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BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)
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Showcase :The Germany (Deutschland) Historic Collections Exhibition
The earliest hominid fossils found in what is now Germany are Homo heidelbergensis (500,000 years old) and the Steinheim Skull (300,000 years old). The Neanderthals, named for Neander Valley, flourished around 100,000 years ago. The region was glaciated from 30,000 years ago to about 10,000 years ago. The Nebra sky disk, dated 1600 BC, is one of the oldest known astronomical instruments found anywhere. Northern Germany experienced the Nordic Bronze Age from 1700BC to 450BC and thereafter the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Differences between artifacts from northern Germany and those from southern Germany suggest the beginning of differentiation between the Germanic and Celtic peoples. In the 1st century BC, the Germanic tribes began expanding south, east, and west.
Early history (56 BC to 260 AD)
Main article: Germanic peoples
Germanic tribes in 50 AD (not including most of Scandinavia)
Early Old High German runic inscription on the Pforzen buckle
Germany entered recorded history in June 56 BC, when Roman commander Julius Caesar crossed the Rhine. His army built a huge wooden bridge in only ten days. He retreated back to Gaul upon learning that the Suevi tribe was gathering to oppose him. The English word “Germany” is derived from the Latin Germania, a word first recorded in Caesar’s writings.
Under Augustus, the Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus began to invade Germania (to the Romans, an area running roughly from the Rhine to the Ural Mountains), and it was in this period that the Germanic tribes became familiar with Roman tactics of warfare while maintaining their tribal identity. In AD 9, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius in the clades Variana (“Battle of the Teutoburg Forest”). Arminius later suffered a defeat at the hands of the Roman general Germanicus at the Battle of the Weser River or Idistaviso in AD 16, but the Roman victory was not followed up after the Roman Emperor Tiberius recalled Germanicus to Rome in AD 17. Tiberius wished that the Roman frontier with Germania be maintained along the Rhine. Modern Germany, as far as the Rhine and the Danube, thus remained outside the Roman Empire. By AD 100, the time of Tacitus’ Germania, Germanic tribes settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany. The 3rd century saw the emergence of a number of large West Germanic tribes: Alamanni, Franks, Chatti, Saxons, Frisians, Sicambri, and Thuringii. Around 260, the Germanic peoples broke through the Limes and the Danube frontier into Roman-controlled lands.
Main article: Germania
Six great German tribes, the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards and the Franks took part in the fragmentation and the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The vandals were two tribes, Hasdingi and the Silingi. Several other tribes were also involved, the Alans and the Suebi in particular, but the Alans were an Iranian people steppe, not Germans. The six major tribes found major kingdoms. All of them disappeared with one exception, the Franks, which gave its name to Western Europe in languages such as Arabic. The diagram shows the fate of kingdoms, two of the Franks, two from Romania, and overthrown by Islam. The parts of Italy from the Lombards by the Romans who obtained naturally fell to the Franks (if then ceded to the pope) and North Africa, the Romans called up from the Vandals, then went to Islam. The Frankish kingdom is divided into the elements of the medieval history of Europe. Although Burgundy and Lorraine, now, as such, Switzerland and Monaco are gone modern pieces of the former and the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg are modern pieces of the latter.
Besides the German tribes, and was captured and damaged the Western Roman Empire, there were the tribes that stayed back in Germany proper. These were the Saxons, Alemanni, and the Thuringian Rugier. If the Rugier were Odoacer in 487, destroyed formed a new confederation of Germans in their place, the Bavarians. All of these strains in Germany were finally subdued by the Franks, the Alamanni in 496 and 505, the Thuringia in 531, the Bavarians after a certain point 553, and finally the Saxons of 804th When Germany finally separated as the East Franks, took over the old tribal identities as a new stem duchies.
The Stem Duchies & Marches
The Stem Duchies (tribal duchies) in Germany was mainly the areas of the old German tribes of the region. These strains were originally the Franks, the Saxons, the Alemanni, the Burgundians, the Thuringians, and the Rugians. In the 5th Century the Burgundians moved into Roman territory and would have been in 443 and 458 in the area, then Lower Burgundy. The area they had occupied in Germany, along with the Saxons, was occupied by the Franks. The Rugians which Odoacer destroyed in 487 formed a new confederation of Germans in their place, the Bavarians. All of these strains in Germany were finally subdued by the Franks, the Alamanni in 496 and 505, the Thuringia in 531, the Bavarians after a certain point 553, and then the Saxons, in a lengthy campaign of Charles himself, from 804. When Germany finally separated as the East Francia, took over the tribal areas of new identities as the subdivisions of the Empire, joining Lorraine (right Francia Media). For the ruler of this ancient Roman title dux (“the leader”) was adopted. It was originally a Roman frontier military commander used. In German, however, the corresponding title, Herzog, more like a translation of a Greek, , stratêlatês, “army” (stratos) “leader” (elaunein, “to lead”). Thus, the Old High German title of herizoho, from heri, “army,” and ziohan, “to lead.” This looks very much like a similar title, voivode, maybe a translation into Slavic languages.
The Merovingian kings of the Germanic Franks conquered northern Gaul in 486 AD. In the 5th and 6th centuries the Merovingian kings conquered several other Germanic tribes and kingdoms and placed them under the control of autonomous dukes of mixed Frankish and native blood. Frankish Colonists were encouraged to move to the newly conquered territories. While the local Germanic tribes were allowed to preserve their laws, they were pressured into changing their religion.
Main article: Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire: Realm of Pippin III in 758 (blue), expansion under Charlemagne until 814 (red), marches and dependencies (yellow)
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire the Franks created an empire under the Merovingian kings and subjugated the other Germanic tribes. Swabia became a duchy under the Frankish Empire in 496, following the Battle of Tolbiac. Already king Chlothar I ruled the greater part of what is now Germany and made expeditions into Saxony while the Southeast of modern Germany was still under influence of the Ostrogoths. In 531 Saxons and Franks destroyed the Kingdom of Thuringia. Saxons inhabit the area down to the Unstrut river. During the partition of the Frankish empire their German territories were a part of Austrasia. In 718 the Franconian Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel made war against Saxony, because of its help for the Neustrians. The Franconian Carloman started in 743 a new war against Saxony, because the Saxons gave aid to Duke Odilo of Bavaria. In 751 Pippin III, mayor of the palace under the Merovingian king, himself assumed the title of king and was anointed by the Church. The Frankish kings now set up as protectors of the Pope, Charlemagne launched a decades-long military campaign against their heathen rivals, the Saxons and the Avars. The Saxons (by the Saxon Wars (772-804)) and Avars were eventually overwhelmed and forcibly converted, and their lands were annexed by the Carolingian Empire.
Main article: Holy Roman Empire
The prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. (left to right: Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia)
Holy Roman Empire, 10th century
Marienburg (Malbork) castle of the Teutonic Knights
Holy Roman Empire, 14th century
In 768 the Frankish king died, leaving his kingdom to his two sons—Charles and Carloman. When Carloman suddenly died in 771, Charles seized his brother’s lands and made them part of his own kingdom. During the next two years, Charles consolidated his control over his kingdom and became more commonly known as “Charles the Great” or “Charlemagne.” From 771 until his death in 814, Charlemagne extended the Carolingian empire into northern Italy and the territories of all west Germanic peoples, including the Saxons and the Bajuwari (Bavarians). In 800, Charlemagne’s authority was confirmed by his coronation as emperor in Rome. The Frankish empire was divided into counties, and its frontiers were protected by border marches. Imperial strongholds (Kaiserpfalzen) became economic and cultural centres (Aachen being the most famous).
Between 843 and 880, after fighting between Charlemagne’s grandchildren, the Carolingian empire was partitioned into several parts in the Treaty of Verdun (843), the Treaty of Meerssen (870) and the Treaty of Ribemont The German region developed out of the East Frankish kingdom, East Francia. From 919 to 936 the Germanic peoples (Franks, Saxons, Swabians and Bavarians) were united under Duke Henry of Saxony, who took the title of king. For the first time, the term Kingdom (Empire) of the Germans (“Regnum Teutonicorum”) was applied to a Frankish kingdom, even though Teutonicorum at its founding originally meant something closer to “Realm of the Germanic peoples” or “Germanic Realm” than realm of the Germans.
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