-assistance program (MACP-auth) , began in mid-1950.(IMNAHA report the postal used cover of MACP-auth)

7)-11) not yet info









12) December 1950


(1)December , 4 th 1950

The LAISSEZ-PASSER  ID with native Vietnamese photo,


           Valable Jusqu’a nouvei ordo

(Giay thon-ba’nh tam du’ng de’m khi noi linh moi )

(Circulaire No.28 Cir/Mi/Ag du 24-5-46 du Ministre de L’Inte’riem)



Nome et prenom :  Huynh Ngoc Hoa

________________.  ..ssance: Phu Lun 19 a’Long Chau Vinlong 

.                  . ngay ,than,na’m dao

.        native              .   cua mie : Thai Ti Bich

.    vietnamese        .  Ngieu      : Buon Ban

.         lady’s             .  Village hang : Long cha’u

.  photo      . hai neau : 1” quartier

.                                . Maison  no(na s6) : 46 B Dong Khan.


                           Vinlong,le 4 December 1950

Lang : Lang-Cheung  4.12..50

        Huong Than               Xuong Truong          Huong-hau


          Handsigned            handsigned             handsigned &

  & red squared           round violet stamped

Stamped                DELEGATION DU CHEF -LIEU


                                      PROVINCE DE VINLONG


(RARE  Document,revenue and postal history collections delegation du Chef-Lieu  Of Sud-Vietnam province Vinlong, the only one ID  found from the year 1950, why?,please comment-auth)


g.The last year of Francaise Indochine and the First year Bodai regime in 1951




Not yet info

6) June 1951

(1) June,6th 1951

The first Vietnamese postage stamp issued in this day, less than two year after the country recovered nominal independence. That date marked the anniversary of the national reuni-fication (Hung-Quoc Khanh-niem) decree by Emperor Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty .

     (The design two types, the low nominal value the emperor building and the high nominal the picture of emperor Bo Dai, this stamps rare mint without hing very find condition , 15 pi red brown and 30  pi blue green, -auth)

7) -12) not yet information.















1) January 1952


(1)The federation of Indochine consist Republic Vietnam (Annam ,Tonkin ,Cochin China), the Kingdom of Cambodge and Laos.

 The Independence country under the Union of France since 1950.

(2) In 1952 ,

Some of the people want the full free country and they fight against French and their area called “Viet Minh” or Indochine Ho Chi Minh.



(3) South Vietnam Flag (OP)

(4) National anthem of Viet Nam (Quoc Ca Vietnam (OP)

(5) Vintage Saigon Map & District(Do-Thanh Saigon & Bang Chi Cac Congso) (OP)

(5)In 1952, when Nguyen Van Tam took over as  Bao Dai’s prime minister, he formed a cabinet described by the US consul in Hanoi as composed of “opportunist, nonentities, extreme reactionaries, assassins, hirelings and , finally , men of faded mental powers,”


(6)The minister of youth and sports, Vo Hong Khanh, had been responsible for the murder by garrting of no fewer than ten frenchmen some year earlier. Not only would the cabinet serve the vietminh as anindirect “propaganda tool”, the consul concluded , but it was :

“ a poor return for French blood and American money (ibis stenly Karnow ,p-195) 

2)February 1952


(1) February,11th 1952


(a)The latest used of  Indochine Francaise Timbre Taxes revenue.

Indochine farncaise timbre fiscal revenue, 5 piastres + 4 Piastres used one Hand written “Zuoc gia Vietnam Cho Chia Dat land transaction , the handdrawed map roeu Hin Tri road , R.100.00 Mai v nhan, R 130.00 Phan Mai ran  Louis, R 180.00 Phan Mai lung Chau, 226.00 Phan thai nan Nham, 180.00 Phan Hai thi Kiet.

 Signed  Thai van Nham, Thai San Kie, Mai thi Kiet , Ruong quae Phu, Phan v.Kiem and Chau v,Ruo’ng, fingerprint signed by Dau lang Say ngoui dung Chia dat vu nau ho cac cu con nho moi and Tran thi khuyen Kiu Gu La’ng Nay.

This certificate on double folio writting paper, in the last page

,”Thi Chung”

     Chung toi La Ban quan tri Lang Than Choi Chung

Mai oan Nhan, Mai thi Kiet. Quang quoc Phu Mai ton Luc va Tran thi Khuyuh Ken la Tu dten co Ky te’n va Lang tay truoc

Mat chung toi May nguoi nay dtung lap giao Keo co Khai

Voi chung toi rang hien ro to tren dtay  va ung nhan Y theo

Loi giao Ket trong to Va chung them co 2 nguoi toc nhon la

Phan van Kiem, Chau van Ruong co Ky ten truoc mat chung

Toi va Khai rang su chia dtat dtay vo va con cua Mai

Van Thoi ung thuan nhan.

                                      Thanh  thoi ngay 11.2.1952

          Thuong than                    Xa truong               Thuong hao

Hand signed                 Handsigned             Handsigned

                                      Violet squered stamped


                    :    NAM-VIET              :


:       TINH BENTRE            :

                                :    TONG-MINH HUE       :

                                :   LANG THANH-THOI     :


Hand written          0,6 %  = 162 ‘

Pho beud Naud              11%     = 495   >     837 $

Thue de chung ui dau   4%  = 180  ‘

Red squaered stamped.

            Dong Bang Phan Tai Myto

            Ngay  Thoi ba Shanghai 1952

             Quyen :———–

             Thue : Thau tran ba moi bay dtong bac ,180$

Signed &Red circle stamped :Binh Nam Tha Xuong Mytho. …….not clear…..      


(Four same document with same revenue , interseting collection-auth)


(b)The earliest Etat du Vietnam Timbre Fiscal revenue

The same document with (a) but  red-green 2×3 Piastres, Etat du Vietnam Timbrefiscal revenue, but signed only by three Dau Ky len cua Ky Lao , Lam thai Lang Banh Thoi ngay 8.2.1952. and the authetication :

               Thi Chung

Chung toi Ban quan tri lang thanh thoi chung

Ong Phan van Kiem-Chau van ruong ho dau

Sach dteu co thy ten truoc mat chung toi ba

Ong Ky Lao Nay la ban than cua gia toc cua

Ngai van Thoi dtung lap to tong chi tren dtay

                            Hanh thoi ngay 11.2.1952

            Houng than     Xa truong   Huong hao

             Signed            Signed        Signen


                        Squered black stamped


                             TINH BENTRE

                        TONG MINH-HUE

                        LANG THAN-HOI


( This collections very rare and  best to showed, because four same document with Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue  5 + 4 piastres and one Document with  Etat du vietnam  Timbre fiscal 2 x 3 piastres. The latest and the earliest revenue at the same date february,11th 1952 and with same authentication, will be the historic fact abbout the transition between Indochine Francaises and the unoin France state Vietnam(etat du vietnam), please comment – auth)

3)-7) not yet information

8)August 1952

(1)August,15th 1952

     The common Empress Nam Phuong multicolour stamps were issued in this day.(I found this stamps in Indonesia-auth)

(2)August.19th 1952

The Receipt of Police D’Abonne-ment A L’eau Portable, Service technique at Saigon, with Indochine Franchaise Timbre Fiscal revenue 5 Piastres. Stamped Prefecture De Saigon Cholon ,Etat Du Vietnam –Suid Vietnam ,signe 19 Aout 1952.


 not yet info

10) October 1952


Indochine 40 cent revenue sheet used added Indochine Francaise 10 cent timbre fiscal and Saigon Cholon taxes  Regionales 10$00 –brown –old chinese style building(the cholon market?) , the revenue sheet used as“To ban nha”  (contract?) between Nguyen van Thoai ,carte de service (Car services) n so 4121 ngay 1-8-1950 with Pham Thi Dieuw “Laisser-passer” so 2108 ngay 8.3.1949 tai  ho 4 Saigon. (The very rare revenue history collection  because in one sheet were found three types revenue, Indochina lettter sheet revenue, & revunue timbrefiscal and Taxes Regional Saigon Cholon revenue. Auth)



11) November 1952


(1) November ,9th 1952

   Original vintage private photo, three native vietnamese lady at the bulding near the beach, back  handwritten  Nha’ Beach , 9-11-52.

     (maybe Nha Thrang ?-auth)


12) December 1952


(1) December.12th 1952

Vintage Photo” A man rode a Mobilete“ in the Saigon road, always seen an antique  car. Behind the photo “ Sur Mobylete de Luxe te sou du 5/12/52 a’la rue Cabina

( Unique vintage picture of vintage mobylete with written motorbike type information ,date and location, biside that The same antique car now put in the left front near entrace of the Ho Chi Min city Museum, during my last visit in July, 2009 I made my own photo in the front of that antique card help the museum guard, look at that photo -auth   )

(2) By 1952,

 according to a secret US report, Bao Dai was recieving an official stipend of more that $4 million a year.

He was not a big spender- his four private airplanes were his majr expense, and his wife and children lived in relative modesty on the Cote d’Azur,

while his own residence in Dalat was no more Lavish than a house in an affluent New York suburb

( I had seen in internet auction the photo of Bao Dai House when he get out of the car and went in the house-auth).

But he was transferring enormous sums to French and Swiss banks and investing extravagantly in real estate in French and Marocco ( I have a letter send from Marocco to Saigon, may be many Rich Vietna-mese stayed at Marocco-auth)

   The annual payment consumed 5 % of the Regime’s total revenue- four times more than the appropriation  for land reform program.

Even so, Bao dai was chronically strapped for funds, and he relied heavily on Bay Vien, the boss of the Binh Xuyen gang, to supplement his finaces handsomely.

He put Bay Vien in charge of Saigon’s casino, bordellos, opium dens, gold  smuggling  and other rackets, and even promoted him to rank of General.

Soon the French sanctioned Bay Vien’s respectability by emplying him hoodlums against the Vietminh and other  nationalist.

The corruption became institutionalizes , making a farce of earnest American hopes for a credible Vietnamese administration that would check the Communist, indeed , the French and Bao dai seemed at that stage to have His reached a tacit understanding : he played the puppet and they indulged his pleasures.

 His inner circle at one point included a spectacular blond French courtesan billed as a : member of the Imperial film unit” Once hearing her disparaged, he remarked “ She is only plying her trade. I’m the real whore”(D)


i. Bo Dai regime in 1953


1)-3) no info


5) April 1953

(1) 1st  April 1953

Binh Chung Phao Cao Xa, don vi anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng, Vu Trang Nhan Dan

(please tranlate the document-auth)(D)

6) May 1953

(2) May.2nd 1953

The Receipt of electricity “Campagne des Eaux et D’electricite de L’Indochine  52$00, revenue Etat du Viet-nam 30 cent.

(The French electricity compagny still have powered-auth)

5) April  no info

6) May 1953

(1)May 12th 1953

     The latest used Etat du Vietnam  30 cent revenue on The Franch “Compagne des Eaux et D’ellectricity De L’Indochine “ electric recieved  600 $ for instalation (puissance du compteur a instalaller)

Because the same electric recieve in November 1953 the revenue change with Etat du Vietnam Quoc gia –auth)

(2) May.22.1953

The Receipt of Maison WINH-LOI  No 6 rue Minh Mang Dalat, frm Tran Thi Dao for paid 570&00 , used 2 x 20 cent Etat du Vietnam quoc-Gia revenue . (Rare earliest used new second type revenue at Dalat-auth)


   (2)May 1953

   The Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina had prepared  the map, described graphically the actualposition of the French in this month, a position that was to worsen rapidly during the course of the next twelve monts (look at the map , ibid Kahin)


7)June 1953


(1) Mid 1953

   By mid 1953, Most of Annam was solidly under Vietminh, as were the nothern district of Cochin China almost as far as South as Saigon Itself, with the Camau pennisula as well as much of the Mekong delta administered by the Vietminh.

   The map prepared by teh Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina, General Henri Navarre, described graphically the actual position of the French in May of 1953


7) -8) no info


9) September 1953


   (1) Navarre Plan

France,with strong American encouragement , essayed one final and disastrous effort to recoup her military defeats and achieve a position of strength from which to negotiate with the Vietminh.

   This  Last major military bid, termed the “Navarre Plan”was undertaken at atime when Franch were able to draw on a total of 517.000 men of these ,369.000 were Indochinese , for the most part Vietnamese ; 48.000 were soldiers from  the French’s North African colonies; 20.000 were members of French Foreign Legion ,  and Total of 80,000 were French.

(from the Kahin’s information, we could found the postal history from every kind of Soldiers who send the letters to their family , Vietnamese in saigon, French North Colonies, and to French at this time, I hope someone comment and report that Postal history that I have never found until this day, only one from Marocco but at the Vietnam Liberation war-auth)

10) no info


11) November 1953


(1) November 6th 1953

The Indochine electricity receipt form still , but in Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia 20 cent revenue.(RH)

( the French electricity compagny changed to Vietnam electricity compagny – the French stated to loss the power, two revenue collection of the reciept of elevtricity paid fro Mai and November will be best for showed because this transition period from Etat du vietnam france Union , to Etat du Vietanm quoc gia, please comment the exact date the transition between the two date – auth)





1) January 1954

No info.


2)-3) no info

4) April 1950


(1) April,6th 1954

     The U.S. announced that its aids to Indochina for  the subsequent fiscal year would run to $ 1.33 billion .This equalled one-third of the entire American foreignaid program and was far its largeres single component.

      Of this amount $800 million was “ allocated through France” for “ direct support” of French Union forces fighting in the Indochina theater, $ 300 million was for economic and tech-nical assistance” (IMNAHA report postal history postal cover from the Technical assistance-auth)

In comparison , this totaled more than eleven time the entire United States economic –aid program   budgeted that year for India (ibid Kahin)

(1)Bao Dai select Ngo Dinh Diem as prime minister

5) May 1954


(1) May, 10.1954.

The rare postally cover from V0.v.Luat Elive TC BE 724 Fao (M) , with Marocco stamps 15 F “ Barrage de Bine of OUDANE  CDS Le Noi ELLE Du 8 FES, 10Mai 1954. to  Nguyen Thi Ham Ecole Vo Thanh Phu Nhuon, Sud Vietnam, int the bach destination  postal stamped SAIGON R.P.-VIETNAM 13-5-1954  . Handwritten “Geleco communication”

(many vietnamese have the villa in the French colony like algeria , and also near that country Marocco-auth)


6) June 1954

(1)June 1954

     Diem returned to Vietnam as prime minister, he was met at Saigon airport by only a handful of enthusiasts, mosy of them Catholics like himself. Though a veteran nationalist, he was a virtually unknown figure (P)

(2)     June,15th 1954

The crown prince Bao Long with native vietnamese ware’s stamps were issued, the rare stamps  the high nominal value 50 &100 piastres in mint condition or used condition.

(I have found the mint without hings at Hoat Kiem Hanoi during visit 2007, and the used low nominal value found in used condition in Indonesia.-auth)

     (3) June,30th 1954

     The Etat Du Vietnam “Sursis Exeptionnel” card of Air-Vietnam  used during Vietnam Cong Hoa this day with  the change of Exceptionel to Professionel


        __________                         SURSIS PROFESSIONNEL

                     Valable du 1er/7/1954 au 1er/Ier/1955                                              ______________

REFERENCE : Arrete No.600-VP/QP du 15 Mai 1954 et Decision

                     de la Commission Centrale des Sursis du 19 juin 1954


Nom et Prenoms du beneficiance : NGUYEN HUU TAM

Date et lieu de naissance : 21-2-1925 a’Cantho

Emploi occupe :  Comptable

Designation du service employeur : AIR_VIETNAM

                     Saigon, le  30  Juin   1954

                           Le Directeur general des servive de Police

                                             .et de Surete National du Vietnam

Le Chef  du Tu Hoan

Red double circle Stamped                        Violet circle stamped


                   HAM BAC                            VIETNAM HANG-KHONG

                                                                             AIR VIETNAM”

( The rare “Air Vietnam “ cursus/training ID card , best for thematic of air-pilot-auth)

7)July 1954

(1) Diem returns to Saigon

(2)General J.Lawton Collins, Eisen-hower’s special envoy . arrives in Saigon to affirm American Support for Diem, including USD 100 millions in aid. Hundred of thousand Refugees flee from the North to the South with help of US Navy.(Some collections from the refugees have found in South Vietnam like pasport,ID Card , Diploma etc-auth)(D)

(3) In a house in Indochine where the enemies skull were collected for up the famnily power (P)

(4) The Indochine’s student study in Al Azhar University with the albain and Syrian ‘s student(P)

8)-9) no info

10) October 1954


(1)October,11th 1954

THE “QUITANCE DE LOYER” paying ’s Receipt 12834$ for August 1954,with 1 piastre and 40 cents revenue Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia

(the rare 1 piastres Quoc-Gia of Etat du Vietnam revenue on Medicine transaction’s receipt ?-auth)

(2)  Nearly a million a large preportion of them Catholic, fleeing from Nothern Vietnam in late 1954 as the Vietminh prepared their take over. In many instances,as here, the evacuation was handled by the US Navy

(I have found Chinese consulat’s Haiphong north Vietnam  passport in HCM city, belong to the Chinese ‘s North Vietnam refugee to Cholon-Saigon, from Chinese overseas(Hoa Kiao) harbor Haiphong in the north flea to Hoa Kiao harbor Cholon Saigon in the South, I will write special book about them in the next times-auth (P)

(3) Not long after his return to Vietnam as prime minister, Ngo Dinh Diem organized a referendum to oust Bao Dai. Diem recieved almost all the votes, and the Bo Dai picture put down in  court’s meeting room (P)

(4) Diem consolidated his power by  defeating the Binh Xuyen, a private gang supporeted by the French’s forces clashed with the Binh Xuyen in the street of Saigon, devasting the city(P)

(5) October ,19th 1954

Original vintage photo, chinese women  with vietnamese gown , seated at the rock near beach, in the back handwritten

nKy ara’n o’ ca’p gnya 19-10-54

(Li van vi).


11) November 1954


(1)     November,11th 1954

Original small clear Vintage photo of two vietnamese soldier in the ront of statue, in the back handwritten :

“Than Tang Chi em anh, nay dte ky niem dtoi song cui bap cua em, Thang ben.Kia La Nec Toi. Nimy Le 20/11/54.


12) December 1954

No info




4.2.3.Republic Of Vietnam(Vietnam Cong Hoa )1955-1975



a. the transition Bo Dai-Diem regime in 1955


1)Jan 1955


(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army

(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were  send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang  (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan,  in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)

  (2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945,  were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.

2)February 1955

Not yet info


3) March  1955

(1)March.4th 1955

     After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.

     (2) Ngo Dinh diem stamps were issue in this year but the date not known, the rare stamps were the hign nominal in mint condition 35 pi and 100 pi ( I have found the common used stamps in Indonesia-auth)

(4) April 1955


(a) April 1955

Diem crush Binh Xuan sect. The period  end of French forces and their auxillaries to deployed South and for Vietminh  troops to regroup the north,

(5) May & (6) June 1955

No info

(7) July 1955

(a)July.11th 1955

The man of action formally extend-ed Phillipine recognation in a diplo-matic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col .Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969)



The late used Etat du Vietnam  thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60.


(c)July.16th 1955

Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States

(d) July,20th 1955

The mythology turtle (read at the Ancient Vietnam war-auth) stamped issued ( uncommen  in mint condition., I have only the used one found in Indonesia-auth)

(e) July 22th 1955

Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem

He proceeded to prove the following contentions :

(*)”That  South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”

(**) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese nto support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriedly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”

(***)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and com-munism is to indulge in fiction.

True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more profitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dan-gerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnam-ese people.

In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.

Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnamese people”

Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’

(ibid ,constantino,1969)

(8)August & (9) September 1955

No info.

(10) October 1955,


(a) October 11th 1955

The refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day, the rare mint high nominal value stamps 55 pi and 100 pi.

(b)October 22th,1955

The last day of Bo Dai regime


7) Republic Vietnam Cong Hoa (South Vietnam) 1955-1975.


b.The first year Diem Regime-1955



(A) Ngo Dinh Regime (1955-1963)

( October 23th 1955-  1963)

(1) October 1955

(a)23th October 1955

Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum  and Bo dai official was through down to the floor. (P)

(b) October,26th  1955

(1.1)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.

(1.2) Magsasay (Phillipine president ‘s recognation of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime the opposition Recto attack  on his recognations which according to him had been done in obedience to American dictates.


(c) October,29th 1955

           Three days after his attack on Magsaysay for the recognition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime,  

Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.

(2) November 1955

(a) Novermber,23th 1955

The information  about Magsasay recieved Campaind fund from America had appeared in the today issue of Time Magazine.

Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.

     (The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information

 The  Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang  with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam  ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also  another type ship like  High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST  at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505. auth)

(b)Ca Ve Cu Booklet

 The small Booklet ’s Covers with red Photo illustration

Ca Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955” and in the back propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)

In This cover, handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac”

Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.

Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.

La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.

Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.

Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.

Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.

Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.

Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu  chung toi cho khoi chet chim,  thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.

Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.

Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD)


 Diem’s South Vietnam in1956


1) January 1956

(1)in 1955 and 1956, thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North. The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether  nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.

(2)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)  

2)-4) no info

5) May 1956


(1)May.10th 1956

The very rare  Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956. (the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where location ? please comment-auth)

(2)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections  scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.

6) -7) no info

8)August 1956

     (1) August 6th 1956

     The common overprint “Chaou Tu Bu Dien” or Gouverment Post Office building” stamps were issued ( I found this stamps in Indonesia).

9) September no info

10) October 1956


(1)  Children stamps were issued , the rare was the violet  35 pi in mint condition ( I found the used one in Indonesia , and the mint 75 cent in Ho Chi Minh city-auth)

(5) 5th October 1956

     Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN (OD)

(6) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and  their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.


























4.1.1 Historical Background


a.Above and Beyond.vol.4,New Horizon Publisher.Inc.Chicago,1968.



(1) The vital role of air power in Vietnam during French vietminh war in the early 1950 were not exist.

(2)The French Army had the same mobility and firepower as the guerilla.

It was tied to the road for rapid movement of large units and its heavy fire-power was provided by attellery which could not be moved anymore quickly than its infantry.

(3)Under these circumstances the initiative was firmly in the hand of the Viet Minh who did not attack until the situation was strongly in their favor, and they could keep their forces secure indefinetely in jungle strong-hold.

(4)The most common Vietminh tactic was to attack one of the scattered French garrison with strong forces, and then to ambush relief columns sent to its aid by road.

(5)Many large French units were wiped out and it was impossible to force the Viet Minh to fight a conventional battle of importance.

(6)Finally, the Viet Minh did accept the challange of a conventional battle, but it was near the town of Dien Bien Phu in a rimote district of nortwestern Vietnam.

French commanders believed they could win even  though they had been forced into defensive positions and were cut off from inforcement and resupply by road.

Their estimate proved incorrect and before  their final defeat , the government in Paris sought US aid in the form of airpower to bombard the Viet Minh assembeld around Dien Bien Phu  , to resupply the French troops and if necessary to evacuate them.

It wasnot possible to arrange this aid and the ill-equipped French air  unit were  not able to stop the Viet Minh victory which lead to a complete French withdrawal from South East Asia.


b.Montgomery. A History of Warfare, Collins,St James’s Place London, 1968


(1)In Vietnam , vietminh guerrilas took to jungle to fight against reesta-blishment of Franch control.

 (2)The war began in 1946 with the French attempt to reconquer Indo-China, which had been part of their empire since the early 1880’s.

(3)It ended with the armistice Agree-ment signed in Geneva in 1954, which left Vietnam divided between North and South along the 17th parallel  (line-auth).

(4)In this war the French losses were 35.000 killed and 48.000 wounded. The campaign repays study.

(5)What stand out are the hesitation, vacillation , lack of clear political purpose, and the constant political and military interference on the part of the home government in Paris.

(6)It also highlights the utter incompetence and arrogant blidness of the French military command set-up in IndoChina, which conducted the war with a complete disregard for local condition.

(7)The final disaster was the surrender of the French garrison of Dien Bien Phu on fifth May 1954,which was the death blow to the French empire, and threw that area open to the cold war.

(8)The lesson for the present is do not hold an Asian enemy in contempt.

This is an interesting book on the subject by a French author,Jules Roy, The Battle of Dien Bien Phu(I have the PHOTO OF THIS BOOK-AUTH). When Roy returned to Hanoi in 1963, the Vietminh commander General Giap

, said to him :” You were defeated by yourself” that is very true.The French realized in 1954 that they had lost their Indo-China war”

(I have the original photo of Giap,Ho , Pham van Dong and other Vietminh war hero , found in Indonesia during Afro-Asia conference 1955 at bandung-Indonesia-auth)








c.French and the Vietminh (Kahin,America in Vietnam War,1976)



1)On the eve of Japan’s defeated in World war II.


(a)The Vietminh confidently looked foward to Allied support in any future struggle against colonialism, because of the assistance they had given to his resistance movement against the Japanenese.

     Ho Chi Minh apparently anti-cipated ultimate Allied recog-nation to his newly-established goverment, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

     This expectation was clearly reflected in his government’s declaration of Independence of September 2,1945 which stated :

“We are convinced that the allied nations….will not refuse to acknow-ledge the independence of Viet Nam”

     (b) But France’s postpower government was determined to reassert French control in Indochina; and Russia included-mwere more concerned with maintaining good relation with France than with any effective support of the priciple of Self-determination in Vietnam.

(c)The first hind of Allied plans for postwar Vietnam came at Posdam. The Agreement reached there in July 1945 stipulated that, following the defeat of Japan.

     British forces were to occupy the southern half of Vietnam up to the 16th paralel, and China nationalist (Kuomintang) Chiang Kai-shek forces were take over the country North of the parallel.

     Under this agreement the mandate of both the British and Chinese Nationalist forces was restricted to “the round-up and disarming of the Japanese and the Recovery of Allied Prisoners of War and Internees”( In Indonesia the same, called RAPWI-auth)

     The conduct of the Allied occu-pation in fact went far beyond this limited assigment.

 The Commander of The British occupations forces, Major-General Douglas Gracey, exceeded both the Postdam Mandate and the orders of his superior Admiral Louis Mountbatten , who had admonished him to “confine operations of British/Indian troops to this limited tasks which he had been set.”

(d)Short of troops of his own, Gracey relied heavily upon japanese forces to keep Saigon and the surrounding areas under his control and out of the hands of the Vietminh.

He rearmed the bulk of the 5000 French troops interned in the Saigon area . ( the complete information read chronologist, “Bodai regime”-auth)


(e)The Kuomintang Chinese army, in the northen half of Vietnam , devi-ated from the Postdam mandate in an other different way. Their force of 180.000 men, which was far larger than required, displayed more interest in systematically looting the country than in repartriating of The Japanese.

     In parts of Northen Tonkin , the Chinese replaced the Vietminh with their own proteges. However, despite attempts to influence the Vietminh’s activities, the Chinese commanders recognized Ho Chi Minh’s regime in Hanoi as the de facto government and allowed it to function with con-siderable freedom ( the complete informations read the nex subcapterd below-chronology-auth)


d.Vietnam (Constantino,Renato “The Making of Filipino” A Story of Phillipine Colonial politics” page 205& 231, first printing 1969,… panay avenue,Quezon City,Phillipine)


(a) The United States has asked her Allies to join her in warning communists “Against further aggresion in ear-torn Indochina”

(b) The next subject on which Senator Recto opposed the US position,and President Magsasay’s as well, was vietnam.

(c)Describing Vice-prosident Carcia’s prompt expression of support for United States intervention as ill-advised, he cautioned the Foreign Affairs Department against making ,without prior consultation with Congress, statements which might involve the country in war.

He pinted out that the Phillipines is in No Position to issued such “threats” because it is just a “small power” He expressed the fera that “ we may just be like hunring dogs sent out to bark at wild boars. Not physically able to fight the boar, we back out at first sign of conflict”

     Besides, he reminded the govern-ment that sould ourt threatening words involved us in war , our mu-tual defense agreement did not con-tain the categorial assurance that united States would come to our defense.

(d)President Magsasay said “ the last vestiges ( of the old-style colonialism) are now disappearing from Asia”, but the oppositioned Senator Recto said : (1)“ Westren colonialism is far from dead, and it is not correct to say that it has reached the last vestigial stage.Of course  it is doubtful if it can conquer again or re-establish itself upon the vast areas of the globe that it controlled in the 18th and 19th centuries, but this certainly is not due to lack of willingness or ebthuasiasm to do so, but rather to impressive evolution of the nationalism of many subject peoples since the closing years of the last century, starting in Asia with our own successful revolution against the Spanish colonial government.”   



(2)“ Freedom-loving Asians correctly believe that it is not for any Westren people now to decide for any Asian nation what principles of foreign policy it may adopt or  repudiate”

(3)I am definitely against the commitment of Filipino troops in the war in Indochina. There is no cause, no reason for sending our fighting men to assist a colonial power to  perpetuate itsef against the Liberation ambition of the native population”

(4)Recto advised the United states to drop her”supercillious and patronizing attitude toward “Asia for the Asians”if she wants Asian cooperation”

(e) Magsaysay Reacts.

This veiled criticism of magsaysay and the more open attack  on Americans and pro-Americans like Romulo had an immediate repcussion.

(f) The Brownell doctrine, foreign policy, Indochina, and Japanese reparations each provided a new battle ground in the worsening relation between Recto and Magsaysay.

     The United states through her defense secretary that Filipino soldiers would not be sent to fight abroad, Recto felt that the Filipino people should be made to understand that “unless full gaurantees are secured from America” .

(g) The clash between Recto and the President Magsaysay was the paramount feature of party politics at that time. Everyone’s attention was focused on this duel between formidalbe adversaries.




(h)Liberal Representative Diosdado Macapagal, implementing his party’s pledge of support to Magsaysay and perhaps trying to drive a deeper wedge between Magsaysay and Nacionalista Party leaders, enumerated in radio address the following ten “fundamental” conflicts between Magsaysay and Recto ( the complete history will list in UC’s nex book “Phillipnes Unique collections” –auth)


(i)The fundamental’s conflict about Indochina-war :

(1) While the president Magsaysay is for joining the U.S. in warning Red China from intervening in Indochina, Senator Recto has opposed such step as like a dog rousing the wild boars from its lair only to run away.

(2) While the  president Magsaysay has dropped Asia for the Asians as a policy, Senator Recto has vowed  to make it a basis of our foreign palicy.

 (the historic informations  about the Phillipines and Vietnam Independen-ce war will put at the chronologic collections information. I hope after read the historicbacground we know that in phillipine, were senator recto opposides the President Magsaysay policy about Filipinos joined the Indochina war, detailed read the Renato Constantino books-auth)


d.ibid Stanley Karnow,1994



(1)After the defeat of the French by Ho Chi Minh and General Giap in summer of 1954 , there appeared the chance of negotiated solution .

(2)The Geneva conference of that year had resulted is a number of agree-ments and compromise.

 (3)The lighting was ended, and Vietnam was divided slose in the 17th paralel, with the North Vietnamese controlling what became the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, recognised by the communist state; in the South arose the anti communist Republic of Vietnam.

(4)Vietnam , it was proposed, would be unified again following elections in July 1956.


(5)Two crusial features of the Geneva Accords were thus Vietnam were remain unitary states whose future would decided by elections, and that no foreign troops were permitted to assist North or South Vietnam. But from the start prohibition against the inroduction of foreign’s arm and amunition’s was a dead letter.


(6)Eisenhower and Dulles  regarded the Geneva Accords as appesement of communism and a defeat for the free world.

They dissociated themselves from the agreements but promised not to overturn them by force provided there was no aggreasion from the North. They also expressed doubts about the all-Vietnamese elections and inssted that they be held under the auspices of the United Nation.









4.1.2 The Chronology of VICHY-VIETMINH WAR COLLECTIONS  ( COMPILE FROM Dr IWAN s. And other private’s COLLEC-TIONS)



a) 1945

1) August 1945


(1) August.19th.1945

(a)Vietminh August revolution begun. (Where their headquaters,Hanoi? Or in the jungle? Please comment, because very important to know their areal authority connected with their postal area and will used to know the pstal history collection orisinil or fake -auth) (D)

(b) During this period , the banknotes issued by the French have been circulating all over the three parts og Vietnam, cambodia and Laos. For some time when petty notes became rare, the people had even to tear the notes into halves to be used as change among them.

2) September 1945


(1) September.2nd. 1945


(a)The Democratic Republic of Vietnam proclaimed the Indepen-dence. (Where ? in Hanoi?-please comment-auth)

(b) The dubious Imnaha postal history’s report, Special cacheted cover address to Nam Dinh province from Hanoi CDS Hanoi-Tonkin 2.9.45 the Vietnam Independence day, with 6 Indochina stamps overprint “Chi Dung Trung Ngay La’  and also shoetype cancel Nam-dinh Tonkin 6-9-45 cancel.( I think thi spostal history fake, because in liberation war independent in Vientnam like Indonesia the Indepence proclaimed without the permission of the Japanese soldiers because the allied armed forces asked them to status Quo , that is why no special Indepence postmark , in that day still used the Japanese occupation stamped or Indochina stamped in vietnam without overprint because Japnese occupations stamped never issued in Vietnam because too short time occupied, please comment –auth)

(3)In parts of Nothern Tonkin , the Kuomintang Chinese Army , depen-ded on Postdam agreement’s man-date replaced the Vietminh with their own pote’ge’s.

However, despite attempts to influ-ence the Vietminh’s activities, the Chinese commanders recognized Ho Chi Minh’s regime as de Facto goverment and allowed it to function with considerable freedom

(the situation near same with Indonesia Indpendent war at the same time but more late in Sepetember 1945 by the British allied forces, read “Indonesian Independent war-auth)

Neverless, the weight of the Chinese occupation, politically as well as economically, was sufficiently onerous to dispose the Vietminh to meet some of France’s demands in order to secure the evacuation of Chiang’s troops from the area.(ibid Kahin)

(4)The young Republic could not immedietly issued its own stamps,  some of the Indochinese stamps were temporaly used with new incriptions “DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM”,”INDEPENDENCE  ,FREEDOM ,HAPPINESS”,”POSTS”.\,”FAMINE RELIEF ” AND “PEOPLE’S LIVEHOOD” over-printed.

Alltogether 13 different inscription were over-printed on 53 different Indochinese stamps converting into 57 Vietnamese stamps.(D)

(be careful many bogus fake overprint were issued,IMNAHA postal history just put in his blog, the Democratic republic of Vietnam overprint stamps postally used on cover and off piece revenue overprint Vietnam Dan Cu Cong Hoa,  North Vienam area.

The Saigon & southern area(ex Cochin-China) Never found  stamps and revenue from the nothern area until the fall of Saigon in 1975 , but some document were found belong to the chinese overseas who refugee from Haiphong to Cholon-Saigon, the discussion will at the collections,

Please all the Indochina revenue and postal history expert all over the world to give their comment-auth )


(4) A vietminh committee set up to govern was wrangling with Jean Cedile, whom de Gaulle had sent to Indochina as France’s representative. French residents, afraid to lose their colonial privileges, were barcing for a fight.(D)



3) October 1945

     When the French colonialist returned, French currency continued to be spent again in the French-occupied regions. Together with their own conspiracy to re-occupy Indochina.

4)November 1945

Not yet info

5) December 1945


(1)December.14th 1945

Two postally covers with Rhodes block 4 , 1st 4x 5 $ and 2nd 4 x 3 $, with same cds 14.12-45 to the same monseue guyermeir hanoi

(This is phillatelic cover or CTO because the rate too high and send to the same persons –auth)



(2) December.17 th 1945

The IMNAHA report of Yersin pair overprint stamps on postally used cover, cancelled Hanoi Chanh Than Cuo 17.12-45 Ngan Phep, back stamped” Hanoi Chanh Than Cuo 18.12.45 Buu Tin” sent to Monseur Guyenare. 11 pho juu dng das Hanoi without tonkin,rate 2 Dong.

(The  rate and postal cancel fine postal history, and this time vietminh in Hanoi, but why didn’t sencored? And to the same person monseur Guyenare—this was phillatelic creations, the hand written style near same with another postal history-Auth)









b) French-Vietminh conflict in 1946


1)January 1946


(1)January.31th. 1946

The President Ho Chi Minh on this day has issued a decree regarding the issue of Vietnamese currency.(D)

2)February 1946


(1)February,26th 1946

Very rare and dubious Imnaha’s  postal History report, Locally used comercial cover send in the Hanoi city , stamps scott 47-48 with soecial Vietnamese Postmarked  “Hanoi Chanh-Thau Cuc Buu Tin 26.2.46”  and in the back of cover, destination CDS Hanoi 27.2.46.

(I thing this postal history fake, because in this time Hanoi under Chinese Nationalis Allied Forces authority and no Vietnamese Postal office this day, please comment this Imnaha report postal history-auth)

(2)February.28th 1946

     In the return for substantial French concession, Chiang Kai-shek agreed to withdraw his forces within three months from the nothern half of the country. (ibid Kahin)

3)March 1946

(1)March,3rd 1946

     In this day, Imnaha report two different dubious  postally used cover:

(a) Asia Life Insurance postally used cover, cancel Hanoi RP/11-3-46/Tonkin, sent to Eng Nguyen duong Hop 15 pho Domine ,  double pen line strip on the addres and stamped “gia lai nguan guil anf khong den tiah and hand written khong dten tanh tra par ng gia(Perfect post mark but the written style not like the vietnamese style and post cancel indochina type , why vietminh stamps cancelled by french Indochina hanoi postal cancel ? , may be this cover made by the franchman ? phillatelic creations,-auth)

     (b) Postally used cover used pair stamps scott no 3, with special date postmaked  “Que Hoi Dinh Bang 1945 VNDCCH Buu Dien 3.3.” , also had rectangular handstamped “ Ding Bang Toan Quoc Dai Bieu Ai Hoi Lan Thu Nhab Cua Nuoc Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hua”, label affixed “Envelope Commemorative Du 1er Assemblenation Du Viet Nam le 3 Mars 1946” ( To much vietnamese stamped during the worst situation, please comment original or not –auth)

(2)March,6th 1946

(a)The French accepted the Inde-pendence of Republic Democratic Vietnam under President Ho Chi Minh who fight almost more that eleventh years, now he was 35 years old.

(b)Ho Chi Minh felt compelled to reach a compromise settlement. Under this agreement he made the maximum concession possible without risking forfeiture of his dominat position in the nationalist movement. Even so, strong dissatisfaction with the settle-ment was express by various political group, and Ho had to exert all his in-fluence to secure their final acqueis-cense .

(c)Within the country the depre-dations of the Chinese occupation forces had further weakened an al-ready war-ravaged economy.

In addition, wartime neglect and Allied air bombardment of the North’s river-control systems had led the flooding of some eight provincee, causing many deaths and widespread starvation . These near catastrophic economic condition strenghted Franced’s bargainin position.

(d)Under the March 1946 agrea-ment , France could introduce 15.000 troops into the nothern part of Vietnam to relieve the Chinese occupation forces. This was on the understanding that each year thereafter 3000 of these French troops would be withdrawn , until the end of 1951 none would remain (ibid Kahin)

(e) There  were three parties in this republic, but the Vietminh was te biggest.


(f) The Chinese Nationalist ‘s Republic in Nanking more respect only to one Independent republic in their border but British and United Sta-tes didn’t like the Vietminh because their communist idealisme and fight to the Pacific area of Vietnam.


(g) The Republic Democratic Vietnam still under the Union under Frenc,  and econoly-politically United too with other Indochina area in the South.

(h)The Republic Democratic  Vietnam willn’t be developed if not United with other area because in the Northern more Industrial and in the South very rich agriculture especially rice.

     Nowadays Indochina export 1,5 millions Ton Rice, but now because of the battle or guerilla, export was down only 100.000 ton.

(i) In This situation the Independent of Republic Democratic Vietnam not full in politically and economically.


 4) April 1946


(1) In return for the Vietminh’s consent to the reentry of French forces into the North, Paris recognized Ho’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam as “ A free state, having its own govern-ment, parliament, army and tresuty, forming part of the Indochinese Federation and The french Union

(the same situation in Indonesia after the Lingajat i agree-ment , read Indonesian Independent war-auth)


(2) April,12th 1946

     Another dubious IMNAHA  postal history report, the postal used cover with 8 stamps including Michchel 1,3,6-10 and 12, postmark “Hanoi Chanh Thau Cuc Buu Tin “ and at the Back of cover CDS Hanoi 13.4.46.

(I think this postal history was the phillatelic creation or fake because  too many stamps not well rates and vietnamese Buu  Tin (Postal) not exist this day, please comment some one have the original Hanoi Buu Tin stamp-ed, and officially never report   –auth)

6) May 1946


(1)     May,9th 1946

Another dubious Imnaha postal history ‘s report :

Postally used commercial cover with block of four scott 19, locally used cover with Postmarked Hanoi Thanh Tau Cuc Buu Tin 9-5-46 with backstamped , from Hotel Splendide Hanoi ( The same hanoi Buu Tin Stamped  from February to May 1946 , I think fake postal history created by the sam person, please comment-auth)



Chiang Kai-shek withdraw his Chinese Allied forces from the nothern half of the country. The departure of the British and Chinese forces brought the Vietminh government under direct pressure from France.

By this time it was evident to Ho that no support would be forthcoming from either the United zstates or Soviet Russia; form his perpective, the Vietminh had been deserted by the international community  and left alone to deal with French.


(3)May.31th 1946

     Ho departured for Paris- the city of his youth.


7) June 1946


(1) June ,1st.1946

Admiral G.Thierry D’Argenlieu, the new French Viceroy in Indochina, set up a separate puppet government in Cochinchina and  recognizing a “Free Republic”.

Spite of some local hostility towards the Tongkinese the population, who were concious of their ethnic identity with the inhibitans of North and Central Vietnam, for the most part refused to support a movement considered to represent a Franch manouvre designed to split the nation in its straggle for independence.

Moreover , in recognizing the Vietminh’s territories of Annam and Tonkin as “a free state” within the French union, it was evident that the French had in mind something short of Independent. 


(2)Summer 1946

      Further attempts at negotiations between French and the Vietminh proved fruitless. Relations resulted in increasing twosides worsened rapidly, while actions by both resulted in increasing friction and numerous small-scale inincident.



8)July 1946

Not yet info

9)August 1946


(1) August.19th 1946

The five type Ho  Chi Minh stamps 1,3,9,4+6,6+9 hao, were issued to comemmorative First Anniversary of August Revolution (19/8/1945) and National Day of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam(02/9/1945)

 (Very difficult to find this stamps postally used on covers and many fake stamps-auth)

10) September 1946

(1) September 2nd 1946

(a)Marking the first National Day of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the Postal Administration of Vietnam issued the stamp-set featuring the president Ho Chi Minh’s potrait upon decree no.172/SL signed on August 27 by the Government President, consisting of 5 valued od the same design with different colours and face values designed by painter Nguyen Sang. Among this denominations, there were two with extra-tax for narional salvation. The issuance of this  stamp-set was an important stage in the development of Vietnam Postage stamps.(D).

(2)September ,8th.1946

   The information about Indochina hadn’t heard in foreign country, and in Indonesia we didn’t heard nothing.

Censor and Isolation had made by the French, then the world didn’t paid attention anymore to this small and not important country different with the other country.

But for Indonesian the Political’s rolled in Indochina more important and interesting  because the situation of socila politic in that country near same with Indonesia.

(a)The populatrion of Indo-china about half of Java, and the power of french military more than  the Duch . The Total French army more than 80.000 and new military forces alway added.

(b)The Vietnam nationalist army (Viet-minh) didn,t have much gunpower than in Indonesia because the Dai Nippon Occupation army gave their gun to the Indonesia Republicans(TRI or Republic Indonesia Army).

(c)Republic Vietnam consist two area Tonkin and Annam , situated in the North  of Indochina.(D)

(3)September,10th 1946

     Before the modus vivendi was signed, General Morliere, the French commissioner in Tonkin, had set up a unilateral French control over imports and exports at the important Tonkinese port of Haiphong. The Vietnamese had looked foward to collecting much-need customs revenue at Haiphong after signing the agreement, but the French refused toalert their control.

(4)September,19th 1946

At midnight on September 19, dressed in athin tunic, ho slipped out of his hotel accompanied by a french bodyguard and drove to a building not far away. He took the cage elevator up to the Apartement of Marius Moutet, minister of Overseas France, another new name for postwar French empire. In Moutet’s study, he iniatialed a partial agfreement, which they entitle “a modus vivendi” , an interim understaning. As he left, Ho murmured to his bodyguard :” I have just signed my dead warrant”.

     Ho’s decision to defer t the French on the Cochinchina issue was to obsess him for the rest of his life and made his ambition to reunify Vietnam almost compulsive during his last year.(ibid.Stanley Karnow)

10) October 1946

(1)When Ho returned to Hanoi , his concessions upset the Vietminh’s hard-core militants, some of whom accused him of selling out to the enemy,  but the population acclaimed him. Despite his calls for moderation, howeever, he must have known that peace wuld not last.

     General Etiene Valluy, the French commander who replaced Leclerc, circulated a secret memorandum to his officers proposing a coup d’etat against Ho , and Giap was girding his forces.(D)


11) November 1946

(1)November.8th 1946

The IMNAHA’s report of postally used cover with the complete petain overprint vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa, cancel “Ha-Noi  Trung Uong Bac-Bo 8-11-46, sent to monsieur Felix Lang Poste restante Hanoi , without the sender name and Hanoi-Tonkin cancelled ( This cover was the phillatelic creation because poste restante only for foreigner and the rate to high, and without arrival cancelled, that time Hanoi in the French’s authority and Ho Chi Minh was slipped away from Hanoi -auth)

(2)November 16th 1946

     Ho Chi Minh protested to French Premier  Georges Bidault against the failure of the Franco-Vietnamese Customs Commission to meet, as prescribed in the modus viverdi. He objected also to the High Commissioner’s action in levying taxeson French nationals in Vietnam.(notably on the cotton mills at Nam Dinh) as a violation of the September agreement, which stipulated that they would be under Viet Nam fiscal control.

     The atmosphere in Viet Nam was tense in November 1946.

(3)November.20th 1946

(a) a French War Crimes Commission came toLang Son to investigate a mass grave where a number of Fench soldiers, killedby the Japanese in 1945, had been buried. French troops escorting the com-mission clashed with armed Vietnam-ese and each side accused the other of provocation.

(b)The incident at Lang Son, where the number ofFrench dead was less than ten, was rapidly overshadowed by another incident of considerably more alarming propotions which began the same day. A French patrol ship seized a Chinese junk attempting to run contrabandinto Haiphong, where the French had established a virtual blockade.

(c) Vietnamese soldier fired on the French ship from the shore, and shooting broke out within the city itself. General Morlie’re and Hoang Huu Nam, VietnameseUndersecretary of State,  intervened immediately; The French agreed to respect Vietnamese sovereigny in Haiphong and both sides promised to keep their troops far enough apart in  the city to avoid friction.

(d)When a French patrol boat seized some Chinese smuggler on the morning of November 20, Vietminh militia intercept the Franch craft and arrested its three crew members. At that, the volatile French commander, a Colonel Debes, assaulted the Vietminh.

By Afternoon , fighting lashed the town as Franch tanks rolled over street barricades and the Vietminh replied with mortars. At the opera house , facing the main street square, a troupe of Vietnamese actors held off the Franch with antique muskets. 

(4) November.21th 1946

(a)A commission of French and Vietnamese officers, assigned to monitor truce violations, manage to imposed s cease-fire this day. That might have ended the flare-up, except for a decision made in Paris by Prime Minister Bidault.

     (b) D’Argenlieu flashed Bidault ‘s respnse to Saigon , where General Valluy in turn ordered General Morlier, his representative in Hanoi, to insist  that Ho put all the Vietminh forces out of Haiphong and accede to French control of the city.(I have a chinese overseas parport issued by Chinese consult at Haiphong in 1947-auth)

     (c)Morliere , anxious to avert an explosion , reassured Valluy that the ultimatum was unnecessary . since hostilities had stopped.But valluy, eager to strike, also telegraphed the hawkish Colonel Debes :” It appears that we are confronted by premedutated aggression… The momment has come for you to teach a severe lesson to those who have treacherously attacked you. Employ all means at your disposal to master Haiphong completely, and thereby bring Vietnam military leaders to a better understanding of the situation.”


(5)November,23th 1946

(a)On this morning, Debes demanded that the Vietminh authrities evacuate their troops from Haiphong within two hours.


(b)The Vietnamese, protesting that they were observing the cease-fire, telephoned Hanoi for instructions. Debes gave them an additinal forty-five minutes, then issued the order.

(c)The culminated tension on this day with the French Naval Bombardment of Haiphong, where at least 6000 Vietnamese civilian were killed.

(d)French infantry and armored units raced through Haiphong, fighting house to house against Vietminh squad. French aircraft zoomed in the bomb and strafe while the cruiser Suffren, in the harbour, lobbed shells into the city, demolishing whole neighbourhoods of flimsy structure.

     (e)The Vietminh reliated by lounching coordinated attacks against French in Hanoi,which touched off major hostilities. This event marked the beginning of a war that soon to spread throughout most of Vietnam (ibid Kahin)


(f)Refugees streamed into nearby provinces with their belongings in baskets and on bicycles, and the Naval guns shelled them as well .

(g)Days passed before the French finally routed the last vietminh snipers.

The Vietnamese claimed twenty thousand death s, but French admiral later estimated”No More’ than six thousand.


(h)Vu Quoc Uy, then chairman of the Haiphong municipal committee, told that during interview in 1981, that the Vietnamese toll had been between five hundred and a thousand.    D’Argenlieu, still in Paris, cabled congratulation to Valluy, assuring him :”We will never retreat or surrender”


(i)Ho sent Blum a set of concrete recommendations for restoring calm. The telegram, transmitted through Saigon, was delayed by French officials theree for nine days-during which time the conflict again escalated  (ibid Stanley Karnow)


(6)November 23th 1946


(a)In the afternoon  French and Vietnamese troops  succeeded in bringing the fighting to a halt

     This , hovever, was only the first installment of the incident at Haiphong.

(b) Admiral d’Argenliu who was in Paris at the timemaking a report to the French Government, proposed using the Haiphongclash to give the Vietnamese a lesson; and his suggestion was approved,

 “Even going so far as the use of cannons?” he asked.”Even That”, Premier Bidault replied, probably not realizing there was any questiion of immediate action.

(c)D’Argenlieyu cabled General Valluy, his deputy in Saigon, who ordered Morliere to use force against the Vietnamese. But peace had already been achieved in Haiphong.

     Morliere pointed out, the Vietnamese situation was grave and requared not the explototation of incidents but their settlement; any imprudent act might lead to widespread hostilities.

(d)Unsatisfied by this reply, General Valluy telegraphed directly to Colonel Debes , commander od the French troops at Haiphong :

     “It appears that we are up against premeditated aggressions carefully staged by the Vietnamese regular army, whichno longer seems to obey its government’s order. Under these circumstances, your commendable attempts at conciliation and division of quarters, as well as the inquiry that I asked you to make, are out of season.

     The moment has come to give a severe lessn to those who have treacherously attacked you. Use all the means at your disposal to make youself complete master of Haiphong and so bring the Vietnamese army around .



(7) November ,30th 1946

     The first Vietnamese notes were issued in this day after nearly one hundred years of French protection.

     On the Frontside : The National name of Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and the picture of the President Ho Chi Minh.

     On the backside : the peicture of worker, peasant and soldier, with or without a line of words of “Vietnamese note”. The note value is represented in full Vietnamese, Cambodian and Laotian letters. The number are in arab transcription.

     The signature put on these notes were those of Minister of Finance ( Pham van Dong, Le Van hien) and Director of the Central treasurury.

     This kinds of notes were called asa Financial notes”, and they were also called populary as “The old Ho’s Notes”

( We must be very carefully to collect this kind of notes, because too many variations and also many fakes, if someone want to study about this note, please read the official book ‘

“ One Hundred Years of Vietnamese Paper Currency 1875-1975” craeted by The Ho chi Minh city Philatelic Association , Nha Xhat Ban tre Hoi Tem Than Pho Ho Chi Minh) 1994. This book very difficult to find in Ho Chi Minh city, I found at Russian Market Phom Phen Cambodia and the price very high, if some one want to know information about Indochina and Vietnam banknote collection, please contact in the comment and the editor will help you for more detailed inforemations.-auth)





12) December 1946


(1)December,17th 1946

     “If those gooks want afight, they’ll get it,” said Valluy as he landed in Haiphong this day, his temper boiling over the slaughter of three French soldiers by Vietminh militia in Hani that day.

     Incidents were now multiplying in Hanoi and, as they had in Haiphong.

     Ho begged the Franch to recind the order , Giap deployed some thrity thousand men at three locations in the suburbs, planning to invade Hanoi if trauble started (D)









Another IMNAHA report Of Postally used Chamer overprint stamped with cancel Hanoi Chanh Thau Cuc 18.12.46 Bac Bo, with tree kind black stamped khoe Chong Xam Lang squered, Nguoi Viet-Nam )hu Ong-Thay Viet-Nam and doublecircle Nguyen Tri phuong Doan T.N.T.P Buu , sent to monsieur Ly-OG-Lin Poste Restate Hanoi (Tonkin) ( This cover have the same addres and poste restante during tis time no Vietminh in Hanoi they have evacuated out of the city because the French attacked them after the ultimatum at Haiphong Battle- this cover phillatelic creation or bogus stamped because the battle situation one day before the French armed forces in Tonkin and the vietminh headquaters always used red ink stamped not the black ink

This cover was the same with  Indonesian Independent war postal history created by Mr Phoa Lim Koey meridori street Surabaya sent by his friend from Padang Mr GKL, Medan Mr SSt. With many high nminal stamps ,the rate not right and the postal uesd cancelle d too fine without sencored label , to see the original war’s postal history look at my blog “ Indonesian Indepent war document and postal History-auth)

(3) December.19th. 1946

   (a)The Franch Vietnam armed Forces were in Tonkin.

     (b) The origin of the events is still murky, but the vietminh militia proba-bly struck first on the evening of this day, sabotaging the municipal power plant, then breaking into French homes to murder or abduct their occupants.

(c) Alert in advance by spies, the French counter attacked, and Hanoi became a battle ground, its building aflame and its three-lined avenues littered with corpses.

     (d)Ho in bed with fever at his modest bungalow behind the French governor’s mansion, fled before the French could capture him.


(e)At nine in the evening, Giap issued a virtual decleration of war “ I order all soldiers and militia in the center, south,and north t stand together, go into battle, destroy the invaders, and save the nation. The resistance will be long and ardous, but out cause it just and we will surely triumph”



(f) Except for a Christmas truce, the Battle of Hanoi raged through Decem-ber.

( Very difficult to find the document ,revenue and postal history collection 1946 and 1947 because many battles around north Vietnam especially Haiphong and Hanoi, I only have one document from Haiphong in 1947, please comment-auth)


(g)Giap’s troops rushed into the city to join the Vietminh, their arms a hodgepodge of Ancient French muskets, old American rifles, British bren autmatics, Japanese Carbines, spears, swords and machetes as well as homemade contrivances called Phan Dinh Phung grenades, after Vietnam’s nineteenth-century nationalist hero. They fought from street to street against French tanks, artillery and machine guns.

(30 years later, Dr Tran duy Hung, then the Vietminh mayor, described the event : “We were in Kham Thien street, a French unit facinf us from across the railways tracks. We built a barricade with railroad ties, piling it high with beds, dresser, chair, tables, whatever. Not even a tank could get thrugh it. Some of our boys-we called them”gentlemen militia”-wre red and yellw shoulders braids captured frm the French. People sang revolutionary songs when they charged. We were very optimistic, very romantic. We were ordered to divert the French until our forces could withdraw from the city. We could only get out by crawling under the Long Bien Bridge (I have the photo of that bridge-auth) , which the French controlled . We exploded all the firecrackers we coulkd find. When the noice stopped, the French moved in on us, but we had escaped into the countryside to begin the long war.

(h)Ho had fled to Hadong, a town six miles south of Hanoi, where he echoud Giap’s call to arms-and also appealed to Westren Allies to restrain the French. -ibid stanley Karnow)


(i) In the Provinces of Quang nam ,Quang Ngai, Phu Yen, a lot of credit cards(Tin Phieu) came into existance ( one piaster, 5p.20p,100p,500p,1000p) being signed by The Delegate from the Central Government and the Repre-sentative for the Centarl Part’s Admi-nistrative Commitee,

(j) In Paris, however,Blum had altered his atance . Stressing his commitment to vietnam’s Independence within French Union , he now emphasized that “ Oredr must be restored” as a precondition to fresh discussion.

     He sent Marius Moutet to Vietnam to survey the situation, and Ho promptly offered to talk with the minister in whose apartment he had singed the modus vivendi four month earlier. But Moutier rejected the overture as “ propaganda” adding ambigiuously the France would only deal with “authentic spokesmen for Vietnam people”(D)

(4) At The end of 1946

     After the Vietminh failed to seize Hanoi, the French expanded along the Red River valley, the regin’s principal rice-growing area. Cnstructing towers and blockhouses, the skirmished constanly with Vietminh partisant, who emerged at night to assault their posts, then disappeared into hamlets or fled into the hills overlooking the broad plain of fertile paddy fields. Duong Van Khang had helped to form a small Vietminh unit in his village, Phung Thuong, twenty miles east of Hanoi . (D)


(b)Vietminh War 1947



1) January 1947


(1)The revolving doors of the Fourth Republic spun again in this month, and Paul Ramadier, also a scialist, supplanted Blum in a caolition government composed of Socialist,Christian Democrats and communists.


(2)Voicing hope of peace, Ramadier dismissed d’Argenlieu and replaced him as high commisioner in Saigon with Emile Bollaert, a respected civil servant who appointed as his personal  adviser Paul Mus, a scholar of Asian affairs who was sympathetic to Vietnamese.


(3)Ho sensed that reconciliation was possible and proposed imme-diate cease-fire to avert a war, he warned, would “only end in hatted and bitterness between our two peoples” but Ramadier government was falling apart.(ibis Stanley Karnow)


(4) After 1946

The Vietminh weapons were supplemented by United States equipment captured from the French forces. Any disparity in military equipment, however , was more than compesan sated by the Vietminh’s popular backing (“People Power” -auth)

2) Febryary 1947 no info





3) March 1947


(1) The communists dropped their support over internal economic matter-though they voted the apprpriatins to fund the French army on Vietnam.

     So , while Ramadier tried to steer a moderate course, Christian Demo-crates in his cabinet, like Bidault and Paul Coste-Flores, the defense minister, were maneuvering to prevent negotiations. Other officials with different wiew also subverting them.(D)

4) April 1947 no info

5) May 1947

(1) The communist dropped their support over an internal economic matter.

     Instructed to present Ho with a set of suggestions. Paul Mus trevelled some sixty miles from Hanoi the Vietminh ‘s jungle headquaters.

     He informed Ho that France would agree to a cease-fire on condition that the vietminh lay down a part of its arms, permit Franch troops to circulate freely inside its zone and turn over several German and Austrian deserters from the Foreign Legion.

Would you accept if you were in my place ? Ho asked Mus :”No “ replied Mus. Ho thereupon rejected the offer-which was, in any case, a demand for surrender.(D)


(2) In 1947.Truman administration official conceded that Ho’s Communist “connection” might serve the Kremlin’s purposes.


(3) The Vietminh force had establishe a base in the Vietbac.

     The base eighty miles to north, in a landscape of jungle-clad mountains hneycombed with caves,

     Heavy monsoon rains drenched the region for half year, covering it with a protective mist againbst air raids.

(4)The French encircled the area in 1947 , by securing its only two roads and dropping in paratroopers, (that is way imposible the Vietminh overprint propaganda used on postally covers in Hanoi ,French area, in 1947-1948, be carefull many propaganda overprint stamps on cavers put in phillatelic auctions with high price-please comment-auth)

(5)They almost capture Ho Chi Minh, who slipped into camouflaged hole at the last minute.


(6) The French commander, General Etine Valluy, whose expe-rience until then had been in Europe , quickly sized up his effort as imposible. With a total of some fifteenth thou-sand men, he was trying to defeat sixty thousand enemy troops over nearly eighty thousand square miles of almost inpenetrable forest.

     Unlike his nineteenth-century predecessors, he was up against not small insurgent bands but a disciplined army. He could only withdraw to a thin string of forts along Route 4, a twisting road running through ravines and over high passes between the towers of Langson and Caobang . Chronically expossed to Vietminh ambushes, French soldiers dubbed it the rue san Joie, or street without Joy. (ibid Stenley Karnow,p-199).


6)-11) no info

12) December 1947

(1) The End of 1947

By the end of this year the increase in the popularity of Ho chi Minh and his Vietminh throughout most of Vietnam had convinced the French that Victory could not be achieved through purely Military mean.

Therefore, Paris complemented its persistent military campaign with an attempt to establish an amenable indigenious Vietnamese regime as a power strings, but she hoped that by endowing the regime she sponsored with asemblance of autonomy it would attract substantial nationalist support away from the Vietminh.

(ibid Kahin) 


(c) Vietminh War 1948



(1)The Map of Vietnam under Indochina in 1948(D)

(2) The Postal Administration of Vietnam also issued postage stamps in order to  meet the need for pre-paid postage on ppostal network  and at the same time to popularize the Party and state ‘s policies  and victories of the Vietnamese people and army (Propaganda-auth)  such as the stamp-set “Production and thrift” ,”Dien Bien Phu victory” “Liberation of the Capital” etc.

Stamps were printed by the extemely rudimentery means, using all the local materials available , even perforated by Sewing machine or other rudimen-tary tools.

(Some postal History of this stamps used on cover send from Hotel and another famous building, but we must be careful because during the war all the cover must sencored, the only guinined may be postcard but Vietminh never issued prepaid postal stationer that time , and also some Francaised Indochine timbre fiscal revenue also over print by the vietminh but only off document, revenue on the complete document never seen, please comment-auth)


(3)June 1948

(a)CIA officials had rejected a proposal to contact Ho covertly because “ a White man would be very conspicuous. In order to have an effective intelligence officer, he would have to have a little brown blood. Then, we wouldn’t be able to trust him”


(b) After alengthy process of Bargaining, The men chosen to head the new regime (Bo Dai, the former Emperor of Annam whom the Japanese had also endeovored to exploit in their eleventh hour) was in duced to cooperate on condition that, under his leadership, the state of Vietnam (Etat du Vietnam-auth) woul be “Indepndent within the French Union “.(Ibid Kahin)


(4) late 1948

In late 1948, a new French high commisioner for Indochina took over.

Leon Pignon, fomerly political aide to Admiral d’Argenlieu favored firmness .but he foresaw that Communist , advancing across China, would soon arrive at the Vietnamese frontier to bulkwark the Vietminh.

He also reckoned that the US would

Help France more readily if a see-mingly liberal Franch policy were adopted.(D)



(d) Vietminh War 1949


1) January 1949 in

(1) US help to the French in Indochina had limited. American troops were not engaged in fighting anywhere, and it was to be hope that the withdrawal of the Russian and American had reduced East-West tension on the Asiaa mainland,(D)

(2) The Republic of Vietnam at the south  in 1949, have 21  provinces with the bigger city, Saigon,Cholon, Cantho,Baclieu and Rachgia. (D)

2) February 1949

Not yet info

3)March 1949

(1) After an additional year of negotiations over the meaning of this terminalogy concluded with Elysee’ Agreement of March 1949, but not retified by the French Chamber of Deputies on this month. (Ibid Kahin)

4) April 1949

Not yet info

5)May 1949

(1)May.19th 1949

The second type Ho Chi-Minh stamps ,two stamps 2d and 5d, comme-morate 59th Birth anniversary of President Ho Chi-minh

 ( never seen postally used on cover-except fake or Phyllatelic collector creation or CTO -auth)

6) June 1949

(1)18th June,18th 1949


Phuc vu chien dieh Bien Gioi(1950). Trong nhung nam (1951-1953), Trong cuoc Tien cong chirn lu’o’c Dong Xuan (1953-1954) va chien dich Dien Bien Phu(D)

(.2)The situation changed drastically in 1949, when the Chinese Communist reached the Vietnamese border.

     China could now provide the Vietminh with automatic weapns, mortars ,howitzers, even trucks, most of it captured American materiel, some of it Soviet equipment earmarked for the Korean war.

     Chinese advisers joined Vietminh detachment , and Vietminh units crossed into China to train at camps near nanning and Ching Hsi.(In 2007, I have made a trip from Hanoi by night train to Nanning,read  and back bus bus from nanning passed the langson border back to Hanoi as the remambrance of that situation, read in this blog “ Trevelling’s unique collections-4” auth )

(2)Giap swiftly expanded his battalions into regiments, and soon he had mobilized six division, each numbering ten thousend men, among them a “heavy division’ composed of attillery and engineering regiments.

     The image of ragtap Vietminh guerillas persisted, but it war pure romanticism. Giap now commanded a real army, backed up by China’s enormous weight.As a veteran Vietminh officer, recllecting the period after 1949, he told the writers “ it was a significant moment. We were no longer isolated from the communist camp”

( look at the originil vintage General Giap photo , that I  found in Indonesia from the Vietnam photo collections given to Indonesian official during Afro-Asian conference at bandung indonesia in 1955, not many foreign country know him, because the popularity of Ho Chi Minh , he almost same with Indonesia Hero General Sudriman but more popular because Bung Karno , the Ho friend , didn’t joined the Indnesian Independent war in the battle’s field, he only struggle as the polititions and didn’t joined the Guerilla war in 1949 , read “Indonesia Independent war” –auth)

2)-5) no info

6) June 1949

(1) Mid 1949


(a)Major support for French was not given until mid 1949, when communist rule was established in China, when Peking sent its armiest into the Korean war, this disposition to aid the Fench effort was firther reinforced.


(b)A policy leading to the contain-ment of China increasingly preoccu-pied the Truman Administration and during the Korean war, Paris endeavor with consideable success to convince Washington that the French camp-aign in Vietnam  basically sustained that policy.

     Thus President Truman linked his decision to Send American Forces to Korea with the announcement of Incraesed arms shipments to the French in Indochina and the interposition of American power between communist and nationalist China in Formosa Straits. (ibis Kahin)


(c)Between 1949-1950

   Giap had bought time to enlarge his forces. He promoted local gueri-llas to regional units and assigned regional officers and noncoms to bigger detachments.

   Between 1949 and 1950, he quadruple (four times-auth) the number of regular Vietminh battalions to one hundred and seventeen. But his army never exceeded three hundred thousand men- fewer than that of French, Foreign Legion and African colonial troops in addition to three hundred thousand Vietnamese.

   Giap ‘s ability to recruit more soldiers was limited by French control of most of Vietnam’s populated areas. (D)


8)-11)not yet info








12) The end of 1949


(1)Until the end of 1949,

(a)approximately $1.5 billion had been poured into the  war. Well before this time the french forces were being pushed back and the military initiative had passed to the Vietminh.

(b) The success of Ho’s battalions, moreover , had been achieved with the arms far interior in both quantity and quality to the rela-tively modern American equipment employed by the French,

Any dispensary in Military equipt-ment , however, was more than compenated for by the Vietminh’s popular backing, the essential attri-bute of power that the French were never able to develope( Ibid Kahin)


        (c) Until the end of 1949, the United States displayed little, if any, real interest in Indochina.(ibid Kahin)


(e).Vietminh War in1950


(e1)January 1950


(1)January,14th th 1950

Ho Chi Minh declared on Jan 14 that the Democratic Republic of Vietnam is the only legal Government , it is recognized by the Soviet Union and China, but also establized diplomatic relation s with Marshal Tito’s Yugoslavia, prompting some American officials to suggest that  Ho isn’t a Soviet”puppet”.

     Chinese Communist , now at the Vietnamese border, begin to provide modern weapons to the Vietminh.  

(2)When in free zones the Vietnamese notes and various credit cards, supply tickets, exchange tickets of the concerned areas will still circulating,

(3)January 25th 1950

     Ho Chi Minh first stamp postally used cover, cancel Thai-Nguyen 25-1-1950 Buu Dien Cuc, one ho chi minh first green stamp, rate ? ,sent from ng gui Ba Hoi,Thai Nguyen with red double circle stamped “vy-Ban Khang chan hanh cho/ lien-khu viet Bien/ Truong Hang Chien Hanh Chinh to Lien-Xa Van H.  lien-xa Ninh Gia  Ha Noi (The written style by Vietnamese, the color choped red, ok, But the official cover why not free stamp like I have found the same type send at Saigon? , This cover very best phillatelic creations because in 1950 all Vietminh were in the jungle and Hanoi under French power. Beware to collect a cover without original letter inside, many fake or bogus phillatelic creations, this time many seen, I hope some one will show us the original cover with original letter inside during vietminh war like you will see in my collection during Vietnam –vietcong liberation war 1968-1975-auth)


     The Elyse’e Agreement of March 1949, at least in this day retified by the French Chamber of deputies.(ibid Kahin).

(4)January 18 & 31 th 1950

     They (Peking & Moscow-auth) responded promptly, establishing formal relation on January 18 and 31, respectively. The Cold War had decisively entered the Vietminh-French dispute.

Within this context, the policies of France in Indochina took on a greater legitimacy in th eeys of Washington and gave her the right to sustantial U.S. aid. (ibid Kahin)

(5)Early 1950

     (a)American experts suddenly wondered whether Ho Chi Minh might not after all be a Soviet surrogate, since he requested and obtain recognition of his regime from Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia, one of Moscow’s principal enemies. But they never explorered the mystery further- as they never had in the past nor would in the future(D)

(b)any misunderstanding could be  avoided that could turn    the cold war  into a “Hot war”.

(the Truman administration)

(c) The 1950 ‘s  were the dangerous decade.(ibid Kahin)

2) February 1950


(1)     February,7th 1950

(a)A week after the ratification of Elysee Agreement, The U.S. extended diplomatic recognation to his government. Thirty other states soon followed suit.(ibid Kahin)

(b) After the French Parliament finally clear its intention to ratify the Elyse’e Agreements and when inter-national backing of Bo Dai seemed imminent did Ho Chi Minh request diplomatic recognation from Peking and Moscow.(ibis Kahin)

3)-4)  not yet info

5) June 1950


(1)Mid 1950

Washington ‘s recognition of Bao dai sparked economic  and military-assistance programs, which began in id-1950


6)July 1950

(1) July.25th 1950

     The Russian –trained North Korea army crossed the 30th paralel and invaded South Korea. The Korean War begun, (the complete collections read the next book “ The unique Korean war document and postal History”-auth)

(2) July.26th. 1950

     Presiden Truman signs legislation granting USD 15 million in military and to the French  for war in Indochina

7)-11) Not yet info

12) December 1950

(1) December.6th. 1950

     French defeated at Caobang, a key post on the Chinese border , General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny named Franch military commander and high commisioner for Indochina.

(2) For all Eisenhower’s and Dulles’s ideological simplifications about “the international communist world”. Their narrowly concieved intervantion in the third worls like in Vietnam.(D)

(3) Late 1950

     The spark of hope was lagerly rekindled by Giap’s blunders, however.

      Giap perceived that his gains in the sparsely inhabited zone adjacent to China left him with two principal problem to assert the Vietminh’s political authority, he had to conquer the main population cen-ters around Hanoi and saigon, and to get the food his men desperately needed, he had to take over the rich fields of the Red River valley in the North and the Mekong delta in the south. (this is the reasons why, the Vietnam must unitied from North to South , and in 1975 they succeeded, please comment-auth)







(f) Vietminh war  1951


1)January 1951

     (1)Anticipating the attacks, de Lattre had strengthened the Red River valley with hundreds of cement blocked-houses and new airfield.

     He was prepared in january 1951 when two Vietminh divisions, comprising twenty thousand men, swept down from the tam Dao mountain and stormed Vinhyen

(in 1951 the vietminh still in the jungle, that is why all the covers sent to Hanoi with Vietminh stamps before Ho Came back to Hanoi in 1954 were the bogus phillatelic creations and before became postal History collectors better the study the chronologis of the history that will help the collector to know the original or fake postal history collections ,also many of the so called south central vietnam –vietminh issue and may fakes and fantasies, this issues are being studies by the phillatelist , trantrong kai  have believe some of the guinine that illustrated at IMNAHA web site, very pity all the iten not on covers or piece, very difficult to indicated the original or fake, I have discuss the original on piece and cover complete with informations at South Vietnam etat du Vietnam, Etat du Vietnam Quoic Gia, Thue coniem and Vietnam Cong Hoa Coniem, Cholon Saigon Regional timbre fiscal, Nathrang, Danang, and the overprint Viet cong on Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue in 1975 and 1976-  please comment-auth)




(2)A town situated amid flooded rice fields thirty miles northwest of Hanoi.

     Outnumber, the French defneders innitially fell beck. But de lattre, personally taking charge, flew in reinforcements and mustered every available aircraft to bomb the massive vietminh formation.

(3)Giap retreated after three days of fierce combat, leaving sic thousand Vietminh dead and carrying off another eight thousand wounded. He was determined to try again.(D)


2) February 1951

(1)February 1951

     Ho Chi Minh creates the lao Dong or Worker party as a substitute for the Comunist Party, ostensibly dissolved in 1945.

3) March 1951

(1)Late March 1951

     Giap focused on the port of Haiphong.through which the French brought in supplies, and his miscalculated, underestimating the ability of the french to deploy naval guns and move troops aboard assault boats through the region’s estuaries and move troops aboard assault boats through the region’s estuaries and canals.

     When he launched an initial attacks against Maokhe, northwest of Haiphong , the French again fought him off (D)


4) no info

5)May 1951


The third type  Ho Chi Minh stamps (100d green,100d violet and 200 d red) were issued for 61th Birth Anniv.of President Ho Chi Minh

(Many fake stamps, rare postally used on cover-and the overprint propaganda stamps didn’t used anymore,-auth)

(2)Late May 1951

In yet another attempt, Giap at-tacked with three division along the Day river, southeat of Hanoi, aiming to dramatize  and hecontemplated di-fferent region in which to launch a major offensive.

     Giap reckoned that the French would fight to protect Laos, whose king sided with them, largely out of an atavistic hatted for Vietnam.

     The French garrison in Laos, outside of the main towns, like vietiane and Luang Prabang, were also dispersed and vulnerable.

     Giap concluded, howeever, that Laos in the area along laotian border were strectched thin. (I found Laotian medal in Ho Chi Minh city, may be belong by the soldier who joined the battle at the laos area-auth)

6) June 1951

(1)June.5th. 1951

, President Ho Chi Minh, right after the victorious frontier campaign have signed a decree date june 5 ‘ 1951 regarding the establisment of The State bank Of Vietnam and issue the notes were exchanged in place of he “Finacial Bnotes” These notes have shown following characteristic :

     Front side : The National name of Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa) .

     Backside   : The State bank of Vietnam.

     There were only on the notes two kind of letter are Vietnamese and Chinese.(Mot Tram Hong, Nam Muoi Dong, Ngan Hang Duoc Gia Viet-Nam) There were not any signatures of the authoriries concerned, except two round seals of Director and deputy Director of the State Bank of Vietnam found on the front side of the note

The nominal of notes : 50.,100,200,500,1000 and 5000 Dong (D)


(g)Vietminh war 1952


1) January 1952

(1)January .11th.1952

     General Giap’s offensive in the Red River valley blunted by de Lattre, and he dies in Paris.

2)-9) no info

10) October 1952

(1) October 1952

     Giap began to deploy three divisions in the vicinity of a wretched frontier village that had been evacuated by a laotians battalion employed by the French for garrison duties. The village located in a valley eleven miles long and five miles wide, belonged to the Thai, an ethnic minority that grew rice and marketed opium brought down from the surrounding mountains by Hmong tribes. The Thai called the place Muong Thanh.

     To the Vietnamese, whose trader bought opium there, it was known as Dienbienphu.(D)


(h) Vietminh war in 1953


1)-3) no info

4) April 1953


(1)After a series of clashes in the sector, Giap probed into Laos in April 1953.

     He skirted the French posts on the Plain of Jars, a plateau strewn with prehistoric urns, and reaches the outskirts of Luangprabang, the quaint royal capital , most of whose inhabitants had fled, having been alerted in advance by a blind soothsayre. Then just as he was poised to capture the town, Giap pulled his troops out of laos as well as from the area near Dien Bien Phu .

The explanation of Giap tactic in 1990 “ I never intended to remain in Laos. It was a feint designed to distract theFrench , and it worked”

     Giap had shown that he could march into laos with relative impunity, and might attack again at the end of the rainy seasons. Henceforth the French were to fasten on Dienbienphu as the crucial barrier where they would bar the Vietminh’s future access to Laos (ibid Stenley karnow,p-204)







4)-5) no info


6) June 1953


(1)Mid 1953

     Despite the substantial aids her was getting from the United States, Franch had lost to the Vietminh her authority over all but a minor portion of the Vietnam country.

     In the North by far the major part of Tonkin was in Vietminh hands.(ibid Kahin)

7) July 1953


The series of stamps “ Production and thrift” issued with face value  in kilograms of rice 0K600,1K00,2K00 and 5K00,(D)

(naver seen postally used on covers-auth)

(2) July.13th 1953

     George Bidault , once intrasigent, said this day , two weeks before signing of the Korean cease-fire, that Franch would be in an “ untenable position” if “peace were reestablished in Korea while the war continued in Indochina”.(D)


8) August 1953

(1)August .4th.1953

     The Soviet Union was on a similar tract. Stalin’s successor had issued a statement this day, eight days after the Korean agreement was signed, proposing discussions to resolve conflict in Asia. (D)

9) no info

10) October 1953

(1)  October 1953

`    France grant Laos full independence as a mamber of the French Union

France implied in a treaty with King of Laos that it would protect his land, a member of the French Union, as the French colonial empire had been renamed following WW II.(D)

(2)Early October 1953

(a)Giap said to the writers that : “At That point, I had no idea where or even wheter a major battle might take palce”

He rode by horseback to Ho chi Minh’s headquaters, a bambooshack located in a hiltop in nothern Vietnam.

Ho chainsmoked and interrupted with questions as Giap, referring to a map briefed him on the situation. Dienbienphu never came up in the discussion. “the art of war is flexibility” Ho said . They would watch the French maneuvers and wait before making a decission.


(b)As Navarre poured troops into Dienbienphu, however, Giap increasingly felt that this was the place to stand. The French , he observed, were “ completely isolated” in the valley and dependent on airlifted supplies, which meant that they could strangled. By constrast , their domination ofthe surrounding mountains gave the Vietminh forces both the adventage of height for their cannon and a way to bring food and equipment in from the rear.


(c)Giap had not yet formulated a plan, nor did he have Ho’s approval of Dienbienphu as the battle ground. (D)


11) November 1953

(1) November.9th. 1953

(a)Majority of the French National Assembly expresses hope for a negotiated sttlement to Indochina war.(D)

(b)Prime minister Laniel made what amounted to offer :” If an honorable settlement were in sight, on either the local or the international level , France would be happy to accept a diplomatic solution to the conflict” (D)

(c)Navarre ordered preparations for operation Castor, under which five French battalions would retake Dienbienphu.

(c) Giap had deliberately created that impression by staging diversionary actions around the country. His scattered assault prevented the French from reinforcing one spot without leaving another open to attack. Squad of Vietminh guerrillas ambushed French convoys carrying materiel inland from the port of Haiphong, and terrorist intensified their assasinations of pri-French official.

Vietminh regulars stepped up the raids along the coast of central vietnam, crossed the border to besiege towns in the southern Laotian and seized areas of Cambodia (D)

(d)Prince Norodom Sihanouk takes command of the Cambodian army , declares Cambodian’s independence from France.(D)

(e)  Vietminh forces a push into Laos.(D)

(f)Ho Chi Minh tells a Swedish newspaperman that he is ready to discuss French peace proposal.(D)

(g)The Franch Government was forced to sign the Geneva Agreement and the peace restored in North Vietnam . Since then , a new stage of development has been opened to Vietnam postage stamps.(D)

(2)Giap began to move thirty three infantry battalions, six attelary regiments and a regiment of engineers into the region, some over long distances.

     Reflecting afterward on the massive deployment, military his prians judged that, in outweight the mobility of armies. That principle guided Giap in his struggles agains France and later America. As he told in 1990, his voice bursting with conviction :” In war there are two factors –human beings and Weapons. Ultimately ,though, human beings are the decisive factor. Human being! Human Being!”

     Thus the ground was laid for Dienbienphu, which would equal Waterloo,Gettyburg and Stalingrad as one of the decisive battles of history. It was also Giap’s epiphany.(D)




12) December 1953

(1)Late December 1953

Cao Xuan Nghia had told that he trekked with his infantry company for forty-five days from their camp in Thai Nguyen , nort Hanoi, reaching the highlands above Dienbienphu.

They had to cross mountain and jungles , marching at night and sleeping by day to avoid enemy bombing. They slept in foxholes, or simply alongside the trail. The Vietminh infantry each carried a rifle, ammunition and hand granades, and their packs contained a blanket, a mosquito net and a change of clothes. The army each had a week’s supply rice, which they refilled at deposits along the way. They ate greens and bamboo shoots, picked in the jungle, and occasinally villagers would give them a bit of meat. By then he (Cao) had been in the Vietminh for nine years, and he was accustomed to it .(D)


(2) The end of December 1953

Meanwhile, Giap had been carefully studying the terrain at Dienbienphu and concluded that it would require at least fifty thousand troops to annihilate the French garrison. He conferred again with Ho      at the end of December, recommended launching the offensive on January .25, 1954 and predict victory in about six weeks.

After posing a few questions, Ho agreed and granted him “full power” as field commander ,”This engagement must be won” he exhorted Giap, adding “ But don’t begin it unless you are sure of winning”(D)


(i) Vietminh war in 1954


1)January 1954


(1) January.25th. 1954

     Foreign ministers of United States,Britain,France and Soviet Union meet in Berlin, agree that a confe-rence on Indochina shlould be held in April.(D)

(2)Jan.18th-Feb.18th 1954

Three types stamps issued for commemorate “Month of Friendship”. Design Ho with Vorosilov and Mao, thema Vietnam-China-USSR solidarity, offset mono (100d) and becolour 50d&100d)

(I found one mint block four -100 D stamps at Ho Chi Minh city and one at Hanoi in used conditions -50 D stamps, never seen postally used covers-auth)

(3)January, 1954

     Colonel Charles Piroth, a one-armed officer in charge of the big French guns, had pledged to Navarre :”Mon general, no Vietminh cannon will be able to fire three rounds before being destroyed by my artillery”( the wrong prediction-auth)

2)-4) not yet infor











(a)Battle of Dienbienphu begins.(D)

(b)Navarre declining to credit Giap with plans for amajor test at dien-bienphu , had committed large units to central Vietnam and even refused to shift them once the bigger encoun-ter began.

     He misread Giap’s ability to move a huge force rapidly, so that his own troops were outnumbered by aratio than five to one during the trial by fire.

     He rejected the notion that the Vietminh could devastate his men with attilery deployed on the hill above Dienbienphu, nor did he foresee that the enemy emplacements would be protected by camouflage and antiaircraft guns against bombing from the air.

     He failed to anticipate that giap’s howitzers, posied within easy range of his airstrip, would cut off flights in and out of the valley, making it difficult for his besieged soldiers to recieve supplies or evacuate wounded-much less withdraw themselves. He also chose a terrain presumed suitable for tanks only to discover that, unlike its description on his map, its cover of thick bush entangled armored vehicles and its monsoon rains flooded the plain in the spring.(D)


 (c) American equipment captured by the Chinese Communist from the  nationalist during civil war and later given to the Vietminh. Riding in acaptured jeep, Giap accompanied the groups of bicycles and columns of men that resembles lines of ants as they trudges through the mountain jungles, laden with everything from catridges to vast quantities of rice, which had to be carried for cover the impoverished region. From time to time they sranbled for cover as French aircraft strafed and bomb them. “It was very difficult, n’est-ce pas, very difficult” Giap recalled :”Only motivated soldiers could have performed such a feat”


(d) An even more agonizing ordeal for Giap troops was to position the howitzer and antiaircraft in the hills above Dienbienphu. Again, with sheer muscle, cadres and coolie alige dragged the heavy weapons up the slopes with range of the Franch garrison.(D)

(e) Preparing for the new assault took nearly two month. Finally, on the afternoon of March 13, Giap gave the signal to advance.

     His first objective , Beatrice, fell imediately, and Gabrielle follow the next day as the Vietmint howitzers raked the airship and pinpointed orther French targets.

(Many pin commemorated this victory battles, I have a vintage and modern pins-auth)

(5)March. 15th 1954


(a)At dawn on this day, Piroth lay down in bed, pulled the safety pin out of a grenade with his teeth and blew himself to bits. He had said the night before, after Gabrielle’s collapse: “I am completely dishonored”.

(b)The French figured that the oncoming rains would mire him in mud, but just the opposite occured. The lowerings cloud hindered thei aircraft from bombing and strafing his men and made the parachuting suppliesbto their beleagured garrison nearly imposible.

(c) The French now knew that, on the eve of negotiations, they were doomed on the battlefield and also at the conference table- unless they recieved a formidable dose of outside help. Only the Unites States could furnish that aid fast and effectively. But another engagement would have to be fought in Washington(D)


(6) March.20th. 1954


(a) No sooner had Giap fired his first salvos than the French calimed that they urgently needed American Military assistance at Dienbienphu to holster their diplomacy at Geneva.


(b) GeneralPaul Ely, the French chief of staff, delivered the massage to Whasington on this day, winning over Admiral Arthur Radford, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. Radford proposed that sixty B-29 bomber based in the phillippines , escorted by fighter planes of the U.S. Seventh Fleet, conduct night raids against the Vietminh perimeter around Dienbienphu. Ely returned to Paris with the plan, labeled Operation Vulture, and his government welcome it.

Another member of the joint chiefs, General Nathan Twining of the air force, endorsed the idea. But General Matthew Ridgway, army chief of staff, had little faith in air strikes- and no taste for a fight on the mainland of Asia. An old-fashioned ingantryman who had comanded the US Force in Korea, he argued that even Atomic Weapons would not reduce the need for seven American combat divisions to assure French success  in Indochina- tweleve divisions of the Chinese intervened. The other members of the joint chiefs agreed with him that  The Indochina conflict was the wrong war in the wrong place. As they stated shortly afterward: ”Indochina is devoid of decisive military objectives” and involvement  there “ would be a serious diversion of limited U.S. capabilities.(D)


4) April 1954

(1) April 1954

EISENHOWER –USA, decides against American intervention to help France in Indochina after Britain reject his proposal for concerted action.

Contrary to portrayals that depict him as an unalloyed “dove”. Eisenhower did not completely oppose U.S. intervention. But recalling his command of the Allies during World War II, he refused to commit America alone, “ Without allies and associates,” he told his staff at one meeting :” the leader is just an adventurer, like Genghis Khan” Besides, he had been elected on a pledge to end the war in Korea, which might  have spiraled into a bigger confrontation with China- and as his closer aside, Sherman Adams, observed : “ Having avoided one total war with Red China the year beforee in Korea, when he had United State support, he was in no mood to provoke another one in Indochina….without the British and other Westren allies.”

Eisenhower appealed to Prime Minister Churchill to participate, reminding him of the failure to stop Hitler :” by not acting in unit and in time “. He sent Dulles to London to plead his case, but the British spuned him.


(2)Churchill told the House of Commons that Britain “was not prepared to give any undertaking….in Indochina in advance of the results of Geneva,” and Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, who was to cochair the conference with Vyascheslav Mlotov, Soviet foreign minister,  Simply refused to be “ hustled into injudicious military decision”. The best that Dulles could achieve was a British promise to conttemplate  a future regional security arrangement, which eventually became SEATO(D)

 (3)Postage Due issued and used for fines (three the third type Ho Chi Minh stamps and one 100 d production and thrift first series with overprint TT (within one or double frame) in red,dark violet ,brown or black) , denoted the amount to be collected (by post-master or letter carrier) from address, because of insufficient prepayment of postage. The insufficient amount was shown on the stamp.

 (many bogus or fake covers ever sold at auctions, the guenine postally covers with this type stamps never report,please comment-auth)

(2)April 1954

     It was clear by late april, as the battle rahged at Dienbienphu, that neither the American nor anyone else would come to rescue of the French.

     Giap told later that “ No doubt we would have had problems”he replied “ but the outcome would have been the same. Only a lunatic would have resorted to atomic weapons, which in any case would have devastated the French troops. At the time, I feared poison gas.Fortunetaly, it was never used,”(D)


(3)April,29th 1954

      Eisenhower speaking at a press conference on this day, he said :”You certainly cannot hope at the present state of our relatins in the world for a completely satisfactory answer with the Communists. The most you can work out is a practical way of gatting along”(D)





4) May 1954


(1)May ,6th 1954

The surrender of the french garrison of Dien Bien Phu


(2) May,7th 1954

     On the afternoon of this day, the red Vietminh flag went up over the French command bunker at Dienbienphu and French defeated.(D)

(3) May.8th. 1954


(a)Indochina phase of the Geneva conference with Britain and Sovier Union as cochairman.


(b) In Geneva, nine delegations assembled around a horseshoe-shaped table at the old League of Nations building to open dicussion aimed at ending the war in Indochina.


(c) In the end, the Geneva conference produced no durable solution to the Indochina conflict, only a military truce that awaited a political settlement, which never really happened. So the conference was merely an interlude between two wars – or , rather, a lull in the same war.(D)


6) June 1954 no info

7) July 1854

(1)July 1954

     Agreement reached at Geneva call for cessation of hostilities in Vietnam,cambodge and laos. Provisional line at secenteenth parallel divides Vietnam pending political sttlement to be achieved through nationwide elections.

 Final declaration accepted orally by all participant at the conference except United States, which states it will not disturb the agreement but would view renewed aggresion with concern.(D)

8)-9) no info

10)October 1954

(1) October.9th. 1954


(a)France forces leave Hanoi.(D)


(b) Four type stamps (10d,50d,150d ,&150d) were issued for comme-morated Victory at dien Bien Phu



(c) Due to National Bank of Vientnam was founded in 1951 and issued new currency to gradually replace the currency of Ministry of Finance, which had been circulated since 01/12/1945 . 1 d issued was equal to  10d before, and the old Ho stampes type 3 were overprinted with new value (many fake overprint, very rare postally used on cover-auth)

11) October 1954

(11)Commemorative stamps 10d-50d-150d-600 kilo of Victory at Dien Bien Phu( Chien thang Dien Bien Phu), kilo nominal was value expressed in weight of rice.

     The design of this stamps , an Vietminh soldier on top of De Castry’s bunker with vietminh one bigger star flag.

(I never seen this stamps on postally used covers, please comment-auth)


(j) The end of Vietminh war  in 1955


1)January 1955


(1)Three type stamps(10d,50&150d) design soldier hold children and the vietnam flag on the castle, were issued for commemorated Liberation of Hanoi capital (never seen this stamps-auth)


(2) January 1st 1955

Return of gouvernment to Hanoi stamps (1000d,1500d,2000d &3000d) were issued ,offset monocolour .

2)February 1955

(1)Land reform stamps, first issued 20d&50d.

3) -4) no info

5)May 1955


(1)Land reform stamps ,second issued, 5d & 10d.

6) June 1955 no info

7)July 1955


(1)Ho Chi Minh , in Moscow , accepts Soviet aids (I have the vintage photo of this monent-auth) , having early negotiated in Beijing for Chinese assistance.(D)

(a)USSR Moscow issued special red souvenir’s sheet stamps(PH-stamp auction internet-auth).

(b) original vintage photo Ho and Vorsilov inspected the army guard (P-fund in Indnesia-auth)

8)-11) no info

12)December 1955

(a)Land reform in North Vietnam reached its most radical phase as landlords before “People’s tribunals”(D)









K)The First years after vietminh ‘s war in 1956


(1)The third series Land refrom stamps were issued,40d & 80d (I found this stamps used off cover at Hanoi-auth)

(2) The stamps for commemorated opening of the Hanoi-Muc Nam Quan railway 4 type100d,200d,300d&500d offset monocolured.


(3) Official stamps 20d,80d,100d ,500d ,1000d ,2000d &3000d Army hero Anh Hung Cu Chinh Lan were issued.(I found 2000d & 3000d off covers stamps at Hanoi, never seen postally used on covers,please comment-auth)

(4)Tran Da Ninh stamps (5d,10d,20d ,100d) were issued (I found Off Cover stamps at hanoi-auth)

(5)The very rare stamps Army’s Hero (Mac Thi Buoi) , picture of Guerilla Heroine (Chan dung Mac Ti Buoi) 1000d,2000d,4000d & 5000d

(I have seen used 1000d off cover blue stamps at auction in internet, and never seen postally used on cover,please comment . Conclussion Vietminh stamps circulated after the victory at Dienbienphu and French October 1954. be careful the fake postal history with CDS Haiphong or Hanoi before this date between 1950 to September 1954 except sent in the village through curier but never report, may be the revenue with Vietminh overprint will be guinine if still on North Vietnam village’s document –auth)   







3.2.1 HISTORICAL Background


a.Vietnam A History (Ibid, Stanley Karnow,1983)



(1)Since the Vietminh had prevailed at Diienbienphu and still menaced the French elsewhere in Indochina, Pham Van Dong predictably came on strong. He insisted on a political settlement first, under which the French would withdraw and leave the Vietnamese to resolve their own differences- a formula calculated to panic Bao dai Regime and virtually guarantee a Communist triumph. He also arguedd for  recognation ofthe Pathet Lao and the Free Khmer, the Vietminh-supported Communist movements in Laos and Cambodia, contending that they deserved legal status and control of territory in their countries.(I have the original photo of Pham van Dong from the  photo collections given the Indonesian official during Afro asia Bandung conference 1955-auth)

 The French rejected these demands , Pham van Dong refused to yield- and the conference slid to a stand still.

(2)     Zhou Enlai showed at geneva for the first time,

he’s primary  ain was to carve an agreement that would deny the United States a pretext to intervene in Indochina and again threaten China. Thus he sought a settlement that would give the French at least a foothold in their former possesion, to the exclusion the Americans.

Such an accomodation inevitably required a sacrifice of the Vietminh’s objectives. But Zhou put China’s priorities first. Besides, Chinese foreign policy throughout the centuries had been to fragment South East Asia in order to influence its states, and Zhou subscribed to that tradition. A divided Vietnam suited the Chinese better thatn a unified neighbor- particulary one that had quarreled with China for two thousand years. Similarly, China’s security would be served by restraining Vietnamese ambition in Laos and Cambodia. By curbing the Vietminh, moreover, Zhou hoped to display his noderation to India, Indonesia and the other nonaligned countries of Asia. Indeed, his appearance at Geneva was a prelude to his performance soon afterward at the Bandung Conference, where he and the Indian Prime Minister Jawalharlal Nehru embranced as they launched their campaignnto preach the “Pancasila” , the “principles of peaceful coexistence”( I have the original photo of Nehru, Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh during Nonaligned Country Afro Asia Conference Bandung 1955, auth)

(3) The Vietminh showed no signs of elasticity, and Bao dai had just appointed the intractable Ngo Dinh Diem to his prime minister. But Zhou Enlai intervened. He arranged to meet Mendes-France covertly on June 23 1954, at the French embassy in Bern, the Swiss Capital.

Zhou had discarded his usual severe tunic for a gray Westren business unit, and he meant business. He told Mendes-France that, in contrast to the demands of the Vietminh, he favored a cease-fire first and a political accord afterward. He would urge the Vietminh to stop meddling in Laos and Camboda, and to respect the sovereignity of these “two Vietnams”- a direct blow to the Vietminh’s dream of unifications. The possibility of American military bases in Indochina worried him. Beyond that, he said, China’s only aim was peace in the region, adding that his government had “no other ambitions(and) poses no conditions”.

Worse awaited the Vietminh leader two evening later, at a farewell dinner organizes by Zhou. The guests included a member of Bao dai’sdelegation, Ngo Dinh Luyen, theyounger brother of Ngo dinh Diem. Pham Van Dong was astonished and dismayed that Zhou, a Communist comerade, should have invited a “puppet” of the French. But Zhou went even further, obliquely indicatingvin his silky manner that China favored a permanent partition of Vietnam. Turning to ernment to be established in Saigon open a diplomatic mission in Beijing:” Of course, Pham Van Dong is closer to us ideologically, but  doesn’t rule out representation from South. After all, aren’t you both Vietnamese,and sren’t we all Asians?”

(4) The conclussion at Geneva was to be misinterpreted, if not misunderstood, for years to come. The only documents signed were cease-fire accords ending the hostilities in Vietnam, Cambodia and laos.

The Agreement between France and The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, as the Vietminh officially called itself, wasnot a political settle-ment .It provided for temporary division of Vietnam pending a nationwide election to be held in the summer of 1956. The French forces would meanwhile withdraw from the north, and the vietminh from south. Except for the United States and the Saigon regime, the other participants merely gave their oral endorsement to afinal declaration noting the understandings.

(5) The Eisenhower administration , crusading against its foggy notion of an international Communist conspiracy, reluctantly pledged to abide by the Geneva agreement. In a separate statement, however, Bedell Smith warned that the United States would view “with grave concern…any renewal of aggression”- a caveat President Kennedy used seven years later to justify his comminment to the Ngo Dinh Diem government. Diem also rejected the Geneva accords, which put half Vietnam under Communist control, and he predicted that “another more deadly war” lay ahead for Vietnam. His forecast was prescient, after eight years of conflict and four hundred thousand soldiers and cibilians dead, the agony was far from finished(D)



   The South Vietnamese government, headed by the Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem , refused to sign any of the treaties but carried out the military truce conditions.

   Eisenhower’s conduct in 1954 marked another turning point in the tragic history of Vietnam and of the United States’s involvement in that tragedy, which lwd to extensive sacrifices in men, material and, a decade later social cohesion.

   What Eisenhower and dulles refused to accept was that no firm line had been drawn against further communist expansion, further erosion of the westren position in South east asia, though they had no wish for the US to replace colonial France or to exploit South Vietnam.


(NEXT SUBCHAPTER.vietnam war 42)







3.1.1.Historical Bacground of vietnam dynasty
(1)NGUYEN DYNASTY between 1887-1945 under the Westren imperialism 1887-1945
(2)Hue Emperor(1802-1946)

(a)From 1802 to 1945 Vietnam vas rule by a series of Nguyen emperors who lived extravagant live most of the population lived as poupers.

(b)the Nguyen dynasty under French’s protectorate and were called the emperor of Annam, with trhe capital Hue, the territory included Tonkin and Cochinchina –auth)
When these leaders died, monumental tomb sites-some like miniature towns – were built south of Hue along Perfume River,-

(3) The emperor of Nguyen Dynasty during Franch protectorate in 20th centuries.

a)Khai Dinh (1916 – 1925)

b)Bo Dai (1925-1945)

3.1.2.Chronology Document and Postal History Collections (Compile from Dr Iwan S.’s Collections, Romein.1954 ,Stenley Karnow,1983 document and Nguyen Ngoc Vy,2006,Ta Chi Dong hai & Dang van Khoa,1994; abbrevation PH for Postal History, D for document or book clipiing , and P for Picture)

France issued special stamps for her colonies, including indochina, colour brown red,10 cent, design eagle, double circle , colonies de l”empire france 10c.postes.10 cent. But never seen postal used on cover with hanoi or saigon cds.(PH)

In this year, after the emperor Tu Duc relucanty ceded to France , the three provincees adjecent to Saigon, regional dignitaries continued to harass the France despite the ruler’s decision.
One of them , Truong Cong Dinh, the son of a military mandarin from central Vietnam mobilized his own peasant units, armed them with spears and swords and told Tu Duc that “we are determined to disoney yours orders as long as you speak of peace and surrender”

Betrayed and killed in this year, Truong Cong Dinh was succeeded by his twenty year old son, who soon met death when he tried to expand his father’s movement through alliences with other partisan group. His comerade in that venture included a poet, Nguyen Huu Huan, who was later captured and executed by the French; his verses typified the burgeoning nationalistic sentiment of the period :

The more I sense my duty the more I feel
On my shoulders its infinite weght
A man worthy of the name must blush
If he cannot pay the debt with his life

4)January.21th 1875
In 1875, La Banque de Indo-chine (The Bank of Indo-China) came into existance in Saigon under the acts dates 21th januray 1875,the first notes were issued in Haipong or Saigon. Besides the French char nomial : cinq piasters also the English’s nominal five dollars.

5)Before 1876
The report of the earliest postal history covers sent from equador “Sis Soeft “Jenny ‘C” Hanoi tonkin the date not clear .red cds(PH, gogle exploration please the owner comment-auth)

6) After 1876
The earliest recorded postal History from Army Chinese emperor post office Yunnan sent to vietnam used indochina overprint china stamps (PH, Gogle explration, please the owner comment-auth)


a) Khien Phuc ascended the throne as the emperor of Dai Viet, during his dynasty issued 1phan cash coins in chenese char. “ Kien Phuc Thong Bao” (this coins rare ,because the dynasty only two years-auth)

b)After 1883, when the French forced a “Protectorate” on Vietnam, Ton That Thuyet smuggled arms, ammunition, fod and money to a secret base north of Hue, the imperial capital.
He also disposed of three earlier emperors whose submissiveness to the French exasperated him.

8) 1884
The young emperor of Dai Viet ascended the throne. The emperor was tweleve’s years old.
During last emperor of Dai Viet “Ham Ngi dysnasty”, issued a very rare 1 phan cash coin with chinese charcter “ Ham Nghi Thong Bao” was read Up-down, right to left. .(the coin very rare because the young emperor only 2 years on his throne, the collector must learned the Chinese character was used on that coin, wa list in the coins catallogue , the vietnamese didn’t have this catalague, they only have the bad photocoies one- auth)

9) 1885
a) July 1885
When French imposed their demands at Hue in this month, Ton That Thuyet provoked them into an attack. They pillaged the city and palace, and he fled to his sanctuary with Ham Ngi , whom the French promptly replaced by a pliant elder brother. (?)
Ton That Thuyet escaped to China , ostensibly to seet aid, while Ham Nghi took refuge in a Hmong village near the Laotian border.

b)Only in the summer of 1885 did the sporadic and disjointed Vietnamese opposition gain border legitimacy when Ham Nghi, the thirteenth year old emperor, joined the resistance. His movement collapse within three years, but his defiance assumed legendary proportions
The mastermind behind his insurrections was a passionate nationalist Ton That Thuyet , a scion of the Royal family.

c) The french, who had set the mountain tribes against Lowland Vietnamese, bribed the Hmong village chief with money, opium and a military title to betray the fugitive emperor.

d) French Protectorate Annam , The firs emperor of Annam Dong Khan ascended the throne .
During this time issued Vietnamese cash coin with the designed like Chinese empire cash coin 1 phan. ( This coin not common coins-auth)

8)March.16th 1886
The postage stamps of Indochina begun on March.16.1886 with the overprint of S or SC.CH on the generic stamps of the French Colonies stamp (issue in 1859), for use in Cochinchina, mainly Saigon.
(I never seen this stamps in used conditin off cover or postally used covers-auth)

10) 1886
(1)In late 1886 for examples ………….

France creates Indochinese Union composed of Cochinchina, Annam, Tonkin and Cambodia.(D)


stamps crudely overprinted A & T
( meaning Annam & Tonkin) along with a “1” or “5”, and also on the generic colonies stamps were issued for those territories.
(This stamps reported off cover cancalled Ha- Noi in Tonkin 17 March 1890.(PH)

(2) ? , 1888
The second emperor of Annam, Than Thoi ascended the throne. During this dynasty were issued 10 phan cash coin (This coin common, because very long on the throne from 1888-1907 and many sirculated because the inflations after WW I -auth)

(3) May .16th 1888
The Bank of Indochina(la Banque de I’Indon-Chine issued one dollar(une piastre ) , and 100 dollar (cent piaster) banknote in Saigon.(D)

(3) Late 1888
The French captured Ton That Thuyet and Ham Nghi , exile him to Algeria and executed all of his follwers except monarch. The other strangled himself to death out of shame.
Ham Nghi had issuet an edict during his fight from Hue, urging “The rich to give their wealth, the mighty their strenght and the poor their limbs so that the country might be rescued from the invader”
The proclamation, known as Can Vuong or Loyality to the emperor, inspired resistance leaders long after his deportation.

(1) Unification of colonial adminis-tration .
(2) Unification first result in Surcharges in januari 1889 on the 35 french colonies stamps, reading Indo-Chine o9/S/RD (8 january) where “R” refered to the colonial Govenour P.Richaud and the the “D” to the postmaster at Saigon General P.Demars.
This stamps report Off Cover cancelled Vinh Long, a town of the Mekong Delts , 9 april 1899. afew month after the stamp was issued
(3) the Indochinese stamps officially came into being and were used in Vietnam,Laos and Cambodia. These were colonial stamps over-printed with “Indochine”, the number 1889 or 89, the two letters RD and the number 5 (PH)

14) 1890
Ho Chi Minh is born in central Vietnam and his real name Nguyen Ai Quoc(D)

15) 1891
Not yet info

The first regular stamps of Indochina were issue with design standard Navigation and commerce series used by the describe Indo-chine(P)

17) 1893-1897
Not yet info

(1)September 7th1898
The Bank of Indochina issued banknote Twenty Dollar ( Vingt Piatres)

19) 1899-1900
Not yet info


(1) April.3rd. 1901
The Bank Of Indochina issued in saigon and Haipong four kind of note with nominalonly in Frech language (1,5,20 and 100 piastres).
The notes in Tonkin (haipong) was not allowed to excahnge for Cochinchinese (Saigon) notes and cochinchinese notes had to spent in Cochinchina(Saigon).
(The Haiphong notes very rare difficult to found, I have seen one in the auction, and I have the Saigon notes found in Hanoi – auth)

(2)august.6th 1901
Off cover of postally used stamp on two type regular definitives Indochine RF stamp type I standard navigation and commerce orange 4 cent and red 6 cent, CDS Dalat-A(nam) 6.8.01, was found in Indonesia.
(Dalat a historic city for Indonesian people because Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman meet Field Markal Tarauci to have an authority to Indonesia Independent in August.14th 1945, read the complete story in this block and look “Indonesia Independent War” and look the vintage picture postcard-and vintahe photo/picture in 1964 Vietnam Unique collections- auth)

21) 1902-1904
Not yet info

(1) October.14th 1905
Off cover Indochine first regular deffinitive stamps ,brown,15 cent, postally used cds Dien Bien (phu) 14 Oct 05 ,was found in Indonesia
( The famous city Dien Bien Phu where the Vietminh win the war against Franch, very popular city-unique CDS-auth)

21) 1906
Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign were issued 1 phan cash coins thwo types , machinal struck and traditional struck.(Traditional struch more rare that the macinal struck)


(1)Than-Thai vietnam emperor throught out from vietnam to Reunion island by Franch (P)

(2) The attractive native woman design regular stamps were issued in 1907.(PH)

23) 1908-1910
Not yet info

24) 1911
(1) Ho leave Vietnam(D)
(2) October,4th .1911
Off piece Two Blue definitives native women Indochine 1 Piastre ,1000A2000 revenue , used with handwritten 4/10/11 .were found in Indonesia
(the unique earliest 20th century high nominal revenue, because in this time many used in low nominal,because in this year recetion and tax revenue became high, -auth)

25) 1912
(1) January,31.1912
The early off cover postally used CDS Lao Bao –Anam 31.Jan.12 on orange first type definitif Indochine Stamp 10 cent. Found in Indonesia (what the new name of the citry Lao Bao ? rare village postal stamp ?,because didn’t found in later vietnam name, please comment for information-auth)

Early twentieth century Indochine Justice Francaise Extract “Extrait du casier judiciare concernant” Tribunal Cantho. Droit de timbre a o$15 en compte avec le Tresor.
Extrait du casier judiciare concernant
Name (nomne) : Nguyen Huee Tam
Fils de Nguyen Huee Vien
Et de Ha thi-Thu
Ne le 21 Fevrier 1925 a Tan quoi (Cantho)
Domicilee au dit lien
Etat civil et de familie Celibataire
Profession ……………………………….
Nationalite Sujet francais de Cochinchine
Pour extrait conforme:

Cantho le 1er December 1913
Le Greffier
Vu au Parquet Signed Lie
De procureui de la Republique Round Stamped
“Procureur De La Republique

Tribunal De cantho”
27) 1914
Some hundred thousand Viet-namese go to French in Labor battalions during WW I.(D)

28) 1916
Emperor Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign issued two kind of 1 phan cash coind “Khai Dinh Thong Bao” Traditinal and mechanical struck. (The mechanical struck more comon coins-auth)

29) 1917
Not yet info

Ho arrives in Paris during Russian revolution and remains there for the next seven years.(D)

31) 1919
(1)Ho tries to petition for self determination in Vietnam against President Woodrow Wilson , at the Versailles Peace Conference
(2) A surcharged set of 1919 reccestated by the changeover from centimes to piastres in the prsent years. And a reprinted set staring 1/10 cent denominated.(PH)

32) 1920

(1)Ho joins newly formed French Communist Party .(D) and the photo of Saigon in this year.(P)

(2) In 1920 the Banknoted issues from Haipong and Saigon could circulated all over Indochinese territory In this year also issued low nominal banknote 10 ,20 and 50 cents.(Haipong issued more difficult to found-auth)

(3) September. 2nd 1920
(1)The earliest Reciept of House land tax Paid sign by Nguoi thau of Cantho, Village du thoi thanh, with red stamped. Franch Liberty Indochina with chine character.(D)( I have the best collection of this land tax reciept from Village Tan –Buoi from 1920-1922, 1930-1934, 1939, 1940-1943, 1946, 1949. This unique document were the factual information that during 1923-1929, 1935-1938, 1944-145, 1947-1948 something happen that the land tax did,t paid and the authority also change by name , may be the conflict and war situations, let we proof that fact with historic informations, let the Historian made the study of this historic collections, let ‘s study together-auth)


(1) June.29th1921
The receipt of land house tax paid ?(so hien bien lai ) , nhan lauh cua hua i ngsat, nguoin thau signed Nguoi than and red Franch Liberty stamped Cantho- Village du tan-Buoi

34) 1922
(1)Khai Dinh(1916-1925) Annam’s emperor visit Paris (P)
(2) July.10th 1922
The reciept of Land Tax paid, signed Nguoi Than, redbrown French liberty stamped Cantho, Village du Tan Buoi.
(the last signed Ngoui Than-auth)
And anpther same document but with first signed Vien chuoc thou nhem (new title-auth)

(4) December,17th,1922
The blue paper reciept of Land tax paid, signed by Vien Chuoc thou nhem and lFrench liberty stamped Catho ,Village du Tan Buoi. (D)


(1)January 25th 1923
Republique Francaise Indochine 36 cent Revenue Sheet, used added Indochine Dimanston revenue 24 cent USED WITH stamped Annuale , This was the the Francaise Indchine revenue’s letter sheet contract “To ban Chuoc vuon ruong” adress “Nguoi ban le van thiet 45 luoi vo la Nguyen thi Khue 42 tuoi Saigon , for “Gia ban chuoc ban lon Mot Ngan Dong(1000$00)”, between ngoi ban ming and nguoi mua ming , “zoi-giao : Trong bon nam chuoc thi bac co loi nam ba phan ngoai bon nam chuoc lai thi bac nad loi con von J ngay to”( please native Vietnamese t translate this historic revenue sheet-auth)

(2)April ,5th.1923
Bo Dai was born in hue the capital of Vietnam Kingdom ( He was the last emperor of Vietnam-auth)

(3) April 13th 1923
Francaise Indochine 24 cent Revenue letter’s sheet was used to write the information in Franch & Vietnamese characters :
a) Lang cap duc nam 1866
S-o-160-50 2 Ha 20.00-Rg 2ecl VC-Thong Minh –dao ,S-Re chle , E.-Re .Nguyen Do , O.-Re.Nguyen tac-Yen.
b) 9 Jiullet 1905
212-243-88bNgai-v-Thoi -2.26a.00-Vuon .
NG .-reg Chu , S-Reach hu-Tri , E-V-Vg-Tai-Vang , O.-Re.Le-v-Thanh.
Ngua cua con Hbh-Phai la Hbh van Tbao trans NG0 2908 du 9 Juillet 1905.

c) 17 Aout 1909.
Vendu deft par les heritiers de Thuan Wbai’;t;Do ewught Ngo 2809 du 17 aout 1909. signe Eudel.
d)5 September 1917
(1)Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi survant partage a l’anuable intervenu entre les heririers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt Ngo -2773 du 5 September 1917. Po L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard,
(2) Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi suivant partage a’ l’annuale inteerheum entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Do euregt ngo 277e eu 5 September 1917 .P.o L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.
d) Extrait de Diao du Village de3 Thanh Thien, canton de Mhinh-puc
(1)Lang cap duc nam 1866
49-24-49 Diavo actuel -2.000 Ha-Reg 2e-cl : N-Reg chu,S-V-chu,E.-Re Ngai –v-Do, O-Re.Nguyen tacc yen.
Veneu deft per Pham-v-quan ,sanh,Thien,Ngai, Duong, bay, Than,Hoa,Dieu,Thuong, Nham,Cuac, Dat, Chou et Gian, heritiers de Thuan, ai Ngai-v-Do enregt No 2809 du i7 Aout 1909 P.o.eur Sign Eudel.
Part attribuee Ngai –v-Thoi suivant partage a l’annuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt-Ngo 2773 du 5 September 1917. P.o.Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(2) 71-34-71 Ngai-van-Thoi
2 Ha Reg 1er cl : Ng –reg-Chu, SW.- Vuon chu, E. R-Ng-tac-vang, O-r-Le-v;Thanh,
Ngua duc cua Hbuynh-v-Phai va vo la Nbg Ru Phuong cau chung no 2369ndu 17/7-1901.
Part attribute a Ngai-v-Thoi sui vanpartage l’anuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai van-Do enregtno.2773 du 5 Septembre 1917 Le l’Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(3) 72-170 -72 Ngai –v-Thoi 280.00 : Thong Minh Dao, S.- reg chu, E.- rg Ng-tac-Vang , O.- reg Le-van-Thanh.
Ngua euc cua thj Phuong la vo Phai cau chung so 2367 du 17 September 1901.
Ngeme partage que le Ngo-3H du bo. P.g.l’Ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.

P.E. G.
Droit percu : 5 $ 00.-
Quittance No.5511
Bentre, le 13 Avril 1923
P.L’administrateur etfro
Sign by Huchard & Red Bentre Stamped. ( interesting information about ? from 1866 to 1917 and officially sign by Bentre Administrators with offcial stamped. On 12 April 1923, may be this official information about land owner ? from the Bentre Admninistration in 1923. )

36) 1924

(1)Ho leaves Paris for Moscow , becomes full-time Communist agent . Later went to Canton as assistant to Mikhail Borodin , Soviet represen-tative in China.(D)

(2) December.8.1924
Off cover brown definitive Indochine RF stamp , 12 cent in double circle type -2 stamp, Postally used CDS Hanoi (To)nkin 8.12.24.

37) 1925
Emperor Khai Dinh was died, he was burried at imperial ‘s tombs, near the purfurmed river. His tomb very best and artistic, like miniature city, with many artistic statue of dragon,gourd and civillian, elephant, horse .
Theorically Bao Dai his elder son became the emperor Of Vietnam, and The young emperor came back from France to ascended the throne under france tottulage.

( I have some original vintage photo of Khai dinh Tomb fro 1930 , 1949, and 1955, the old photo, the childrens were riding the horse and elephant ‘s statues
In the modern times we hav the informations about that Tomb :………………………………………..- auth)
Khai Dinh ‘s elder sons was the last empror of Annam 1926-1945, but he always at Paris, and under Japanese protectorate he came back to Vietnam stayed at Dalat,
( by referendum the last emperor was thrown out by Ngho Dinh Diem in 1955, read another subchapter-auth)

38) 1927

(1) June .13th.1927
Mytho Indentity Card,certifies exaste les reneignaments et-dessus(issue by) Mytho le 13 Juin 1927 Le Directeur, form was printed by Photo-Nadal,120 rue cayinat,saigon. (Nadal-photo have produced many vintage picture postcard-auth)
No. Maticule 372
Nom (name) : Ly Thi Nega
Ne l e(born ) : 13 Juillet(july) 1913
A’ (at) Phu Lun (Sadec)
Eleve de L’Ecole des : Sacuro
Nom,profession : Ly dai Con
Adresse des parents : Proprieclaire a Phu Lun (Sadec). (Sadec an native traibes near the border with ex annam area-auth)

(2) August 18th 1927
Republique Francaise Indochine 12 cent revenue sheet, used at Bentre,by Tong Minh-hue Lang Thanh –thoi,
Bentre Village square official stamped with chinese char. Also thumb –finger print sign.

(3) August,1st 1927
Rare Indochine 40 cent Revenue 300$ A4000$ , used on Document “To Han Mai dat” Bentre le 1er Aout 1927 , handfinger thumb signed of seven persons , legalised by the chief of Bentre Village with square stamped Bentre Village Thanthoi and Province De Bentre Administrateure stamped at 3 Aout 1927.

(4) October.24.1927
The rare and unique Carte D’Indentite (I.D.) Changenebes de Domicile (Change the domicillies) from”D’Outremer Service de Laison avec les originares aries Territoires Francais d’Outra-Mer” (The Service’s laisson of Foreign France teritory area) with the round stamped on blue Republique Francaise Timbre tax d’outra-mer ,very rare Revenue for France Colony, pity the ID card quality poor but useable for historic archived and must restored–auth)
Nom (name) : Luong hoc San
Nationalite: Citayen Union Frnacasie (Cochinchine).
Profession : Efecidiant (not clear ?)
Ne le : 24 octobre 1927
Long Binh Ranch..Cochinchine.(The rare used Franch colony revenue in cochine china, pity the revenue in bad condition,but the photo and card good condition, still interesting Cochine chine ID card during that colonial era-auth)

No Collections and no Information, please someone will kind to send the info in 1928-auth.


(1)Nguyen Ai –Quoc more knwon Ho Chi Minh have builded Vietnam Communist Party (D&P)

(2)Nearly Mint Picture Postcard Hanoi-Le Jardin Botonique.printed by Grands Magasines Reunie Hanoi(OP)

(3)Republique Francaise Indochina 10 Cent Revenue sheet overprinted Indochine 3 Cent used in chinese char about …. with six square stamped “ “P.Binhoh-h.Phu-Cai”in center chinese char…….(PH)

41) 1930,the economic crisis and rebellion year.

(1)in 1930 the economic crisis added the social economic conflict between the poor farmer and labourmens ,in Indochine they have made rebellion the same situation in China.

(2)The second type Banknote issued by The bank of Indochina, this notes different from the first type, the name of the issuing bank, which “Banque de I’Indochine (Indochine written jointly without dash, the first type “ Indo-Chine”), while in the transitional period of the two typical categoriethe one-piaster notes bore the bank name of “banque de I’Indo-Chine”, and there was on their back side trilinual letters of Chinese,Vietnamese,cambodian and note emblem.
For these second catagory of notes, on their back side there were lines of Chinese Characters and a legal warning (in French) which have been all writen nratly and lightly. The note values have been written clearly in three letters of chinese,Vietnamese and Cambodian.
The following five-piaster notes were called very popularly by our compatriots as “Con Cong ”(Peacock) papers. On the back side of the twenty piaster notes there was the four-faces statue found at bayon temple (Cambodia). They were called populary as “Giay Qanh”( “Vingt Papers) which come from the french number “Vingt”(twenty).
For one hundred-piaster note, there was rather special thing. The Vietnamese figures (The single vase,The Imperial Temple Gate of Hue,capital city) were shown on the front side, while on their back side was seen the bust of Joseph-Francois Dupleix, a well-kown french colonialist official. ( I have this notes in fine condition, but very difficult to find the veryfine or unc condition, this note were found in Russian market Phonphen Cambodia, in Ho Chi Minh city difficult to find the Indochine papermoney, alway verybad condition maybe because the Liberation ‘s war and many Saigon ntaive vietnamese flea away after the fall of saigon, the only place still found was Cholon area, but the chinese there very carefully to change this high nominal value after the French leave that area, please comment-auth)

The Doc Luc, Giay Qanh and Con Cong(Single vase, twenty piaster pape and peacock) have constituted a triad of big notes which have been used for a rather long time under the French rule.After this three bankonote, issued the same banknote disign but the Baque De I’Indochine and nominal value in Red Colour , the rare banknote was the highest nominal 1000 piastres, the first type in yellow colour ( That is way very rare the very fine conditions , many poor conditions have found –auth).
After this Banque De I’Indochine issued several design cammon banknote, une,cinq,cent,cinq cent with native design.

(3)January,13th .1930
Rare chinese calligraphy bring by chinese immigrant (hoa Kiao or Chinese overseas) to Cholon-Saigon, about Chinese homeland traditional ritual from Tjiang Shi (Quanshi?) , the best time to pray at 10.15 pm , position up above, also about Chinese zodiac good fortune.
(I have found several document ,revenue and postal history written in chinese char during ancient time, francaise Indochine, Bodai’s,diem ‘s and liberation war from the Vienama’s chinese overseas area at Haiphng near Hanoi and Cholon- Saigon. I will write a special book about Vietnam’s Chinese Overseas unique collections- auth)

(4) November,13th 1930
The reciept of Land House tax with Indochine Francaise liberty armour ‘s Cantho Village violet stamped , signed by Ngui Thau, before by Vien Chuc Thau Nhan. (fiscal history-auth)

42) 1931

(1)August,7th 1931.
The reciept of Land House tax paid ,signed Vien Chu thau Nham with Violet French Liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan Buoi (D)
( the change again of official govern-ment system in the village four times from 1920-1939, from Nguoi Thu(1922) – Vien Chuc Thau Nham(1923)- Nguoi Thau(1930)- Vien Chuc thau Nham(1931)-Nguoi thanh(1932)- Vien thau Nhan(1939 )-Nguoi Thau (1939,May)- Vien chuc thau nhan (1940)-Nguoi thau(1941)-Thue (1946)-Nguoi thau (1949), very best informatif set collection So Hien Bien lai , especially the year 1941-1942-1943 – 1946-1nd 1949 as the collection for showed-please comment-auth)

43) 1932

The Reciept of Land house tax paid, signed Vien Chuc thau nham, with red-brown franch liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi (D)


(1) December, 17th 1933
The Pink paper reciept of Land House tax, signed Nguoi Than, with Red French liberty stamped Canth, village du Tan Buoi (D)

45) 1934

(1)May 20th 1934
Emperor Bo Dai merried Jeannete Marie (?) at the imperial city of Hue.
And his wife became “Hong Hau Nhan Phuong” or empress of the South.
( I ever stayed at the “Nhan Phuong” Hotel at Hanoi near Hoat kiem lake in 2007-auth)

(2)October, 15.1934
The White paper reciept of Land house tax pai, signed Ngui Thou with red chinese character of the Frech liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan buoi (D)

46) 1935

(1)December.30th 1935
Off cover emperor Bo Dai official stamps send from the capital of Vienam administration office , 5 cent orange Indochine definitive stamps overprint Service, postally used CDS HUE –A(NAM) 30.12.35
(Hue was the capital of the state of Anam . The Service stamps
for official latter of the Annam kingdom adminsitration during the last emperor Bo Dai-auth)

(2) Blue Matches label withe elephant design,”Societe Indochinese des alldmetes-Benthuy-Hanoi” with chinese char.
(Very rare Matches label from Indochine Francaise in the Tonkin village Benthuy –Hanoi found in Indonesia before the World war II , because many collections burns during Vietminth war against Franc in 1952-1955, this is the first reported of that kind collections, were someone had the same collection please comment –auth)


(1)In 1936

(a) stamps issue depecting the various native emperor and king in variety of commemorative honouring notable figures.

(b) Old styled chinese char about Chinese School information (difficult to translate, my be someone will help me -auth)

(2)August.21th .1936
The Vaccination card, “ Ville De Cholon” Etat-Civil Indigne(Bo doi Bon Quoc), Bulletin De Naissance (To Bien Lai khai Sanh)
Identification :
Nome et prenom : Law Ngoc
Sexe de l’infant ; Hau um
Ne le (born) :18.8.36
Address :A Cholon Rue Thu Gia De Lam Thong Et de Hua Teich .

Ephemera of The Variolla vaccination ’s law in Vietnamnese and Chinese char:
“ Every newborn child must have variolla vaccination, ifn’t done the parent will have sactions”
Behind the card stamped :
Vaccine contre La variola 21-8-36, Succin 24-8-36, Vaccine per BCG 22-8-36.

(Rare Histroric health vacinnation record collection during Francaise Indochine at Cholon-Saigon Cochinchine in 1936 –auth)

No collection and information, why? Please comment -auth

No collections and information Why snf what happened ? please comment-auth.


(1)29th April 1939
Two vintage document used as the covers of Hand written vintage book:

(a)The Reciept of personal Tax from Village Da ban-Huyen de Yen Binh, paid (Paye) 129$81 , “import personnel and Toncier of” nguyen Quang ,hand sign by “Administrtaeur-Resident”at 29 april 1939 with official stamped
Pour L’annee 1939
Village de Da Ban
Canton de….. Huyen de Yen Binh
1.-Impo’t personnel
. …contribuables a’ 250$00
…..contribuables a’ 200.00
….. contribuables a’150.00
……contribuables a’ 125.00
……contribuqbles a’ 105.00
…..contribuables a’ 80.00
…..contribuables a’ 55.00
…..contribuables a’ 40.00
…..contribuables a’ 25.00
…..contribuables a’ 15.00
…..contribuables a’ 7.00
…..contribuables a’ 5.00
..32contribuables a’ 2.50 80,00
….6contribuables a’ 1.00 6,00—— 86.00
Centimes additionales a’impot personnel 17.20
Total de l.impot personnel et des centiemes additionnales 103.20

2.-Impot Toncter
Riziores de 1’ classe—— Mau a’1$90
– 2’ classe…… Mau a’1,50
– 3’classe……. 11 Mau a1,00…..11,00
Terrains de 1’classe…… Mau a’2$30…
— 2’classe…. Mau a’1.00
— 3’ classe…. 12 Mau a’0,50…..6.00
— 4’classe….. 30 Mau a’0.17……5,10
— 5’classe….. Mau a’0,02…..
Total de L’impot foncier 22,10
3.centiemes additionnels au principal de l’impot
Au profit du Badget provincial…………….. 4,42
4.4/1000 additionels au principal de L’impot foncier
Au profit deLa’Chambre d’Agriculture….0,09——– 26.61
Total de lo’impot a’ verser par le village———- 129.81
Arrete a La somme de Cent vingt reuf pistres ,quatre vingt et un cente.
Nguyen Quang te ………..29 april 1939
Administateur Resident
(b) Versaments Printed Document, The Rice field class no 1 & 2 and Land Tax in chinese char.
Nu du carnet d’enregistre ment ……….831
DATE de versements …………………….3739
En Toutes latters….toen trrs piatres cents
En Piastres ……………………………………….103,20
Hand sign and not clear official handstsaped :

d) Vintage Handwritten Book in Chinese charcter and many Coding pictures about the confucian prayed

(This Unique Imporst Fiscal “ Nguyen or Tunyen(?) Quan ‘s “ Import personnel and Toncier from village Da Ban ,huyen Yen Binh was the first report Fiscal revenue historic collections from Vietnam, I am very lucky to find this very rare document with another documen were used as the cover of an handwritten chinese char vintage books in antique shop near Hoat Kiem lake Hanoi in 2007. auth)

(2) October,30-1939
Off Cover brown native stamp Indochine RF 50 cent, postally used CDS Haipong 30.10.39 (Haiphong was the older capital of Tonkin, the chinese marchant harbor, the rare Haiphong’s picture and ID Card look at the next page, chronologic year 1947 and 1955. auth)

29) 1938
(1)September.4th 1938
This postally covers was sent from Hanoi Tongkin to Het Postzegelhuis (Post Office) Djogja Indes Neerlandaises (Ned.Indie, now Indonesia) WITH FIVE Rhodes STAMPS , 3 x 5 cent , 6 cent and 18 cent Indochina stamps(rate 39 cent) Par avion WITH INDOCHINA MAP, with ROUND Postmark HANOI P.O.-TONKIN WITHOUT DATE , SENT VIA BANGKOK G.PO.c 4.9.38 , VIA BATAVIA (HANDWRITTEN IN BLUE PARKER INK “HAUR BATAVIA”(NOW JAKARTA) AND ARRIVING POSTMARK DJOKJAKARTA 7.9.38 WITH HANDWRITTEN f 1.- ADDED PORTO ONE GULDEN. (UNSUAL PORTO)
(the photo of this Wessel’s cover will show in this blog. Please comment if anyone have the same collection-auth)

(2)Near mint Indochine Pictured Postcard with the Native village Tonkin Womens sold the flower and fruit “Paysannes Tonkinese revenant du Marche.
This card base on “Cliche No-Nhu_Hoan,MY-Hao Ban-Yen-Nham-Tonkin, pritted by Edition photo NADAL ,Saigon-Imp.Braun(P)

(1)March.23th 1939
The blue paper receipt of land House tax paid, signed Vien Chuc Than Nham with red French liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi , 23 mars 1939. (D)

(1) March.29,1940
The Police D’Abonnement A L’Eau Porable , Cochine Chine polish insurance (?) With very rare overprint 36 on Indochine Francaise 25 cent Timbre fiscal revenue , le abonemen Cathedral De Saigon .RP Eugene Scullard ,Place Pigneu de Boheine.
secteur de saigon, Services Technique, control de Eaux et De Electricite, This contract sign at Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Vue et propose L’Ingenuer Charge du Controle, L’Abonne, Vue et soumis a L’apprebation de M.L’Administrateur Le chef de services technique sign R.Lachamp, and Vu et accepted Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Le chef de Service Administratifs with Cholon Region Station Services Technique Stamped.(Very Rare Cathedral de Saigon abbonnement certificate with very rare overprint Yellow-36 on 25 cent Indochine francaise timbre fiscal revenue, only found one pieces this emergencies revenue-auth)

(b)The Republique Francaise Indochine 15 cent Requete revenue sheet
(a) added “Tonkin -handstamped” R.F.Indochine 3 cent revenue , used with village stamped with chinese character “H.Phu-Cat V.Dai-Hac”, this revenue sheet was the house and land transaction , the house located at the highsociety area, north the village, south Phan Tiu, West Phan Yen, East Kwang chung .
( This revenue sheet found at Hanoi Hoat Kiem area” and the best showed collection to compare between the Tonkin ‘s Phu-Cai Hand-stamped 3 cent, with The Cochinchina’s Mytho- Mechanical overprint 3 cent, wonderful two historic revenue sheet from Tonkin-phut Cai (north) and Cochinchina-Mytho (south) found by Indonesian , especially if showed in USA or French , please comment-auth)

(b)added “ Cochinchina-mechanical overprint” R.F.Indochine 3 cent, used at “Tinh Mytho,Tong Phong vu ,” at Tang Hoa Log. To Ban Dut Dat Ruong”ontract betweeen “Vhu Phua and Chu Ben” date (ngay) 22 Mai 1940, (found at Ho Chi Minh city from Cholon area.-auth)

(3) July.17th.1940
Gouvernement General De L’Indochine, Residence de Thai Binh
(Family’s book, inside the book Nguyen Van Tan write in red ink the name and birth date of their family from the first generation born Hanoi,Nguyen van Tan 25.12.1893, 2nd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi.3rd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi 4th Nguyen van Kiem birth date 5.10.1922 at Thai Binh , 5th Le thiMInh,10-10-1930 at Ha Dong, 5) Nguyen van Toan 4.12.1954 at Saigon.Nguyen van Thinh 3.12.1956 at saigon and Nguyen Van Tring ,1-12-1957 at Da Nang etc another 11 persons.
(Unique Family birth date book of Governement General the Indochine, rare document from the official France colony administration, better shwed with another Gouvernur General Indchine document-auth)

(4) October,18th 1940
The best chinese overseas in Vietnam peom art calligraphy, as the remambrance for the best freands.
Including in small book more than fifteen poem and phraese about : (a)struggle for Independent
(b) you can have high vision, but must look at the true situations.
(c) Younger people don’t have the thought like a poet writers about old days situations , the Youngerman must made action to pass the threads in futures times.
(d)The Enemy were someone against us, the people were the battles.

(5)October .19th.1940
The Kuomintang flag with Sun Yat Sen photo as the head of Chinese overseas Middle school “Ijazah” , was authentication by Embassy of the republic of China .Saigon. double circle official kuomintang symbol stamped ,with big red squared official choped .
(The rare chinese overseas school document with China kuomintang –cholon ‘s embassy stamped.
I have another collection with the Kuomintang embassy stamped from Haipong and cholon- rare showed item and will list detailed in my another book title “The Unique Vietnam’s Chinese overseas document.revenue and postal history collections” –auth)

(6) December,19th 1940
The Police de’abbonent of General Immobiliere de Saigonm104.Bd Charner sretificate with very rare overprint 36 on 30 cent’s Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal (the other one 25 cent) on the Police D’Ambnnemen a L’eau Potable, sign by Directeur de la du Generale Immobiliere de Saigon,

( two very rare revenue onerprint 36 on indochine Francaise Timbre fiscal 25 cent and 30 cent very intersting collection for showed, the abnnement polish of the famous Saigon’s Cathedral and Saigon’s General Immobiliere building.-auth)

A) BETWEEN 1925-1928

B) BETWEEN 1935-1937

DURING WW II (1941-1945)

3.2.1 Before Japanese came


(1)From 1941 to 1945 almost all of Indochina stamps were designed by vietnamese painters ans printed in Vietnam as well (D)

(2)Ho return to Vietnam and form the Viethminh to fight both Japan and Franch.(D)

(2)March.14th 1941
The Receipt of house rental paid, stamped Cantho Village du thoi than.

(3)Juil(July) 5th 1941
The rare vintage Chinese Certifacate of Registration at Cholon saigon, name Ly Chu Yen , writting in chinese character and Chinese Kuomintang (Star) emblem, with Light brown 20 cent Chinese Fiscal revenue design old chinese native building , Chinese consulate cholon saigon stamped .
( I found one complete certificate and one uncomplete half certificate without photo but the Chinese consulate stamped on revenue more clair. The very fine show piece. I have a visit at the Saigon(now Ho Chi Minh City)’s Consulate PR China ,to get fast one day visa two entree with four times cost than normal one weeks finish visa one entree, but the service very best, and I used that visa to see the Histroric Nguyen trai and Le loi Langson border between PR China –south autonon Quanshi’s province with the north area of Vietnam, they called the Freedom border -auth)

The rare Postal Recepisse(Reciept) “a remettre au depossant”, name and destination : Phan Ky Che Ban bien Place de Ai Section Rach –gia, send from CDS Cantho Cochinchine 30.8.41.

28) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine
(1)The picture of Hotel at “Baclieu”” Le pare et l’Hotet de I’Inspection”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon,Gravure Braun&Cie .Dornach(France).(P)
(2)The Vintage Picture Postcard Of CochinChine.”the picture of Potterie Canal of Cholon with the junks.”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon , Cholon 1634. gravure Braunn &Cie.Dornach(france).
(I have seen the canal during last visit in 2009,still many ships but no jung anymore -auth)(P)
(3) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine. The pisctur of la Douene Bentre.
The card was isuued by Photo Nadal Saigon, Bentre 1104,Gravure Braun & Cie.Dornach(France) (P)

(1)June.30th 1941
The very rare Postal Recepisse no 671 postal cancel CANTHO-COCHINCHINE 9.30 , 30-6.1941.
Recipesse, remettre ao deposant,
(A rempiir per l’expediteur.)
Nom et adresse du destinatire (the destination address): Chan Ky chee Bon Bien
Rue : Pace de la Section a’ Rachgia.

(A remplir per l’agent des Postes.
Nature de L’object Valeur declare remboursement Poid.
(1) Voir notice e speciale au veran
(2) Coller 1e1 L’etiquette gommes du G-20

In The Back :
Notice Speciale
Si L’object ne porte pas de declaration de va-
Leur et n’est pas greve de remboursement biffer
Par deux forts traits de plume,Les emplacement
Reseves pour L’inscription de la valeur declaree
Ou du montant du remboursment.
Le delai se prescription des valeurs de toute
Nature confie’ens a’ La Poste est est d’un on.
La designation de L’expenditeur peut e’tre faite
Au moyen d’une griffe.
En vuebd’eviter le stationement au guichet,
Les expenditeurs sont prie’s d’affranchix regulie’re-
Ment leurs envois avant le depo’t.)
(The Best postal History postal cancel of Cantho Cocchinchine during WWII with Speciale notes in French , as the postal History of French hegomony and historic colonial in Cochinchina , also very impostant to the comparative study postal cancelled of the postal used covers in Indochina after the war, because two many fake falsifiaction bogus postal used covers, I will showed this very rare postal history, not put on my blog because someone will made falsification fake cancel on covers-auth)

The light green paper receipt of land’s house rental tax paid, sign by Nguoi than with red French liberty stamped of Cantho vIllage du Tan Buoi(D)


1) 1942

(1)June.19th 1942
The red paper receipt of Land House tax paid,handwritten , signed Nguoi Than with very light red franch liberty square stamped of Cantho Village du Tan Buoi ( Rare document during WWII – Vietnam Francaise indochina as the Protectorate Dai Nippon , Vietnam still used the same stamped of Indochine cantho village-auth)
(1)August,4th 1943
The light pink paper receipt of land-house tax paid signed nguoi thanh with very very light franch liberty stamped of cantho village red stamped.
(Very rare document during WWII 1943 from The Indochine protectorat Dai Nippon village ‘s stamped still used -auth)


(1) Vo Nguyen Giap forms Vietminh Army(D) and the vintage photo of him (P)

(2) By the end of 1944,US Forces under General Douglas MacArthur had fought their way through the Pacific and werereconquering the Phillipines. Rumor spread that bthey would debark in Indochina in their first assaut against the Asian continent.
General de Gaulle, determined to regain Indochina for France, feared that vthe Americans would favor the Vietnamese nationalist.
He parachuted Franch agents and arms into the area with orders to attack the Japanese as the US troops hit the beaches. Soon Saigon buzzed with talk of the forthcoming French Operation.

4) 1945-The end of WW II and Franch resettlement and Vietnam Independent war was begun.
A. Before Dai Nippon take over the Government.

1)January 1945

(1)January 4th 1945
The Very rare & veryfine condition Gia Dinh reciept 55$ and 9$32 from Li Van San (Nhan lanh cua M) for “Pr le compte de li r Nang & Ho-thi Dau (?) , ve thue dat nha/pho, so bo thue —,nam- 1944. (no revenue exist.)
Ngay 4-1-1945
Violet Gia Dinh –Binh Bhoa Ya ‘s square stamped design bird and chinmese char.
(Very rare extrafine village Bin Hoa ya of Gia Dinh province (after that Saigon-Cholon) ‘s document during Dai Toa Senso- Great East Asia War 1942-1945-, the latest dcument before the France administration was took over by Dai Nippon in March 1945-auth)

Move down march!!!!!!!
1) March,9th.1945
(b)The Japanese lost no time in reacting .On the evening of March.9th 1945 , after strategically deploying their forces, they instructed the French govenor to place his army under their command.
(b) In Hanoi , they ceremoniously intrened the French soldiers who had surrendered without fighting. But in oother place ,those who resisted were wiped out to the man. They imprisoned several hundred French civilians , many of whom were totured to death by the same native jailers employed by the colonial adminis-tration to brutalize Vietnamese nationalist.
(c) Overnight , French power had cumbled, and the Japanese seemed to be doomed to defeat. Which Vietnamese faction would fill the void?.

Move up January 1945!!!!!
(a)When the influence of World war II affected the French Indochina, the French Government issued a catagory of notes in which the ame of the issuing organ, Le gouvernment General de I’Indochine, at time from 1940 onward . the paper quality became worse than before, the paper was carelessly presented in IDEO(imprimerie d’Extreme-Orient _far east Printing House ) Hanoi.

(b)During this period , there were still metalcurrency, the leads coins were moulded with a paddy ear on one side . Especially there were issued lead coins with a paddy cluster moulded on the back side. A popular saying in relation to currency was orally propagated to stir up among people the anti-French Resistence for Independece :” When the paddy grows on the lead, elephants tram papers, the Monk shall have to disappear soon”(D)

(c) Worried by the growing Japanese influence, the French encouraged their own youth groups. But the Vietminh quickly infiltrated them and also seeded its cadres in japanese-sponsored associations. So, with no more than five thousand members in early 1945, the vietminh has a web of activitits all cross Vietnam, ready to act as events unfolded(D-ibid stanley Karnow p-159)

move up. March.!!!!!
(2) January ,31th.1945
The Diploma from Guberneur General Indochina sign under delegetion to Secretary General with Indochina Goveuneur general stamped , at hanoi 31 Jan 1945, during Indochina as Protectorate Dai Nippon. The complete diploma in france :

Republique Francaise
Diploma D’Etudes Primaires Superiures Indochinoises
La Gouverneur General de Indochine.
Vu les directs du 20 octobre 1910:
Vu le direct du 2 mai 1920 ,modifie par le decret du 18 october 1922,
Vu Le Reglement General de l’Instruction Publique en Indochine :
Vu Le process-verbal de l’examen subi par Mn Nguyen van Loi ne le 7 Juin 1925,
Par leguel la Commission de l’examen atteste que le Diplome d’Etudes primaires superieures.
A Thoibinh,Cantho a ete juge d’obtenir le (epreuve facultative ————–) avec La mention Passable—–
Delivre a Mr “Nguyen van Loi “ Le present diploma pour servir et valoir ce que de droit.

Enregistre saus le no.1191 La Directeur pi Fait a hanoi 31 Jan 1945
(Direction de l’Lnstruction deI’Instruction Le Gouverneur General
Publique) Publique en de I’Indochine,
Indochina PAR Delegation
Secretary General
du Gouvernerment General I’Indochina

(The very rare historic document before the Dai nippon took over the French administration in 1945 , the last French administration during WWII-auth)



(a)Japanese took over the Government administration through out Indochina. (D)

(b) Phung Thuong, as a boy before WWII , he had felt no particular resentment against the French, whom he rarely saw. But the famine of 1945 arused his hostility to both the Japanese and the French, and Vietminh agents entered the villages, urging the peasant to organize. They evoked Ho Chi Minh, a name then unknown to Khang. Even so, he agreed to head a platoon of seventry peasant armed with machetes and scythes, with only tw musket among them . They fortified the villages, building staves in hole covered with foliage. One night, in ambitius eneavor , they had fired six of their seven bullets. (D)

(2)11th March 1945
Bao Dai proclaims the indepen-dence of Vietnam under Japanese auspices.
Bo Dai, the indolent puppet emperr, had been hunting during the Japanese cuop.(D)

3) April 1945
No collections and information-auth

4) May 1945
No collection and information-auth

5) June 1945
No collection and infornation-auth

6)July 1945
(1)The allied leaders had met in Postdam, a Berlin suburb, to plan the future. There they had devised a schemed to disarm the Japanese in vietnam- aminor item on their agenda- by dividing the country at the sixteenth parllel. The British would take the South, the Chinese Nationalist the north, it was a formula for catastrope.

(2)The British commander, General Douglas Gracey, was miscast. A colonial officer with limited political experience but a genuine affection for his Indian troops, he held the parenalistic view that “natives” should not defy Europeans. Officially, his was not to reason why, he had been plainly told by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the allied commander for Southeast asia ,to avoid Vietnam’sinternal problems and merely handle the Japanese. But Gracey, guidednby his prejudices , (D)

7)August 1945

(1) August.14th 1945
Ir Soekarno and Drs Mohamad Hatta (Indonesian National’s leader during Dai Nippon Military Adminis-tration in Indonesia) went by flight to Saigon and by road to Dalat , where they have a meeting with Marskal Tarauchi (the command of Dai Nippon Military Administration in Saout East Asia ) and they have The Indonesia Indepen-dence’s mandat (D)
( Read the detail history in Unique Collection’s. Blog(By Dr Iean S.) “ Indonesia Independent War document and Postal History“-auth)

(2) When and Where the DaiNippon surrender in Vietnam ?-auth

1)August 1945


(2)By the summer of 1945 , flood aggravated the already serious food shortage as the Red River dikes , neglected by local officials, burst in several spot. In Nothern Vietnam, poor in the best of circumstances, two million people out of a population of ten million starved to death.
Not far from Hanoi , a leathery old peasant by the name of Duong Van Khang recalled years afterward that so many of his fellow villagers died :” We didn’t have enough wood for coffins and buried them in bamboo mats.”

(3)Condition were no better in the cities. Dr Tran Duy Hung, mayor of Hanoi at the time, recollected the scene in an interview decade later.

(4) Starving peasant in several places attacacked French post and stromed Japanese granaties.

(5) With the news of Japan’s surrender in August, the uprising spread. Vietminh agent mved quickly to take advatage of the Turmoil. A villager recounted the events of that period in a district of Thai Binh province, in the Red River delta :
“The Village marketplace was jummed. A man in brown pants and a cloth shirt climbed onto a chair, and guards armed with machetes spears and sticks surrounded him. He delivered a speech, saying that the Japanese had capitulated to the allies, and that the time had come for Vietminh to seized power . I was just a teenager in ragged clothes, and I asked a schoolmate, “ Now that we’ve seized power, who will be the mandarin?” He replied :”Get this.the mandarin is just apeassant-really ordinary”

(6) The Vietminh leader the marched to the district headquaters; the procession behind him swelled as nearby villagers joined in. The local chief had fled. The Vietminh leader seated himself in the district chief’s chair t dramatize his new authority. The next day, Vietminh agents put a village official on trial before five thousand peple assembled on a soccer field.
They read the charges. He had been an accmplice of the Japanese pirates. He had forced the peasants to pull up their rice and plant jute and peanuts, enriching himself even though the people were miserable and dying. He admitted that he had worrked for the Japanese but claimed that he was just carrying out orders. But they announced that his crime was very serious because he had opposed the revolution and helped the enemy. So They sentenced him to death and shot him right there.
This really fired up the people. They went after the henchmen of the Japanese, dragging them out of their housees, making them lower their heads and beating them. That finished their prestige, and the fervor of the massed kept rising.(D)

(7) August.16th 1945
To keep pace with the momentum, Ho Chi Minh summned sixty comrades to Tran Tao, a village in Thai nguyen province, North of Hanoi.
The time had come to grab power and greet the allies on the arrival. Ho formed a National Liberation Comittee with himself as president, calling it “The equivallent of a provisional government “ appealing for a general insurrection, he proclaimed in classic revolutionary style “ The oppresed the world over are wresting back theirindependent. We should not lag behind.(D)
Clad in coarse khaki uniforms or black pajamas, the first Vietminh detachments entere Hanoi on August 16, raking over publics buildings as Japanese troops stood by.
The emperor ‘s delegate, a symbol of imperial authority, resigned to a Vietminh-run committee of citizens which promptly announced its seizure of power from a balcony of the Hanoi opera house, a model of French gingerbread architecture.