CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTION
“THE CHINA LIBERATION WAR 1945-1949.”
I. THE CHINA LIBERATION WAR 1945
(a) August.14th ,1945
Dai Nippon announced its unconditional surrender to the Allies on this day.
(b) August. 28th,1945
The first post war peace negotitian as attended by both Mao and Chiang in Chongqing from August 28, 1945 to October 10 1945. Both sides stressed the importance of a peacefull reconstruction, butthe conference did not produce any concrete result Bettles between the two sides continued .(look the photo of Mao and Chiang during this negotiation)
Japanese suremder to The ROC
n October 17, a detachment of ROC government arrived at Keelung (formosa Island) and recieve a warm welcome from the people. The surrender ceremony was held at the Chungshan auditorium in downtown Teipeh on October 25 which is now celebrated as the ROC Teipeh Retrcession day.
(a) In December 1945, Mao Communist local postoffice issued the first red Mao stamps.nominal 50 cents.
(b) December 25th,1945
The ROC long pending constirution was approved by the Constituent Assembly.
(5) In 1945
The post war issued by ROC postoffice was
(a) Recovery of Formosa at conclusion of war
(b) Recovery OF fOrmosa from Japan
(c) Victory Issued red-blue-white flag on green and Chiang profile.
II. THE CHINA LIBERATION WAR in 1946
In March 1946 despite repeated request frm Chiang, the Soviet red army under the commanded of general Malinovs continued to delay pulling out of Manchuria, while he secretly told the Mao Communist Forces(PLA army) to move in behind them, because wanted Mao to have firmcontrl of at the nothern part of Manchuria before the complete withdrawal of the Soviet, which lead to full scale war for the control of the Northeast.
2. June 1946
(1)Weapons are collected from the Dai Nippon by Russian forces in Manchuria and handed over to Mao Communists.
(2) Deployment of Government and Mao Communist forces “People Liberation Army” in June of 1946.
In June 1st 1946.Mao Communist local post office issued the chinese caligraphy stamps five nominal.
In September 9th 1946, Mao Communist local postoffice issued the Chinese characters unperforated green stamp
4. December 1946
In december,25th 1946 The Chiang ROC ‘s pending constitution was apprved by the Constituent Assembly.
5. In 1946 ROC post office issued stamps:
(a) The 60th birthday anniversary of President Chian Kai-shek
(b) The Convening of National Assembly
(c) Gouverment return to Nanking
(d) The 50th anniversary of the establishedment of the Postal administration.
III. THE CHINA LIBERATION WAR 1947
1. January 1947
(1)in january 1st 1947
The Mao Communist Local post office issued the second Mao stamps nine nominal.1,3,10,15,20,30,50,80 and 100 cents. and surcharge the ROC post office building stamp.
(2)The ROC constitution proclaimed by National Government on newyears day 1947
2. March 1947
In March 1947 the achieved a symbolic seizing the Mao communist capital of Yenan .
Mao Communist Local post office issued surcharge the first Mao stramps.
Executive Yuan orders clossing of Russian-controlled post of dairen to all foreign shipping as new legal barrier against exclusive soviet occupation of Dairen.
Communist forces under Gen.Liu Po-cheng, driven from westren Shantung Province, have cut wide swath trough Hoan-Anhwei border area to within 150 miles north of hankow, according to field report.
(3) August 31th
Gen. Chen Cheng, chief of Staff of ROC army, reported to have flown to Mukden to take over government command in Manchuria.
(1) Marking the second anniversary of V-J day , Central Daily News of Nanking on sptember 3rd writes that following the conclussin of WW II, communist throughuot the world under direction of their so called control tower have been struggling to overthrow government and replace them with puppet regime that meet the wishes of their instigator. The strategic to coup now alsolooming in China. At this critical moment, allthe npeople of the country must realized that the comminust are not only disintegrated China, but are heralding an invasion by a new imperialist power.
In the repatriation of Dai Nippon soldiers and civillians and in timely dispatch of ROC tropps by air and by sea to many areas to take over fromthe enemy, the ROC Government was substantially aided by the US forces in China.
Mines and iron works ( including a number of those the equipment of which had been largely removed by the Soviet Army from Manchuria or destroyed by The communist.
The infiltration of The mao Communist into Manchuria during and following the soviet occupation constituted a new factor inthe Communist impasse after the VJ day. The ramed opposition of the Communists was the great single destructive force against all the efforts of the ROC government in carrying out rehabilitation and in restoring law and order, particulary in aress fomerly held by the Dai nippon. When every possible effort was being made, for instance, to restore the main communication lines, mobile Communist squad were actively engaged in demolition work, disrupting newly repaired railways, cutting telegraph and telephone lines and causing havoc in the countryside.
A aresult of the inability on the part of thje ROC government to disarm and accept surrender from the large number of Dai Nippon and puppet government troops in Manchuria, the attitude of the communist toward the Roc government became increasingly challenging and uncompromising.
San Min Chu I Youth Corps organized nine years ago , will be abolized before end of month, its executive comittee disclsed. Its 400.000 members will be absrbed int KMT.
Executive Yuan appoints Dr T.V.Song ,frmer president f execuive Yuan, gvernor of Kwantung Prvince
(4)In September.14th 1947
(a) Comunist Gen Liu Po-cheng and trops reprted raming nort bank f Yangtze River abut fifty miles from Nanking. roc government impses curfew n naking suburbs and river traficc.
(b) The chinese menistry of Foreign affairs issue communique satement of the work and the policy of the chinese coverment before and after the war.
(5) September 16th
ROC Government troops capture Shilipu and Chutienchun in eastren Shantung
(6) September 19th
ROC Government troops captur Laiyang in Shantung, Kwangsi and Hwangmei in eastren Hupeh.
(7) Septeber 22th
Premier ROC Chang Chun declares at press conference at Mukden that ROC is prepared to take over Dairen
6. October 1947
(1) October 1st
ROC Government troops capture Chefoo, important Comminist Base on Liaochow Pennisula.
(2) October 4th
President ROC and Madam Chiang Kai-sheh arrive in Peiping (now Beijing)
(3) October 5th
ROC Government Naval unit capture WEihaiwei, last Communist controlled sea prt in nthern Shnatung.
(4) October 20th
Heavy fighting continues with in 3 miles of Kirin, capitalmof Kirin province.
(5) October 21th
Communist press attack on Tehwei, 60 miles northeast of Changcun in Manchuria.
(6) October 22th
President ROC Chiang returns to Nanking after inspection trip to Kiaotung pennisula
(7) October 26th
Hsinglung,coal mines about 60 miles north of Peipiao in eastren Jehol, falls to Communist.
(1) November 5th
ROC Government troops recapture Changwu in liaoning, clear banks of yangtze river in central China of Communist.
(2) November 1oth
fighting in outer perimeter of Shihchiaxhwang in west Hopei cntinues.
(3) November 14th
Cmmunist 15-day siege of Yulin in nrth Shensi,lifted.
(4) November 21th
First general electin in Chinese history opens
8 December 1945
(1)After the meeting of the National Assembly last Nvember to December 1945, the Communist openly denounced the adpted Cnstitution. It was then clear that all hpes of a plitical settlement had gone. For, by that time the Communist had decided on the immediate Launching of a large-scale military offensive. No one could feel more profoundly disappointed that the ROC Government itself at such a turn of events, at atime when so much reconstruction work called for its undivided attention and immediate action.
while the Communist issued remained unsettled, the plan for army reorganization could not materialize owing to Communist obstruction thus hampering the reduction of the Armed forces. As a result, a policy retrenchment in national budget culd nt be put into effect, and inflation developed to such an extent as to threaten every Fabric of ROC political and economy life. It led t the lowering of the efficiency of the ROC government administration and the undermining ofthe morale of the Army.
(2) december 25th
Four US marines held by Communist inShantung Penisula.
IV. THE CHINA LIBERATION WAR 1948
1. March 1948
The first National Assembly was convened in March 29,1948 to elect the President and Vice prsiden of ROC.
(1) April 1st
U.S marines held bu Communist in shantung penisula released.
(2) April 7th
ROC Gouvernment military spokesman confirms fall of Loyang,Honan to Communist now approaching Chenghsien, major crossroad of China’s north-south and east-west railines.
(3) April 16th
President Chiang nominated as candidate fro presidency by more that 2000 delegates despite his earlier declaratin that he would not seek nation’s highest post.
(4) April 19th
President Chiang bKai-shek elected ROV’s first president under new constitution by National Assembly, recieving 2439 votes out of total of 2075.
(5) April 22th
Yenan,former Communist capital in Shensi, recaptured by Communist following ROC goverment strategic withdrawal.
(6) April 27th
Weihsien in north central Shantung reported captured by Communist.
(7) April 28th
Executive Yuan approves program to terminate landlorddism befre 1949 in Kwangsi and Kansu, submitted by provincial government.
(8) April 29
Gen Li Tsung-jen elected Vice president of ROC.
ROC goverment forces assisted by planes pres all sides of some 50.000 Communist trapped in area around Chienyang, 100 miles west of Sian Shensi, following recapture of Feng-siang and Paoki by ROC government unit.
(9) Communist drive toward Szechwan Province from southern Shensi reported chevcked at Paoki.
(1)president Chiang was sworn in May 20 1948 to mark implementation of governments in China.
(2) Even as the ROC government was keeping its promise, The Mao
communist were continuing the insurrection that began at Nanchang. While the war was in progress, they stayed out of battlein order to strengthen their forces and collaborated with the Dai Nippon. When the conflict ended, they were strong enough to resume the insurrection,compelling the government to meet fire with fire in a resumption of anticommunist campaingns. Mao communist also gained strenght from provisions of the Yalta treaty under which the united states agreed to Sovieyt advances eastward. The Mao Communist recieved weapons and either assistance frm Soviet Union.
(3) May 31th
Prrmier Wong Wen-han forms ROC’s first constitutional Cabinet of 18 KMT, 4 younh China and 2 non-party members.
(1) June 14th
Major battle reported in progress east of Tzeyang,shantung, along Tientsin-Pokow railway between ROC government mechanized troops and 10.000 Communist.
(2) June 18th
Military observers reveal critiscal situation in Kaifeng,capitalog Honan,where nly small garrison force defends city. ROC government reinforcement said to be rushing to embattled city.
Kaifeng,capital of honan, falls into Communist hand.
(1) July 5th
Peiping placed under martial law following day of rioting by 4000 refugee students frommanchuria. three students are killed and 30 persons including 20policemen and gendarmes , wounded.
Nanking reports major victory for ROC government forces in battle in frmer Yellow river floodes are in eastren Hunan.
(3) July 9th
Hsuchw Cmmunist suppressin Headquaters claims 104.319 Communist were killed and wunded , 8118 taken prisners,in recent eastren Hnan battle.
(4) July 13th
Nankng report battle for Hsiangyang in nothern Hupeh grows in fury as fresh Communist reinforcement pour into city’s outskitd from Fancheng and Kucheng.
(5) July 22th
President Chiang pays flying visit to Taiyuan,provincial capital of Shansi to confer with Gen Yen Hsi-shan on defense matters.
In august,15th 1948,Mao communist local post issued the third Mao stamps, three nominal in chinese characters.
7 september 1948
(1) The Communist liberation war started in September their so-called Autumn Offensive, with central Shantung and West Liaoning as the main battle fields and diversionaty moves in Hopei,Chahar.Saiyuan, Shani and shensi. Their purpose was to cut off the Northeast (Manchuria) from the North, to disrupt communication lines between important Government strategic points in North and Central China and to open a corridor for communist in the Northeast,North China ,Nrthwest and Central China.
(2) September 15th
Severe fighting between ROC government soldier vs Communist soldier.
Tsinan was doomed when Wu Hua-wen,commander of the ROC Government 84th division, deserted with his troops. The other ROC government forces fought well but couldnot hold the city. the fate of Governor Wang Yao-wen,who diserted the defense of Tsinan, was unknow.
Tsinan,capital of Shantung Province and major rail and industrial center of North China, falls to Communist after 9-days assault. ROC government forces besieged in Tsinan sector estimated at 80.000.
After the fall of Tsinan, The rOC gverment garrisn at Cheef began its evacuatin which was completed by the middle of October.
The red launched their Suiyuan attacks on September 24, taking in rapid succession Fengchen,Holin,Chingsuiho,Liangcheng and other parts of southern Suiyuan.
(5) September 27
Fighting broke out outside Kweisui, capital of Suiyuan, on september 27.
(6) September 28th
Japan reports 140.000 former soldiers and nurses of its Kwantung army serving with Communist forces in Manchuria or living in Red areas in Northeast.
(3) September 30th
President Chiang arrives in peiping by plane from nanking to hold series of conferences with tp military leader in North China and manchuria.
8., Octoer 1948.
(1) Octber 7th
Communist at tacking Chinchw in westren Liaoning corridor have used Russian-type 76.2 mm shells.
The arrivalof ROC Governmet reinforcement in early October soon routed the Communist.The ROC Government troops recaptured Fengchen,Holin,Liangcheng and other point n October 3 and drove the Reds southward to the east. Tsining on Peiping -Suiyuan railway was recapture on September 30th
(2) October 8th
ROC marines have cleared Chousan Archipelago of Communist in 14 day battle.
The Communist attack Chinchow in westren Liaoning began n ctber 9th with mst severe. RC government relief colums advanced to aid of the Chinchow garrison and mukden to the east. A number of towns were captureed by The ROC government troop on the way, includinh heishan,Sinlitun,Taian and Chungwa but they didnot reach Chinchow in time.
On the Hopei-Chahar border, the Red soldiers were caught in a trap set by Gen.Fu Tso-yi. Fighting began on October 9th. The Reds had three armies,two divisins and two brigades caught in the Kanchwang -Chuyunkwan area and in athree day battle, a smaller ROC Government army defeated the reds and inflicted on them 7000 casualties beside taking 2000 prisoners and a large number of weapons.
(4) October 11th
Chinhsien key supply prt for Mukden, falls to Communist
in Shansi,Taiyuan, the provincial capital,was again under communist attack on October 11th.
(5) October 12th
President Chiang flies to Mukden for third time in two weeks to hold important military conference with top government commanders in Northwest.
(6) October 17th
Chinchow feel in this day. Gen.Fan Han-chieh,garrison commander ofthe city,has been missing.
Further northeast, the Reds attacked Changchun. Gen Tseng Tse-sheng,commander of the 60th Army, was captured by the communist together with his army on October 17th. His capitulation opened the city gates to the REDs and fighting brokeninside the city.
(7) October 20th
Gen. Cheng Tung-kuo , garrison commander of Changchun area , in last messaqge to President Chiang filed from Government forces Last stronghold in Central Bank Building in Changchun says , The general situation has become hopeless, also report mutiny of Gen. Tseng Tse-sheng and collaps of 7th Army under Gen. Li Hung
Gen Cheng Tung-kuo ,directing the new 7th army in the Changchun city, was defending his last psition on October 20th when street fighting was still continuing.
9. Late 1948
By Late 1948 the Mao Communist eventually capture nothern cities of Shenjang and Changchun and seize control of the Notherneast after struggling , with the decisive Liaoshen Campaign the new first Army . after six month siege of Changcun.
The Mao Communist conquest the eastren China at Beijing-tianjin campaign from on Novemer 21,1948 to January 31 1949.The People Liberation Army suffered heavy casualties at Tangjiakuo, Tianjin along with its port and garrison at Dagu and ROC goverment retreated to Taipei.
The Huaihai campign on late 1948 and early 1949 east-central china for the Mao communist.
12. In 1947 ROC post Office issued 75th anniversay of Navigation Co with design Ship.
V. THE PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA INDEPENDENT 1949
(1) .April 1949
(1)On April 21,1949, the Mao cummunist stressed the Yangtze river to Nanjing, capital of the Chiang in most cases, the surround countryside and small town under Mao Communist influence long before the cities by late 1949, the people Liberation Army pursuing the Chiang KMT forces southwards in souther China.The Chiang KMT ROC goverment retreat on april 23 successive at Canton(Guangzhou) until october 15, Chongging until November 25 and retreating to Taipei on December 10
Mao Communist local Post Office issued The fourth Mao stamps unperforated.
(3) By April .1949, the Jinan city and shading province were fell, cutting the Chiang KMT army off from Xian followed the fiaerce battle, the Mao communist capture south of the Great wall.
(1) October 1th
Foundation of the PRC formation of a provisional central Government , Power in the hands of the Council of State of the central Government, with Mao Tse-tung as its president. Chou En-lai appointed President of the Council of State Administration, and Minister of Foreign affairs Gen.Chu Teh commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.
(2) October 1oth
Mao elected President of the national Cuncil of the Consultative Conference of the People. The Council of State declares 1 ctber a natinal holiday in the PRC.
(3) October 19th
The Council of State decides that the central authority should be administered by 1 presiden, 4 vice president, 34 menisters and 44 assistant -menisters and appoints people to these post.
3. November 1949
(1) November 15th
In a telegram to the UN ,Chou En-lai refuses to accept ROC as representing Peking.
(2) November 29
Radio Peking warns the countries on China’s borders that if they harbour ROC trops they must be prepared to take the consequences.
4. December 1949
Mao in scow, his first journey outside China. He was to stay in Russia until Feb.15th 1950.
In October ,8th.1949, PRC issued the first postage stamps ,The Gate of heavenly Peace Comemmorating 1st session the Chinese people’s Consultative Political Conference.
This issued also inaugurated the innovative practical of numbering each type of stamps issued below the stamps.
5. In 1948 , ROC post office issued the enforcement of the constitution.