THE INDEPENDENCE OF BRITISH COLONIES COLLECTIONS
Created by Dr Iwan S based on his vintage book colections 1954 and related uniquecollection illustrations
This tory dedicated to all my friend from the ex British Colony in Asia like Sarawak,North Borneo(Sabah),Straitsettlement (now Singapore and Malaysia) ,also other british colonies in Asia ,Africa,and America.
@copyright Dr Iwan S
I. THE BRITISH COLONIES IN THE POST WAR WORLD II(james,laurance,little brown ,Great Britain,lancaster,1994)
The history of what out to be the final decades of the British empire was largely determined by the course of the Cold War.It began in the winter of 1944-5,when British and American strategies began to get the jitters abaout the extent and purpose of trhe formidable buil-up of Soviet military strength .British apprehension about Russias future behaviour was focussed on threrats to the empire,and they asumed a disturbing substance during the first half of 1946,when Russia demanded bases in Lybia and the Dardanelles, and refused to evacuate nothern Persia.Soviet attacks on British policy in the Mediterranean,India,Persia and Indonesia(DEI-Nica) during the first Unitad Nation meeting in February 1946.There had been signs of a change of heart during the winter 1944-45 ,after roosevelt (USA president) had relaxed his objections toward Frances repossesion of Indochina. There were substantial Communist,anti Japanese resistance movement there(Vietminh,Ho Chi-minh) and in Malaya. Both had a vast poptential for subversion,and it was ,therefore,politically prudent to allow the re-occupation of both colonies by their former rulers.
This wa unfair but understandable . Hving set its heart on a new Jerusalen in Britain,Labour was busy setting up smaller Jerusalemin the colonies. There is in Kenya a civilization of the dominant race,suppoted by chep labourand that kind of society is intolerable. announced Creech Jones,although as Colonial SEcretary from 1946 onwards he did little to change matters.He did,however ,frighten white settler in Africa and they were relieved when the Conservatives won the October 1951 general election.
The Midddle east oilfields were taking up the spiralling demand for oil by 1950-1951, and after a period of rapid development ,they were producing 70% of the WEsts requirements.Britain had traditionally been the dominant power in this region.
Two non-white dominons,India and Ceylon,refused to become Britains allies in the Cold war,Burma left the commenwealth in 1948,having become a republic,and was followee by Ireland,also now republic.
In 1949 Idi adopted a republican constitution ,remained a memeber of a commenwealth . The reason for permitting thsi anomaly was the fear that India,once outside the Commonwelath ,migt easily slide into the Communist block. Pakistan joined anti-Soviet Baghdad Pact in 1955.
At late ass November 1957, patrols of the The African King rifles tramped through remote district of Kenya to remind Suk and Turkana tribesman of the retribution in store for lawbreaker. Deonstrations of rifle and Bren ggun fire were mounted for parties of Tribesman and after one,which included the explosion of granates,nothing mush seened to have changed in fifty year. Areal policing continued in the hinterland of Aden where sixty-sin tons of bombs and 247 rockets were needed to punish caravan raiders and stop an inter-tribal war in 1947. That same year a revival of tribal feuding left several hundred dead and wounded in Somaliland, a protectorate where British rule had only been fully installed in 1920.
Colonial authority was also fragile in another volatile outpost, the Solomon Island. After the end of the Japanese occupation,a substantial body of natives had vitually declared independence.
II. THE DEMOCRACY IN BRITISH COLONIES IN 1955(kirk,grayson DR,Dutton&Co,New york,1955)
To understand the real nature of democracy we must examine it as it appears in many parts of the world (espeacilly in the British colonies-Dr Iwan S).DEmocrasy is in thepeople who create it and in the principles by which they live. Because it is the direct product of all its citizen,no democratic society has achieved perfection nor turned all of its ideals into reality.Its citizens are human beeings,each with traits,each with bad. ( we can look at the wie,tghe foolish, the kind or the vicious,the trustworthy,the irresponsible, the spiritual,the materialistic,)’
In a truly democratic country,ancient family ties are not violated, if he chooses .a man can make friwnds with his neighbormwithour anxiety or distrust,he can express his friendliness or compassioan towaard people of other land,he can worship the unknown power of the universe in his own fashion, he can disagree which his neighbor and critize his government, he can peruse the wisdom of the past and the knowledge of today without having it censores for hism, he holds firmly to his free voting previlege,he support programs to lift the dignity and the standard of living of all human being.He opposes aggretion but believes indefense against attack from without or from within.He can find time for joy and realxation,he is convinced peace can be reached trough the cooperation of men in many lands. He believes in mankinds right to change.
B.THE UNIQUE COLLECTIONS
I. THE INDEPENDENCE OF BRITISH COLONIES IN ASIA
1.Aden independent became Southrern Arabia and later became Yemen
Indian Independent by Moh Ghandi.
In 1947,when the British withdrew after nearly two centuries of rule,360 m illion people in India gained their political freedom in one of the greatest achievements in democratic history. The 584 diverse state of India wre welded into eighty-eight unified states. and demoninion of Pakistan was created.
Malaya &straits,sawakand north borneo Independent
II.THE INDEPENDENT OF BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA
Basutho land Independent became Lesotho.
In June 1954, the election , marked one of the final steps in the transsitional of the Gold Coast from colonial status through home rule to independence and dominion status. Dr Dwame Nkrumah ,prime Minister of the Gold Coast and leader of the Convention Peoples Party, the capital city Accra.
Britsh Somaliland independent became Somalia
III. THE INDEPENDENT OF BRITISH COLONIES IN AMERICA
IV. THE INDEPENDENT OF BRITISH COLONIES IN ATLANTIC AND PASICC OCEAN.
V. THE INDEPENDENT OF OTHER BRITISH COLONY COUNTRIES