CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTION
DURING CHINA RESISTENT WAR 1912-1945.
I. CHINA NATIONAL REVOLUTINARY UPRISING (1912-1929)
A. Dr Sun Yat Sen’s Revolutionary
(a) The founding Father Dr Sun leaves shanghai station the morning on New year’s day 1912 for his nanking searing-in as the ROC provisional president.
the document of Dr Sun Yat Sen ‘s Declaration and the oat taken by him during the President swearing-in ceremony at Nanking and the photo after the ceremonies still exist now at The Sun Yat-sen Memoriable Museum.
After the ceremony Dr Sun and other leaders went to the Ming Tomb at Nanking for ceremonies informing ancetors that the Alien Qing Manchus had been overthrown and Chinese ruled restored.
four Original vintage smal b-W photo , at the back written in Indonesia and china language :
(a.1). Pemandangan (landscape)Koe Lao
(a.2.) Djalan2 naek koeda pegi Ming Tai Tjoe poenja koeboeran (Travellin by horse went to the Great Ming tombs).
Wah soengoeh seneng sekali!(Oh very much happy!) di ini gambar nyang naek koeda jaitoe (in the pictures which riding horse) Oen Tjiok,Tjoetjoe dari (grandchild of) oen Tjwan.
(a.3)Tionghoa Bin Kok poenja soldadoe ( Chung hwa Min kwo=Kuomintang soldier)
(a.4) Ini satoe koempoelan ponya soldadoe lagi pada brenti didepan koeboeran.(This is a soldier group were rest in the front of Tomb ? in chinese char)
Dr Sun Yat-sen addressed the first meeting of the Provisional Council
(2) March 1912
(a)In March ,3rd..1912 The tung men Hui assambled at Nanking and elected Dr Sun the Tsungli or President
(b) In March the government moved its seat North,
Sung Cio-yen brought the tung Meng Hui tofether with other factions and parties in KMT and Dr Sun was elected President in hope that he could bring factionalism to an end.
(3) The Qing Yuan Shih-kai issued the commerative of the revolution with his profile, consist 12 nomial 1,2,3,5,8,10,16,20,50 c and $ 1,2 & 5.- with same design
(4)ROC issued The Chung Hwa republic papermoney $10,$100, and $1000. gold ,with KMT flag design.
San Hsi Zeng Fun bank issued Ten liang banknote.
ROC postal office issued the first definitive stamps printed at London (first Def.London printing =1st DLP.) consist three design:
(1) Chinese Junk 1/2,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 10 cents.
(2) Farmer ,15,16,20 ,30 and 50 cent
(3) Palace $ 1,2,5,and 10.-
(a)In June,23th.1914 Dr Sun assam-bled his comrades and organized the Chung Hua Ke Ming Tang ( ChineseRevolutionary Party) to defend the provisional constitution against the effort of Yuan Shih-kai, who had seized power, dissolved parliament,scrapped theConstitution and Killed KMT member in his attempt to reestablished the momarchy. Many revolutionaries fled to Japan,
(b) J.Gunar Anderson ,Swedish Geologist have served as mining adviser to the ROC government from 1914 to 1927. He established cordial co-operation with Chinese geologist and mining engineers, and the Central government, at that time located in Peking, as weel as the provincial authorities, extended to him very possible support and facility.
(c) chekiang Provincial Govermant Bond one Dollar Local Currency , value Recieved at Hangchow guaranteed by the Financial Bureu of the Chekiang Province .
(a)ROC postal office issue the first definitive peking printing (1st DPP) with the same design and nominal with the 1st definive london printing(1st DLP) except added one nominal 13 cent farmer.
The different between 1st London and Pepking printing, the design of DLP were the line under the bow of the junk is smooth and didn’t touch the junk , but the 1st DPP the line rough and touch the Junk.
(b) ROC issued the Hung Shian Comerative stamps 5c,10c,50c and overprint Sin Kiang n 50 c.
(c) The Yuan Futteh Bank issued commemrative Banknte In the Memory f The Chnese Repubic Revlution in Yunnan 1916. Ten Yuan.
(a)After Yuan shih-kai failure to established a dynasty of his own and his death in misery and solitude in 1916, there remained as his fatal legacy to his people a most poisnous element, the military governors in the procinces, later nicknamed the “war Lords”, some of them men of considerable ability who seriously desired to save their country, but taken as a whole a set of greedy and inefficient generals who, ind order to carry on their endless and fruitless civil wars, exacted exorbitant taxes from the poor peaceful peasantry. The countryside was impoverished and devastated, the rollingstock of the railways became terribly depleted in the hands of the fighting armies,bandity prevailed, the student in their despair turned to Communism as a last resort. Many of the intellectual leaders held the recovery of their country to be question of decades,still distant.
(b)Dr Sun meeting with Naval office in Canton and after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, the KMT’s military campaign was ended and Dr Sun decided to quit the political arena
(c) ROC military bank issued Republic- an China Military banknote at several area ,
(c.1)shanghai five dollar local currency sign m.y.sung
(c.2) Military Bank note five dollars issued by The Republic of China sign Sun Yat-sen guaranteed by the minestry of finance
(c.3) THe Republican China Military Banknote Nanking one Dollar Local Currency, guaranteed by Central Bureu.
(c.4) Republican Govderment of Chinsa Military Notes issued by the Menistry of War.One Dollar and five dollar
(c.5) The Republican Military bank-note AN Hwei one dollatr Local Currency
(c.6) The Wang-Ho Bank of the Republic Military Bank Note one dollar Local Currency.
(c.7) The Kang -Se Bank Of The Republic Military Bank Note One Dollar Local Currency
(c.8) Military note of Chekiang Goverment five Dollars
(a)Parliament was dissolved again and Dr Sun decided to send the navy to Canton as a move to safeguard the provisional contiturion
(b) In September 10th , Dr sun established a military government at Canton.
II. Saving The ROC
1. Dr Sun to quit the political arena and Chiang Combatting adversaries (1917-1925)
(1)Chiang Khai-sek stayed with his father and mother in the small village , he have merried the first wife( village lady) but he never love her.
The Agricultural.Industrial and Connercial Trust Company limited at Chang Chow issued Banknote ren cents and one dollar.
(a)ROC post Office issued three stamps commemorated 25 years China Post Office 1,5,6,and 10 c. and Famine relief surcharge on the junk stamps 1c on 2c,3c on 4c and 5c on 6c.
Also issued the first Isuued airmail stamps (without KMT emblem) nominal 15,30,45,60,and 90 cents.
(b) THe National Bank of China issued ten cents and ten dollars banknote with Dr Sun profile.
(a)Chen Chun-ming(the chinese warlord) mounted his coup attemp-ted and Dr Sun took refuge abroad the Naval vessel “Yungfeng” at Whampoa and Chiang risked his life to rush to the side of Dr Sun
(b) ROC issued the first black machinal overprint i cent provisional on the junk Stamps
(c) August 1922
Fragment used farmer stamp 20 cent ,CDS Shanghai 21.8.22.
(d) ROC post office issued Provisiional surcharge on Junk and Farmer(Reaper) type stamps
(a)In this year, Dr Sun sent Chiang to Russia on an inspection tour.
(b) ROC post office issued the second definitive Peking printing stamps (2nd DPP) , same design and nominal, but added $20.- Palace stamps.This 2nd DPP more common that the first DLP and DPP0.
also iisued the First Constitutin commemrative stamp 1,2,4 and 10 cent.
(c) The Central bank Of China issued Dr Sun Yat-sen Banknote sign by LSWong one dolar, 10 dollar and 100 dollars. and this banknote used at Hunan,Kiangsi $Kwansi with official Handchopped in violet ink.
(a) in the hout of direct need, there emerged a young leader, Chiang kai-sek, a military officer who had acted as Chief of the Staff to Dr Sun Yat-sen ever since the revolution of 1911-12, had established in 1924 under the orders of this “father of the Revlution”, the Whampoa Military academy near Canton and had here created in the space of two years a new type of Military cadets educated to fight, not for any individual War Lord, but for the resistant of China.
(b)Upon Chiang return frm Russia, he was assigned to establish an army academy which opened at Whampoa n June 16,1924.
In his inaugural address Dr Sun said that the task of revolutinary forces would be to assure the continuity of the Republic and carry out the three Principles of the People
Chiang , the first ccommandant of the Academy
The entrance if the famed Whampoa academy in the subburps of Canton
Dr Sun and Chiang have taken photo on the academy’s founding day
The Vintage Picture Photo of Chiang from Book Illustration ‘China national hero ,chiang Kai-sek,
(c)From january 27th to August 24th 1924. Dr Sun gave a series of lectures on the Three Principles of the people at Canton Senior Normal School. He cmplete six lectures each on Nationalism and Democracy and four on the people’s livelihood before going to Shakuan in nothern of Northward Expedition forces.
The vintage picture photo of Canton street from vintage minddleschool history book 1938.
(d) March 1924
In March ,19th.1924,Sven Hedin have written China Travelling book in Stockholm “From Peking to Moscow” the story of his Travel by land with car and another transportation from Beijing to Moscow via Mongolia, with many picture photo illustrations. If the collectors want to know the story and the rare photo picture illustrations please aksed as the collectors choice via comment and we will put in this blog.the vintage picture photo illustration of writes profile, his car and the staff ,Port Hateman Peking,mongol caravan in Peking. Wantsjuan road,the Pas of Hongte, on Horse, Chinese trader,Larson second car at Mongol,Telegraaf station at Ude,Rest the car at Woeastijn,Temple at the high Pas, Mongolnative people,Lama Temple at Oerga, Larson car at Chara, chinese carriage at Pas mengatai, larson car at Selenga , Mongolia Oerga Smiking pipe and the picture photo at Russia.
(e) Used Block four Junk stamps 3 cent , CDS Shanghai 1 .11.24.
(f) The Fuching Bank of Kiangsi issued $1 one yuan banknote.
(a)In Jan.1925 The Mienhu battle, the forces of Chen Chun-ming (the chinese warlord ) invaded Canton ,while dr Sun was in Peiping and ill,he died at Peking because the metastage stage of Heart Cancer diseases in 1925.
Chiang organized Whampoa cadet and part of Cantonese Forces into an army of resitance that routed the 100.000 invaders at Tan-sui ,Piingshan and mienfu. this campaign is known as the First Eastward Expedition.
Chiang first didn’t have the fund to organised the Whampoa cadet because the Warlord didn’t like him , but when he met the two brother of Dr Sun ‘s wife the rich Shanghai Bankers , Chiang were help by them with enough funds and he met their younger sister and Chiang fall in love.
(b)in July 1925.The second Eastward Expedition was undertaken, Strategic Huichou was taken, Chen Chun-miens’s influence was obliterated and peace was restored to whole of Kwantung province.
(c) used Not clear city cds 12.11.25 on junk stamp 1/2 cent ,fragment postcard with chinese language.
(d) ROC issued Great Wall banknote one dollar local currency
(e) The Bank of Kwangsi issued Temple of Heaven banknote 5 Dollars
(a) Starting from cantn in July,27th 1926, Chiang with an army of only one hundred thusend men, set out Northwards expeditin t subjugate the prvincial satraps and unite China.
(b)The Chiang returning the salute of his forces after adrressing his soldier during Military Parade on the eve of Northward Expedition(P) Chiang Northward Expedition strategy was onenof divide and conquer.
His major target was Wuhan. He routed Wu Pei-fu forces and took the city.
The second target was nanking which was occupied after defeat of Sun Chuan-fang’s forces.
Peking ) soon renamed Peiping) was tkaen after the defeat of Chang Tso-ling and other warlords.
(c)With small force chiang was going to face armies many times more numerous tha his own and commanders like Wu pei-fu, Feng Yu-hsiang, Sun Chuan-fang and Chang Tso-lin, men whse feats had inspired their opponents with awe.
(d) ROC post office issued the second red provisional 1 c overprint on junk stamps
Fragment post packet CDS Shanghai 27.4.26 on junk stamp 6 x 1 cent, 2 x 8 cent and 1x 4 cent (total rate 26 cent). (send to Indonesia)
(f) July 1926
The Chiang Southwards Expedition forces set off from the south on July,9th.1926 and advanced like a whirwing.
In July 1926,from the capital of southern revlutionary gvernment,canton (Guangzhou) , which for a succession of years had brought redicule and contempt upn itself as hotbed of treason and political intigue, the comparatively unknown, thirty eight years old General Chiang Kai-sek set out for the north to carry out the testament which Dr Sun at his death in 1925, had placed in the hands of his young chief of staff; the unificarions of China in accordance with the Republican principle of Kuomintang.
Chiang’s armies amounted only to a fraction of the numbers The Kuomintang troops enter the provincial capital Changsha,By now both Chiang and his celebrated opponent,Wu Fei-fu, had reached the front. Fierce and finally decisive took place at a point of strategical important, Tingszekiao, in suthern Hupei. At First the KMT troops succeede in occupying the place without much difficulty but Wu ordered the execution of nine officers who were responsible for the loss. Soldiers armed with swords were posted at eight points to cut down anyne who retreated. In cnsequence Wu’s troops fought with desperatin, and n the evening of August 27th they recaptured Tingszekian. Chiang at once gave orders that the place was to be reoccupied at all cost, and on the morning of the 28th it was again in possesion of the southern troops. Wu called up his reserves, and after heavy losses on both side he again occupied Tingszekiao. Now chiang in his turn threw the suthern armies’s general reserve into the firing-line and after a whole day’s fighting Tingszekiao reamined finally in his hand.
Changsa was captured on July 11.
(g) August 1926
The Battle of Tingtzuchiao bridge began on August 27
Wuahan was capture October 10
Nanchang was capture Nopember
(j) The Miltary bank issued Military banknote Five dollars.
(a)The Mao communist undertook a series of uprising in 1927 and their Head quaters at Hotel Chiangsi Nanchang
(b) The Mao communist built “Red Yard” during the Lu-Hai uprising.
(c) March 1927
Shanghai Captured in March 19
and Nanking in march 23. This meant that two of the princupal targets (Shanghai and nanking) had been Won by Chiang.
(d) Mao Communist instigation then succeeded in dividing the Chiang KMT into nanking and Wuhan faction.
On July 15,1927 , The Chiang KMT authorities in Wuhan decided to break with the Mao communist, whohad not kept their promises to work for the unification and peace of the cuntry.
The Mao communist thereupon followed the order of the comintern to rise the liberation and seize political power.
(f) August 1927
On August 1st 1927, the Public security and Northward Expedition force under the command of Chu Te,Ho Lung and Yen Ting mounted an uprising at nanchang Kiangsi
On August 5th 1927, The Mao PLA force ,pursued by government forces, fled southward from Nanchang.
On August 17, 1927, a remmant force of 8000 men entered juichin .
On august 13th 1927 Chiang resigned as the Commander in Chief of
(g) September 1927
On Septemebr 24th 1927, Chiang KMT forces occupied the Chaochow-Swatow area.
After start of the nanchang uprising, the Communist Party held the “August 7 conference” at wuhan tlo made plan for all out Liberation.
On September 8 th 1927, Mao and Hsiang Ying led a force of 2000 in the ” Autumn Harvest Uprising” and ravaged a dozen cunties in eastren Hunan and nothern Hupeh.The Chiang Government forces routed the Liberation army.
Mao then led more then 500 remnants to Chingkangshan. Survivors of the Nanchang figting organized Soviets in Lufeng and Haifong of Kwantung province under the command of Peng Pai.They went on a killing spree known as the Lu-hai uprising.
Other nanchang remnants under Yeh Chien-yin and Ho Lung reached
canton and incited peassants to join them. This war known as the Canton uprising.
It was now urgently necessary for Chiang to lose no time in turning against the mighty Sun Chuan-fang,who controlled five provinces (Kiangsi,Fukien,Chekiang,Anhui and Kiangsu) and had at his disposal the best-equipped troops.
As early as September 19th one of Chiang’s generals occupied Nanchang, the capital of Kiangsi. But here again reinforcements were brought up on both sides and fighting proceeded continously until November 8th before the town was definitely in Chiang’s hands.
(h) December 1927
On december and one of Chiang’s subordinate commanders entered Foochow, the capital of Fukien.
(g) J.Gunnar Anderson left china in 1927 at the lowest ecc of political decay .
(a)The vintage photo of Indonesia native man at.Peking (P)
(b) February 1928
The fourth plenary session of the KMT’s second Central Comittee was held in this month and urged Chiang to return to his command.
On February 1928, Hangchw, thecapitalf Chekiang was occupied by Chiang soldiers. some of Sun’s subrdinates now went over t chiang, and the commander-in;chief of the fleet also rejoined him. Later Feng Yu-hsiang and yen Hsi-shan follow their example and went over to the KMT.
On March 24th General Cheng chien with the seventh canton army corps occupied Nanking. He was accompanied by political agents who were infected by Communist docterines and sought to compromise Chiang in the eyes of foreigners. Some foreigners were killed in Nanking and a great number of their housees were plundered. Probably a great massacre of foreigners would be occured, if the guns of tje foreigners warships anchored in the Yangtse off the city had not set up a barrage round the hill on which their nationals were gathered.
Chiang was on board a steamer on his way down the river when this happened. He realized at once the extent of the danger he insurred through this reversal of his own extremly considerate policy toward foreigners. Without pausing at nanking he went on direct to Shanghai, assumed command there and gave such assurances regarding the safety of theforeign settlements that he reagined at one stroke tke confidence of the Power. After this there was a combing out of the instigator of the Communist excesses in Nanking.
In april the Kuomintang goverment was constituted in Nanking The southern Capital.
Chiang launched the second phase on the campaign in April,23th 1928.and he inspect the frontline at Tenghsien.
Before the month was ended chiang occupied Pukow, the ferry station opposite Nanking, and continued his victorious progess noryth ward.
On April 7th 1928, Chiang set out forces the North, Chang Tso-lin fled t his manchuriaan capital Mukden..
(d) May 1928
Japanese obstructionism resulted in the Tsinan Incident of May 39th 1928.
on may.21st pengpu fell.
(e) June 1928
On June 2nd Hsichow , the town which has later become so famous in the war with Dai Nippon.
Tsangchou was taken in June 2nd 1928 and Chang Tso-ling fled northward, he was assasinated by the Japanese at Huangkutun in Liaoning.
The careful planning of the campaign and to the patriotic spirit of his young officers Chiang succeeded .On July ,5th.1928 his troops enter Peking without resistance . A brilliant campaign, a march almost incredible,extending from the south coast through the whole length of China to the mongolian frontier and accompanied by constant fighting against War Lords battling for their independence, was successfully accomplished in less thatn two year, The foundation laid for the rebirth of China.
But no more than the foundation. Rebellion cropped up in different parts of the immense empire, the allies of today became the enemies oof tomorrow, as the formerly independednt provincial chief felt that their very existance was a stake. A still more deadly danger to Chiang’s great unification scheme was the foundation of a Soviet rule over a large part of the provinces saouth of the Yangtse. The russian issued two stamps at that area one Stalin figure and the other lenin figures.
(g)In the first half July, the Expedi-tionary force capture Peking and Tientsin to complete its assignment.The National KMT flag flying at top the Chengyang Gate at Peking, with this victory the country was unified for the northeastern prvinces.
Expeditionary force moves to Hunan and Kiangsi by Train.
(h) July 1928
In July,6th,1928 Chiang led his commanders in paying tribute to Dr Sun Yat-sen at Piyun Temple.
(i) October 1928
Chiang took office as Chairman of the national Government in Octber,10th 1928. President f the five yuan(brances f gvernment) were swrn in at the same time,
The Executive Yuan began its function in October 29th 1928
The North China Insurance Co.limited sertificate was issued by Indonesia Agent “The Borneo Company Limited” at Batavia(Jakarta) in November,25th 1928.
(k)Communism became a formidalbe threat t the rule of the Kuomintang, the party of Sun and Chiang.Not till he had engaged them in five most sanginary campaigns was Chiang able to oust the communists from southern China, only to see them erect a new stronghold in the distant North-west, where they are still in control at the present day.
(l) ROC issued Marshal Chang Ts Lin commemorative stamps 1,4,qoc and $1.-
(a)Shanghai accident, The japanese aggressive move
(b)The vintage photo of Shanghai port and The vintage silk embrodery of shanghai port.
(c) October 1929
as early as October 20th 1029, the first step towards commercial flying taken in China. For on that day a trial flight was made with a Douglass transport machine on the route Shanghai-hankow, and the five hundred and thirty-seven miles were cvreed in seven hurs
(d) ROC post office issued the Unification comemorative stamps nominal 1,4,10 c and $1.-
Also issued the second issued Airmail stamps (with KMT emblem0 nominal 15,30,45,60,and 90 cents.
(a) Dr Sun Yat Sen last will
(b) The first National Council ROC meeting
(c) October 1930
Mao Comunist local Post Office issue two types stamps, the first stamps nominal 1,3,and 10 cents design chinese character, and the second stamps design comminust symbol nominal in chinese charavter 1 and 5 cent color red.
II.ROC NEW LIFE MOVEMENT(1930-1937)
(a) Side by side with reapested wars for progressive unifications, Chiang, backed by a great number of active and capable men, succeeded in building up during the short period from 1930 to 1937 a new modern China with a stable financial system, a reformed currency,simplified and unified taxation, important new railways and an immense network of motor roads. A new army was trained and equipped with the very able assintance of German military advisers and an air force was created with the help of America and italian instructors.
1. ROC battle 1930-1933
(a)The Central China battle 1930
(b) May 1930
In his last will and testament, Dr Sun Yat-sen called fr the convening of a national coyuncil and the scrapping of all enequal treaties. these objectives were attained by Chiang. The first National Council meeting was convened at Naking in May of 1930 and at the same time the government prepared for mobilization against Dai Nippon aggression. These cadres are training at Lushan.
Chiang Government forces engage the Mao Communist in Kiangsi..
(a)The Japanese engineered the Mukden incident 1931 and manchuria was occupied.
(b) The vintage picture photo from magazine ,The proclamatie that dai nippon occupied Mukden in 1931(P)
(c) May.16th 1931
The Vintage picture photo magazine illustration , General Honjo the commandant of Kwantung army.(P)
The phillatelic creatipn Postcard with second Tatung war commemorative postmark on Dr Sun 10 cent stamps with Bilingual shanghai postmark CDS 8.12.31.
on Nasanof Dental Surgery & Prsthetic Dentistry Dental Radiograps card (phillatelic creation or CTO)
With heyear 1931 begins the Dai Nippn aggression against China, the first stage of which was the occupation of Manchuria, September to december 1931. The situation at last became so confused that Chiang and with him a large propotion of the government resigned office in December 15th 1931. But it was not long before the opposition obliged to beg him to return.
(e) ROC issued Dr Sun stamps type I double circle and type II single circle. this stamps printed in 1931-1937.
(f) ROC post office issue Dr Sun type one, Double thin circle of the KMT coat of arm. seven nomianl1,2,4,20 c and $ 1,2 and 5.- after that also issued Dr Sun type two ,Single bold circle with different color 2,4,5,15 drak green,15 scarlet,20c ,25 c and $ 1,2 and 5.-
(g) Mao communist local post re -issued the the first stamps 1 c with color red and the communist eblem and globe in red color..
The Japanese seized the Northeastren China Province in 1932.In manchuria a violent tension had arisen in shanghai between dai Nippon and chinese, a tension which led the landing of Dai Nippon Marines on January 28th 1932 for what was expected to be a rapid and simple action-the dispersal of the Chinese defensive forces.
Mao Comunist local pst office issued the thirs stamps nominal 4 cent design Communist emblem in the star.
(b) The Japanese stamps used at Daeren. manchuria 1932.
(c)The vintage picture photo from vintage dutch enciclopedia, Emperor Puyi (the young man with jacket) with the Dai Nippon soldier and the Manchuira government official(P)
ROC soldier moving to the front after Dai Nippon invasion of Shanghai in January 28th,1932.
(e) The Vintage picture photo book illustration .Profile of Araki Sadao, Dai Nippon General and menistry of war of prime menistry Inoekai (Dec 1931-Jan 1934). He created the Bloody military attack during China-japan conflict, Occupied Manchuria, Shanghai and province Jehol (P)
(f) The vintage Picture Photo book illustration, Effect of Bomb in Hongkew,Shanghai.and A chinese soldier examining a comarade who has been killed by a bomb at Taitsang outside Shanghai , and Japanese soldiers during street-fighting in shanghai (P)
May 1st, Mao communist Local postoffice issue eight worker day stamps, three communist flag and glbe,tw sldier, two communiat flag and one the communist soldiers in war.
(h)The vintage picture photo book illustration, A picture taken on August,14th 1937 showing the immense crowds on Garden Bridge and the bund to watch the first air attack on Idzumo.
(h)The Vintage color Picture Postcard of Honkew Market Shanghai and Race Course Shanghai.
(i) ROC Post office issued the Martyr stamps, printing between 1932-1934.
nominal 1/2,1,21/2,3,8,10,13,17,10,20,30,40 and 50 cent.
also issued Nrthwest Scientific expedition cmmemrative stamps nominal 1,4. 5 and 10 cent
and the thir issue airmail Stamps fligt on greatwall nominal 15c,25,30,45,50,60,90 c and $ 1.-,2.- ,5.- .
(j) March 1932
The vintage picture photo from magazine illustration in March,5th 1932. The Chinese Artillerist training to used Granat at the Chinese-Japanese fornt (P)
Not until very cnsiderable reinforcements had been brought from Dai Nippon did the Nineteenth Army retire in good order on Marchd 2nd, but by then the district of Chapei, where fighting had taken place, wasno more than a heaps of ruins and it is estimated that the material damage in this thickly populated quater amounted to 350 million shanghai dollars.
(k) May 1932
May 1st 1932, Mao Communist local post office issued two types stamps, Military stamps eight nominal and
worker day stamps two nominal 1 and 2 cents.
2. The Chiang New life Movement (1933-1937)
(a)The Mao Communist mounted an uprising in Fukien provcince 1933
and Chiang issued the strategy against Mao in 1933.
(b) January 1933
Fragment cover used Dr Sun type I double circle 2x 1cent and Junk 2x 4 cent (rate 10 cent) CDS Shanghai 18.1933.
January 1933,Mao Communist Local Post office issued red Flower stamp
(c)In 1933 Dai Nippon Military seizure Jehol and invasion of eastren Hopei ( DN issued overprint Hupei in chines langguage on Dr Sun stamps)
In February,19th.1933.Chiang launching the “New Life Movement” at nanchang in an effort to rekindle the chinese moral sense and reinfrce determination to resist foreign aggression and ideology
The Kuomintang has developed more and more into an upperclass party. It is not likely in the beginning the Father of the revolution, Dr Sun ,foresaw any such tendency. But sun merried one of the exceptionnally gifted daughters of the Soong dynasty, one of the richerest families in China, and Chiang chose for his consort the most energic of these ssiters, while Dr H.H.Kung, the present Prime menister of China, merrierd a third of the sisterss , and the brothers Soong, particulary T.V.Shoong have acquired a far reching influence in State affairs.
Chiang asked Dr Sun ‘s mother in law and Dr Sun’s wife brothers , to marry to Dr Sun’s wife sister.
All the family of Dr Sun’s mother in law accepted to Chiang prefered with one condition, Chiang must went home t the village fr asking permisiions from his family and divorce his first wive. chiang sent his first wife to USA and never met her again.
After that Chiang merried the Dr sun’s wife sister , his second wife then became the ROC first lady and she have gave Chiang many support.
(d) the rare Cinderella stamp commemorate one years Tuberculosis campaign in China. desig TB control emblem and the sun rays with the TB man.
(e) In the autumn of 1933 a revolt broke out in Fukien,which, however, was quickly crushed.
(f) In April 1933,Chiang launched his fourth campaign against, the communist armies in Kiangsi. In the course of the first engagement two f Chiang’s divisions were disarmed. After Chiang’s best division, the eleventh had been destroyed, the war was ended.
(g) October 1933
Used fragment cover Dr Sun double circle stamp 3x 25 cent and Martyr 2×10 cent CDS Shanghai 14.10.33.(PH)
(h) ROC issued Tan Yen Kai commemorative stamps.nominal 2,5,25 cent and $1.-
(1) Hupeh provincial bank issued the Pagoda Banknote 1 Yuan,10 Yuan and 100 Yuan.
(a)Fragment used block five Dr Sun stamps ttype II single circle 5 cent CDS Shanghai 9.5.1934 (rate 25 cents to Indonesia)
(b) From this year until 1936 eastren hopei entirely lawless conditions prevailed, with armed smuggling which cause the Chinese government a loss in revenue of two million dollars a week.(J.G.Anderson,1939)
(c) October 1934
The red generals now realized that their only chance of escape was to cut their way out and retire to more sheltered region. Quite unexpectedly they fell upon the blockading forts in Quangtung and Hunan in October 1934 and tok them bystorm, till the way lay open t the suth and west. Then began the Red armies long and famous March to the north-west thrugh Kiangsi,Hunan,Kueichw,Yunnan,Szechuan and eastren Tibet into Sensi and Kansu which became their new home. it was a strategic retreat, or ought we rather to call it astrategic advance-agains Dai Nippon; since the Reds have for years detested the civil war and dream of meeting the aggresor in the north ? This migration over adistance of more than six thousand miles, including several of the highest mountains of Asia and some of its greatest rivers is an aimost inconceivable feat of strength, the more so as it was attended by constant engagements with a far superirenemy. Altogether the march lasted almost exactly a year, and of its three hundred and sixty-eight days only one hundred were rest days,often disturbed by serious fighting, and in the two hundred and sixty-eight marching days the phenomenal average rate of twenty-three and a half miles a day reached, in great part on unmade mountain tracks! It is true that of ninety thousand who started from kiangsi only twenty thousand reached thei new home in Shensi; but their spirit was unbroken, as is shown by the succeeding great events,which contributed to bring about the present crisis between China and dai nippon.
Chiang never succeeded in completely defeating the red armies, although in the course of fve great campaign he mobilized all his available forces to this end.
The constanttly repeat assention by Dai Nippon that they are waging war against Chiang in order to extirpate Bolshecism in China is one of the most ludicrus f the propaganda lies by which world pinin is being misled at the present time. The truth is that during the great work of reorgani-zation ofthe last ten years Chiang has been forced t live between the devil and the deep sea. n the ther hand he had the cntinual intriguing f the great generals, besides the Reds, who shot up like a social epidemic where ne least expevted them; on the other the never-resting aggressin of the Dai Nippn. If during these years of recionstraction Dai Nippon had left the Chinese in piece to work ut their wn salvation.
the Red agitation would certainly have been in process of liquidation long ago in the only really effective way, namely by an agrarian reform, initiated from above but going to the bottom of the question,with the object of providing the agricultural Labourer with Land and making his hard life secure. Chiang himself comes of peasant stock and knows full well whre the shoe piinches.
(d) In the autumn of 1934 there began for Chiang and his energic consort new, colourful and adventuruous phase of their life.Their great flying tours in the interior of China to parts of the country which to them were comparatively unknown.
(a)The Vintage Picture Photo ” The first Mass Wedding in Shanghai 1935. A young couple could be merried for 23 shilling, wedding dinner included. (vintage book illustration)
(b) January 1935
fragment cover Cds 1/1-35 special chinese language postmark on 4 X 1c martyr and 2×5 c Dr Sun single circle (rate 14 cent) and frag. Martyr 10 cent and Dr Sun 15 cent CDS Swatow , date incHinese language.
(c) December 1935
In this month Mao communist local post office issued blue Military stamps.
(a)In the spring of 1936 the province of Quantung and Quanshi declared themselves independent of Nanking , but his revlt was brught to end in July when the Quantung air frce flew ver the Chiang’s flying base at Nanchang in Kiangshi and placed its self to the disposal of nanking.
For ten anxious years, amid constant fighting, now with the super-Tuchuns,the great provincial Governors, now withthe Rd Armies(Russian&Mao), Chiang had welded the cuntry into something resemblin a unified state. It was to be shown,howeever, in the ggreat event before and during the war with Dai Nippon, how far this cohesion yet come short of accomplishment.
In October 1936 Chiang flew up to Sian to organize the campaign against the Reds. He found the tungpei troops unwilling to fight the Reds, with whom they had so many interest in common. The only possibility was to sent up Nanking divisions for the anti-Communist campaign, ameasure which was eventually to lead the eliminating of the tungpei army. The tensin were extreme, the more so as a new ill-conceled dai Nippon advance was in progress in the north, in the province of Suiyuan. Chiang wished at all cost to avoid a general armed conflict with dai Nippon. The Tungpeis and the red together wished to march agains dai Nippon.Ten Nanking divison,with field equipment,were waiting in Tungkuan,ready to advance into Shensi. Railway trains full of war material were unloaded at Sian, and rders were given from Nanking that Sian and Lanchow to arrange to receive a hundred bombing planes, to be used in wiping outvthe Reds.
Thre events now follwed in rapid succesin, all calculated to increase the tension at Sian.The first was the signing of the anti-comitern pact between Germany and Dai Nipponwith Italy’s tacit recognation of the dai nippon occupation of Manchukuo in return for dai Nippon’s recognation of Italy’s conquest Abyssinia.
Seven respected citize of Shanghai , a banker,a jurist, some professors and writers had been arrest by Chiang’s order for Anti Japanese propaganda.
(c) November 1936
J.Gunnar Anderson entered again in November 1936, finding everywhere sweeping evidences of the rapid renaissance of avigrous healty nation.
The work of freconstruction would have been a still more assured success, had not Chiang and the thousand of able reformers working with him been labouring all the time under the most terrific stress, walk-ing “between the devil and the deep sea” . On the one hand,there were the constant onsslaught of the rebellious generals and the Communist, on the other, the never-ceasing encroachment of Land-hungry Dai Nippon militarist on Chinese territory.
n November 21st ne of Chiang best general Hu Chung-an the head f Nanking’s first Army, was ttally defeated far up in Kansu by the red armies.for weeks the Reds had dne nthing but retreat,while Hu, entirely misinterpeting the situation , had penetrated farther and farther into nothern kansu. the one night,after the Reds had lured hu into a basin of Loess surrounded by heights, they fell upn him from all sides. two brigades and a regiment of cavalary were entirely cut to pieces and one regiment went over to the reds.
In December 8th in athunder -laden atsmophere that Chiang landed with his giant plane on the flyingground at Sian. several hundred officers from the Tungpei and Hsipei armies met him and demandes a hearing, He referred then to Chiang Hsueh-liang as the proper man to communicate their view to him. During the next few days Chiang and Chang conferred with each other many times. The former desired war with the Communists, the latter armed resistance to Dai Nippon. They had reached a deadlock,beyond which their exchange of view could no further.
on december 11th Chiang move out to Hua ching chi, a bathing resort about fifteen miles from sian,where he often stayed during his visit to Shensi. At half past five on the morning of the 12th Chiang heard rifle-fire in the vicinity, and it soon became clear that Chang’s and Yang’s troops had started a revolt against Chiang.
the greter of Chiang Bodyguard was shot down, and one of its officers urged chiang to seek safety on the mountain.
Before the war of Resistent against Dai Nippon, Mao communist urged that Chinese not fight each other nut joint together in fighting the Dai Nippon. The slogan confused forces under the command of Chang Hsueh-lien, deputy commander of the Mao Communist suppression Forces in Northeast China ,
From the Northeast Provinces occupied by the Dai Nippon, and the followers of Yang Hu-cheng commander of the Shensi farrison.
On December 3 1936, Chang Hsueh-lien went to Loyang to meet Chiang and reported that the situation in northwest China was chaoutic and required a visit by the commander in chief.
In December 4th 1936, the Chiang flew to Sian in chang’s company and was housed at the Chinghuachih Hostel. Many Governmengt leaders and military commander converged on Sian.
On the Moring of December 12 1936, the hostel was surrounded by the troops of CHang Hsueh-liang (the Chinese war lord)
One of the Chiang’s bodyguard and a secretary were killed in line of duty. The Mao PLA forces abducted the Chiang and took him to another place in the city. High ranking officials and commanderds in Sian were detained. Shao Yuan-chung,vice president of the Legislative Yuan, died of wounds inflicted by the Mao PLA army.
Chang Hsueh-liang and Yang Ho-cheng telegraphed and eight point plitical manifesto to the Central Executive Committee of the KMT and the natinal Government.
The Whole country was dismayed. At urgently summond meeting, the national Government decided to dismiss Chang & Yang and named Ho Ying-chin commander of the Communist Suppresion force.
At the same time.Ku Ch-tung was named commander of the west Route Army and Liu Chih commander of the SWest Rute Army.
These two forces advanced in Shensi form different directions. Aircraft were dispatched to drop leaflet on Sian.
When Chang Hsueh-liang read in the Chiang diary how the commander in chief had worked desperately to mount a war of resistance against Dai Nippon, he was convinced and began to feel repentance.
On December 2nr 1936, Madam Chiang flew to Sian to persuade Chang Hsuen-liang to realese chiang.
in december 25,1936. Chang accompanied the Chiang on a flight to Nanking via Loyang. Thw hole country erupted in a joyous celebration . String of firecrackers were sent off every where to mark the leader’s safe return..
(c) Finally in this year, the desperate Chinese patriots lost their temper”YThere is no limit to the aggresioon of Dai Nippon, but there is no limit to the aptience of the Chinese (Hu shih).
The scheme f the Dai Nippon army was to seize northern China, the to stop and consilidate that gain. But the chinese, once forced into war, have nevefr allowed the japanese to rest and consilidate. I spite of repeated Dai Nippon victories on the battlefield, their army have only plunged deepetr and eeper intoa gloomy adventure, the issue of which now looks more doubtful tha ever. Dai Nippon captured Namking in this year and then waited for the chinese to sue for peace. Nerly five mth later, after prtracted and most sanguinary struggle, Dai Nippon cuptured Hankw, and nw again they invite the chinese to come to terms-term which are generous according to the Dai Nippon, but which, in the opinion of the despearte and stubborn Chinese, are only terms of surrender and subjugation. the situation seems very absurd. The victors offer peace time and again, obviously anxious to see the war ended. the retreating Chinese refuse even to discuss the dai nippon terms, still hoping to make the aggressor collapse under a protacted war of attrition.
(e) ROC post office issued New Life Movement commemorative stamps nominal 2,5,20 cent and $1.- Also issued 40th Anniversary Chinese Post Office. nomial 2,5,25 cent and $1.-
(f) Kwang Tung Provincial Treasury issued one dollar local currency , ten dollars banknote with auto truck design
III. WAR WITH DAI NIPPON (1937-1945)
Fragment used Dr Sun singlecircle stamps 2×25 cent and 5 cent(rate 55 cent to indonesia) CDS Shanghai 7.1.37. and fragment Dr sun singlecircle 2x 5 cent with red village transit postmark.
fragment postcard Used Dr Sun single circle 25 cent CDS Shanghai 20.3.37.
Mao communist local post issued Soldier and fighting stamps three nominal.
Chiang and his military adviser tried to postpone the inevitable armed confilct, but in the early part of July 1937 the war broke out over a trifle. The Dai Nippon expected the chinese to yield- as had alwats happened before. But they did not take int account the new national spritit which had spread all over China.The patience of the Chinese was exhausted. In their despair they determined to hold up Dai Nippon aggression at any cost.
Two vintage picture Photos “Bloody saterday” in Shanghai in August,14th 1937 (P)
(f) ROC pst office issued provisibal surcharge on Dr Sun single circle stamps and peking martyr type stamps 1c n 4c,8c n 40 c,10c n 25 c, and 4c n 5c stamps.
(a) January 1938
Just before the resistent war against japan strated, a chines immigrant from Fukien by ship from amoy port went to Semarang Indonesia via Hongkong to have visa, The Chinese overseas passport with Nedeland consular revenue 6 gld with 0fficial stamped straight Consulaat general der Netherlandedn and the visa have signed by “De waarbemend Cosul-Geneal voor dezen De Vice Consul with official Consulate General of the Netherland Hongkong coat of arm stamped in vilolet.
(b)The Marcopolo Bridge incident triggered the war of Resistance against Japan in 1938
The Kuomintang provinsional congreess at Wuchang in March 20, 1938.and decided to organize a youth corps to give expression to the National cause among the young people and the young corps establish on july 9.
(d) Chiang presided over a military conference at Hengshan to review progress of the war effort . He reiterated that ROC would fight to the finish in November 25,1938.
(e) The famous godown of the four banks in Shanghai where “800 brave Soldier” heroically held out against one Japanese assault after another.
(f) Chiang and his General meeting in Chungking abaot the war capital
(g) Fan Szu-chaou . a 70-yearold guerilla leader fought the Japanese behind enemy lines.
(h) The National Gouvernment Building of ROC at Chungking and Japanese bombing that Temporary capital.
(i) ROC post office issued Palace half Button Chung Hwa printing $ 1 , 2 and 5,- top frame unshade.
I have this $2.- top frame unshade OC used cds Amoy Szeming, the years not clear.
(j) ROC post office issued 150th Anniversary American Constitution with USA and ROC flag with map. nominal 5,25,50 cent and $1.-
(k) September 1938
Mao Communist local poat ffice issued the red military victory stamp
(a) January 1939
in January,5th,1939, Postally used latter and cover of The Chinese American Publishing Company Nanking Road Shanghai send Bilingual shanghai postmark CDS Jan.7th.1939 on Dr sun stamps 5 cent and the Martyr stamp 10 cent one stamp off to Soerabaja, JAVa NEI(Indonesia).
The letter in the cover written by typemachine:
The Chinese American Publishing Company. 160 Nanking road Shanghai,China.
Mr Tan Tik Ie
107 Dongojoedan street
Dear sir :
In reply to your post card d December 17 wuld state that we should be please to fill your orders,
should you desire to send them to us, and there is no risk so far as mailing things to or from Shanghai.
We are mailing you a Mcgraw-Hill Co. catalohue, listing their technical publications, ost of which we carry in stock in Shanghai, although if out, we can order them from New York, to be send direct to you. we don’t carry radio or electronical magazines in stock, but accept subscriptions which are forwarded to the Publishers. The megazinees you would like to subscribe to, we shall be pleased to send you a proforms invoice showing prices. All such subscrriptions are payable in advance, by demand draft on N.Y. in U.S.currency.
Thanking you for your inquiry, we are,
Chinese American Publishing Co,inc
This letter very rare and have many informations about the Shanghai situation, and about the publications like McGraw Hill Co and also for the US expatriat Mr Magill the sender and mr Tan Tik Ie, especially their family, please contacct uniquecollections blog via comment and UCM will put the memoriable letter illustratins in this blog.
(b) September 1939
Off Cover used Dr Sun stamps double circle 1.00 Dollars(Yuan) cds shanghai 23.9.39
(c) November 1939
Postally used cover from Nam Chow Company 41 consulat road cds shanghai 1.11.39 on Dr Sun Stamp 2x 25 cent(rate) with Chinese character stamped (?) to Mrs Tjoan Seng Tjan Pintoe kecil (small door) gang Boeroeng (bird0 Batavia (Java)
(a)ROC issued Palace Chung hwa- full button (die 2) $ 1 and $2.
and Dr Sun Dah tung book cp printing (type III) 2,5 c and $ 1,2,5 ,10.- single thin line KMT star coat of arm. , also Dr Sun imperfect Button $1,2,5,10 qnd 20,- and Dr Sun unwatermarked secret marks 5 green,5 olive green,8 olive green.8 without Dah in button,10,30,50c $1,2,5,10, and 20,- , Dr sun Dah Tung printingg watermarked -secret mark type III same nominal as Dah Tung type II.
In this year issue martyr Hongkong print watermarked nominal same as the Peking printing.
also Surcharge 3c Hongkong print on Dr Sun 5c dah tung print,Hunan 3c surchage, Kansu 3 cent surcharge, Kiangsi 3c surcharge, Szechuen 3 c Surcharge,Chekiang 7 c surcharge, 7c Fukien surcharge, Kiangshi 7 c surcharge on Dr sun dahtung print.
Provisional surcharge on martyr stamps from Fukien,Hunan kwantung,kwangsi, kiangsi,Szechuan,Yunnan on Dr Sun Dah Tung printing.
(b) October 1940
Mao communist local pst issued red 5 cent National Day stamps design star.
(1)All area occupied by the Dai Nippon issued surcharge the area name in chinese languaged on Dr Sun and martyr stamp , I have found from Hupe1,mengyang, Nianyudi,Henan and Supei .
(2) ROC Post Office issued six stamps of Presiden Lin Sen profile.
(3) ROC issued Dr Sun New York printing with different design and same nominal as Peking printing. and also Martyr peking printing 8c re-issue. and also Thrift commemorative stamp nominal 8,21,28,33 ,50 cents and $1.-
(4) ROC issued Express and Registry stamp $1,5 and 2
The Allied countried name Chiang as the commander-in-chief for China-Burma war theater in January
(b) ROC reinforcemnts rush to the front in the Battle at Changsa
(c) ROC Foreign menistry Wei Tao-ming signing of the treaty on equality and reprocity with the secretary of State Cordel Hull of the United State.
(d) ROC post office issue Dr Sun stamps ,Chungking print at native paper.
(e) Fragment used this stamps 3x Y.50. and 2×500.-(rate 1100)
(f) ROC post office issued Dr Sun Pacheng print with same design and nominal with the paking print. but Thin paper-roulet and imperfect.
(g) The Central Bank of China issued Dr Sun yat-sen and Ming palace Banknote one hundred Yuan.
(h) June 1942
Mao Communist local post issued the bird stamps there nominal 2.5 cent and $ 1.-
(i) July 1942
Mao communist local post issue the military horse riding and obor (Flame stick) stamps
(a)Chiang with government leaders have at the meeting of the National Government chairmanship in October 10 1943
(b) October 1943
In October 10th, Mao communist Xuat nan local post issued the ship stamps , Star ,and ttransportation stamps bird post, flight,junk and ship.
(a)Dai Nippon military administarition China issue two deffenitve Dai nippon occupation stamps.
(b)ROC post office issued Dr Sun pacheng print and Chung hua print, also The 50th years kuomintang anniversary stamps nominal $ 2,5,6,10 and 20.
(c)OC used Block Four of 500.- and 1000,- Chinese character pstmark.
(a) January 1945
The masacre of 89 chinese civilians and burning of houses at Leinhua,Suchuan and Taiho, Kiangsi by the Dai Nippon troops
the murder of 110 chinese civilians at Shaoyang,Hunan, by troops of the Dai Nippn 116th Division.
Arsn and pillaging of civialian property at Yungkiang and Loching,Chekiang, by troops of the 55th Brigade of Dai nippon 64th division.
(d) February-May 1945
the murder of 22 Chinese civilian at Yuangking and Hsiangying,Hunan by troops under the dai Nippon Changsa Garrison Command.
all of that infrmation above have charge againgst General Okumura , but he answered that he was in command of the japanese Land forces in China for only eight months when the war came to a close. Ha also said that he was commander-in-chief the Dai Nippon forces in North China when Japan attacked Pearl Harbour. The trial was resmed when Okamura was taken under armed escort to the military court along with four other Japanese officers from the Kiangwan war prisoner camp. Another trial will be held before judgment is handed down.
(c) ROC won a pyrrhic victory in the eight-years war against Dai Nippon.
(b) Chiang is greeted warmly outside a radio station after broadcasting the news of victory over Japan to the world.
(c) March 1945
In March 15th 1945,Mao Communist Local Post issued Train stamp.
(d) August 5,1945
Dai Nippon surrender
(c) September 9,1945
General Ho Ying-ching represent ROC in recieving the instrument of surrender from General Okamura Neiji, commander of the Japanese forces in China
(d) ROC Post office issued National Currencey Surcharge type one serie A on Sr Sun single circle stamps and also on the Dr Sun Chungking print native paper. also 20th anniversary death of Sun Yat-sen ,nominal $ 2,5,6,10,20 and 30,-
(e) ROC issued comemmorative stamps, Cairo Conference with Chiang photo and 1943, also Presidenyt Lin Sen nminal 1,2,5,6 cent and $ 10.- & 25.-
(f) The bank of China issued Dr Sun Yat-sen and flight-boomber banknote
500 yuan and 1000 Yuan Dr Sun with ancient building