After 36 years research fromthe first time found the Qing Dynasty postmark collections in 1974 , very difficult to found the special catalogue about this type collections.
After the google had the special tools to explored allin informations in the Internet , I found enough information to start to report my reasearch.
During Qing Dynasty, before joined UPU , all the latter send abroad must added the stamps from the country which had joined UPU, because the local stamps didn’t accepted.
After the first local port stamps first issue at Shangai in 1863, the first Local Post Shanghai Postmark were issued and follow by the other Local Port Postmark like Amoy,Foochow, Chinkiang etc.
The first Qing Imperial postmark were the Pa Kua,special chinese characters used five strip, and by cutting one or more line will made the special meaning, every city used this pa kua postmark with meaning the initial of the city.In 2007 I have found the first Pa kua postmark on Japan coil dragon stamps 1 c many Indonesian collectors didn.t want to collect this stamp because they think this postmark was blob and bad.
Pa means five, Kua means line,
In 1896, the Qing emperor issued a special decree giving official recgnation to the European postal syatem and the Ancient I Chan and Manchu Postal system were ended.Many European have their postoffice in China with their own postmark, the first postmaek found was the German pstal Office at Kiatschou. (read the complete history “The Qing Imperial Postal History” in this blog.)
After joined UPU, the Qing postal system issued the internationalpostmark . round bigger like dollar coin, and this postmark called Qing Dollar Post mark, after that many types of postmark like double ring and Belingual postmark were issued.
The last dynasty (emperor Puyi) have issued the special Temple of heaven stamps. Every year the Qing emperor prayed at this temple, and also issued the bilingual Date(BLD) postmark like Foochow, tengyoe ,Peking, Chungking. in 1909-1910, the last year of Qing Dynasty postal service , and after that ROC postal service begun with their own postmark Shanghai Lunar date and official government postage paid stationer postcard of Statistical departement.
This reaseach report, was the first time with chronologic historic postmark , because many auctioner couldn’t gave the exact informations, they only said good Qing Postmark , some writers like Wikipedia have given the best narration f the Postmark , also some e-bay canada auction with the complete informations but many without the exact information, because too difficult to read the chinese characters.
I hope after read and look the illustrations, many collectors begin to understand the Qing Postmark, but stillmany informations need please the specialist collecter comment.
Dr Iwan s. the founder of uniquecolection.wordpress.com Blog.
@ copyright Dr Iwan S 2010.
II.CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC QING POSTMARK
1. !9th Century
Cixi entered the forbidden city for allegedly not resisting the Taiping Rebellion in Anhui provinece.
In Sepetember 1851, cixi participated in selection process for concubines for the new Qing emperor Xianfeng with sixty other Manchu girls. This process was supervised by the Kang Ci imperial Dowger consorts, cixi was one of the few girls selected on that occasion and was appointed preparative concubine.
Cixi entering the forbidden city and became pregnant.
April.27th.1856, Cixin gave birth to Tong Zhi , the only male heir of the Xianfeng emperor which led to her eleveation to the rank Consort of the fourth rank.
When Cixi Son Tong Zhi reach his first year birthday , cixi was elected to a “Noble Imperial Consort Yin” this rank is an imperial consot of the secnd degree after the Empress consort. This rank placed Cixi second only to the Empress Ci’an.
In september 1860, British and French troops attacks Beijing during the closing stage of the second opium war. The attack command by Lord Elgin was mounted in retaliation for the arrest of British diplomatic envoy Harry parkes and the torture and exceution of a member of westrern hostages. The Xianfeng emperor moved to Rehe Palace in the city of Rehe (now Cheng-he ,Hebe).
In October 1860, The emperor’s exquisite Old Summer Palace had burned to ground. On hearing the news of that destructions the Xianfeng Emperor , who was already showing sign of dementia fell into a depression turned heavily to alcohol and drugs , and became severing ill.
in August.21th 1861, The Xianfeng Emperor was died at Rehe Palace . Before his death, the emperor summoned eight of his most prestigiuos menister, headed by Sushan, Zaiyuan and Duan hua and name them the “Eight Regent Menister” to direct and support the future emperor. His heir, the son of Noble Consort Yi (future empress dowger CIxi) was only five year old.
On his death bed, The Xianfeng Emperor also summond his Empress Ci’an and Nble consort Cixi, and gave each of them a imperial Stamp, he hped that when his sn ascendede the thrne , his empress and Noble consort Cixi would cooperate in harmony and togetherhelp the yung emperor to grow and mature, it was also meant as a check on the power of the Eight Regent.
By the time of the Xianfeng Emperor ‘s dead. Cixi had become a shrew strategies . In Rehe while waiting for an astrologogy favourable time to transport the coffin back to Beijing, cixi plotted to grab the power.When the Emperor funeral procession left for Beijing, Cixi took advantage of her Alliance with prince Gng and Prince Chun. they returned to Beijing befre the rest fvthe party, along with Zaiyuan and Duan hua, two of the principal reagent, while Su Shun was left to accompany the deceased Emperor’s procession.
Cixi with her Alliances have re-written the History, The reagents were dismissed for having carried out incompetenend negotiation with the “barbarian” which had caused Xianfeng Emperor to flee to Rehe. .
Among other charges Cixi and Prince Gong produced a document called the “Eight Guilts of Reagent Menisters” which included allegations such as altering the Xianfeng emperor wills causing his death and stealing power from the two Empress dowager(Ci’an and Cixi).
To show the world that Cixi had high mral standards, she executed only three of the Eight Reagent menistries.
This Palace coup is kown as the “Xinyuan Palace coup” in China after the name of the year 1861 in the sexagenary cyclics and Cixi became the first nly Qing Dynasty Empress to rule from”behind the curtains”
A few days following the Coup , Cixi was quick to reward the Prince Gong for his help. he was made heads ofthe general Affairs Office and the Internal Affair office, his daughter was made a Gurun princess, a tittle usually bestowed only on the Empress’sfist born daughter.
In this year Britishman Robert hall started experience Postal service in china by send the letter from beijing to many city in China, some of that collections still exist in the china and foreign collectors collection. ( I have ever made the same experiment in 1979 with send the aerogram to all phillatelic service of Postal menistery of all over the world, and they send the informations stamps issued in the beautiful official or phillatelic covers,only two country cann’t recieve and send back to sender because the country didn’t exist anymore like Sahara africa and Isabela africa. I will put this exciting and rare collections in this blog-auth)
Cixi decreed the opening of Tongwen Guan, a university -like institution in Beijing that hired foreigners as teacher and specialized in new age topic such as astronomy and methamethics as well as the English, French and Russian languages. The grupof youngboy also sent abroad to USA.
The first local Shanghai Post stamp and postmark were issued.
Under the command of General Zeng Guofan the victorious Xianfeng army defeated the Taiping army in ahard battle at Tianjing( nor Nanjing) in July 1864.
China lost in the second Opium war
When the Tongzhi emperor was 17 years old , under the guidance of empress Ci’an , he was merried to lady alute (her father had been an enemy of empress cixi during Xinyuan coup)
Cixi order Emperor Tongzhi to concentrated on ruling the country but only seventh month , following Cixi order in isolation him at Qianjing palace.
Tongzhi proved to be an incompetence Emperor, but he have made important policy decision during his short stand of rule. He decreed that the Imperial Summer palace would be completely rebuilt after destryed during opium war, under the pretach that it was a gift to empress Ci’an and Cixi. Historian also suggest that it was attempt to drive Cixi from the forbidden palce , so the emperor could rule without interference in Policy or his private affairs.
Feeling a grand scene of loss at court and unable t assist his authority, The Tongzhi emperor return t his former habit. It was runour the emperor caught Syphilis and became vivibiles ill. The doctor spread a rumour that the emperor had caught small pox.
On January,13th 1875 the emperor Tongzhi was died.
and Cixi was back into the helmof imperialpolicy.
Emperor Tongzhi died without leaving a male heir, creating an unprecedented successor crisis in the dynasty Qing.
After considerable disagreement between the two dowager (Ci’an and Cixi) , the first born of the first Prince Chun Yixuan and Cixi’s sister, then age four, was became the new emperor.
In 1875, was declared of Guang xu or the reign of glrious Success. The Yun Xetian was tahen from his home and for the remainder of his life would be cut completely ff from his family.
Cixi forbade construction a railway because too loud and would “disturb the emperor thomb”. When construction went ahead anyway in 1877 under Li Hong Zhong recomendation , Cixi asked that they be pulled by horse-drawn carts .
The first Qing Imperial stamps large dragon were issued, and also the first Qing imperial Pa Kua postmark.
The sudden death empress Ci’an in April 1881 brought Cixi a new challange, and she became the only reagentat court.
The local treaty Post Chungqing issued the first stamps with their own local postmark.
The German Post office at Kiatshou china issued surcahrge China on German stamp withtheir own postmark.
The first Local stamp of Taiwan island ere issued.
The Shanghai Local post office issue the Shanghai local stamps double dragon.
The treaty Port issue the first stamp with their own local post postmark at Chefoo.
(a)The Hsing Chung Hui came into being at Honolulu on November.24th.1894 after Cina’s defeat by Japan, and was to play an important part in the creation os Asia’s first Republic (ROC).
(b) Dr Sun Yat Sen had petitioned Prime Minister Li Hung-chang for reforms in the Qing government but was no heeded. He then toured the Beijing-Tientsin area to test the strength of the Manchus. Revolutionaries inspired by thhe Hsing chung Hui then rose up in Canton and Huichow. Although unsuccessful, they raised the curtain on the long process of the National revolution.
(c) In this year the first Sino-japanese war.
(d) The qing imperial post issued special commemrative empress cixi birthday stamps.
(e) Local Post treaty port Hankow , Foochow , Chinkiang and Kewkiang issued the first stamps with their own local postmark.
(f) The French China post office issued surchage Chine on French stamps with their own postmark.
After organizing the Hsing Chung Hui, Dr Sun went to Hongkong in January 1895 to establish a party chapter, then revolutionaries then decided to spark an uprising in Canton and Dr Sun,Lu Hao-tung and Chen Shao went there to make preparations. They decided to adopt the white Sun-Blue sky Flag designed by Lu Hao-Tung as their revolutionary standard.
Empress Cixi unsatisfied with her tomb, rdered its destruction and reconstructed in 1895
For her Sixtieth birthday in 1895, Empress Cixi was given ten million taels of silver which many believed was used to furnish her summer palace
In this year the local treaty port Amoy,Wuhu and Ichang issued the fist stamps and their own local postmark.
The Qing Emperor issued a special decree giving fficial recognation to the “European” Postal System, and the Foreign Postoffice postmark also issued.and the ancient postal systems Ichanl and Minchu were end and the new postal system under the Chinese Marine Custom were opened. with their custom postmark.
In this year tearty port Nanking issued the first stamps with their own local postmark.
(a)In this year all cixi birthday stamps and revenue were surcharge with china characters and new value , why ? I Think after the end of Ancient postal system Ichan and Minchu were end, the new system under The Chinese marine custom were made special surcharge with new nominal value to control the portunity of using the old stamps and the new system also issued the japanese print coilling dragon issue.
What about the Pa kua and Local postmark, we will analisys the used stamp in this year and after. and our conclusian Pakua postmark and kocal postmark still used, because i found Kiu Kinang Pa Kua postmark on surcharge Cixi birthday stamp with KiuKiang Customs date postmark date May.6.97.
(b)Paking Dollar date postmark 6 sept 1897 on surcharge Cixi birthday stamp.
(c) Chefoo Dollar Postmark date 10 Aug 87 on surchage 10 cent cixi birthday stamp
(d) Franch Post office in china Shanghai postmark on surcharge Chine on Franch stamp 20 cent,date 13 Aout -97
(e) Postally used cover from Kiu Kiang Dollar date postmark June 22,1897 on surcgarge red revenue stamp to Shanghai.
(f) Postally used cover from Chinkiang Dollar date postmark August 27,1897 on surcharge 2 cents on red revenue to Shanghai.
(g) October 1,1897 London coiling lithograped dragon stamp were issued. design by R.A. de Villard(ill.his profile)
(h) Postally used cover from Nanking Dollar date September 15,1897 to surcharge 2 cent red revenue (block 4) ,transit shanghai Frech P.O. postmark 17 sep 97 to germany Nurenburg CDS
(i) postally used cover from Peking Dolar date postmark 17 nov 97 n Japan coil dragon 2 cent stamp.trasit village postmark to Tientsin dollar
date 18 nov 97.
(j) Postally used cover from Amoy Dollar Date postmark Dec1,1897 n Japan coil dragon stamp 2 cent to Hongkong.
(k) Postally used cover Japan Cill Printing(JPC) 1 c from cancalled by Shanghai Pa Kua to destination Shanghai Local Post postmark cds Dec 3 1897.
(l) Tientsin Pa kau postmark on JCP 2c, with French China 5 cent CDS Dec,8,97
(m) Stampless cover with bilingual PAID postmark and handwritten 10.
(k) Custom Shanghai Postmark Mar 1 1897.
(n) Canton Dollar Date postmark 24 Aug 97
(o) Custom Hankow postmark Apr 29 , 1897.
(p) German Post Office in China Shanghai post mark 13.8.97 on surcharge China on GERMAN STAMP 20 PF.
(q) jAPAN pOST OFFICE IN cHINA sHANGHAI jAPAN P.O.POSTMARK 12 OCT 97
(r) Shnaghai Dollar date pst mark 20 oct 97 on SHANGHAI POSTA STATIONER POSTCARD.
(a)Jan.1898 issued London Coiling dragon disign by A.B.hill(carp) and Josep (wild goosed) line -engrave print Stamp
(b)Postally used cover Shanghai Dollar date Postmark 12 Jan 98 on JPC 2 cent to Shanghai destination Loca Post cds Ja 18 98.
(c)Tientsin Pa Kua post mark on JPC4 cent
(c) Shanghai Pakua post mark on JPC 2 cet with destination Shanghai Local Post june 9,1898..
(d)In September 21th 1898, Coup d’etat carried ut by General Ronghi, the Guangxu emperor was taken to Ocean Terrace, a small palace on an island in the middle of Zhongnan has linked to the rest of forbidden city with only a controlled causeway.Empress Cixi would follow with an edict dictating the Guangxu emperor the disgrace and the Guangxu emperor ‘s reign had effectively came to end end. After that the emperor lost all honours,respect,power and previllage including his freedom of movement.
(e)In this year The Qing imperial post issued London print cilling dragon stamp.
(f)In this year Wei Hai Wai leased area issuee the provisional Courier post stamps and their own postmark.
(g) Postally used cover from Ichang Dollar date postmak 18.may.98 on surcharge cixi birthday stamp to Shanghai.
(h) Postally used cover with Kiukang Dollar date postmark August 27,1898 on surcharge i c on cixi birthday stamp 1 c.
(i) Postally used cover with Tientsin Pa Kua Postmark on surcharge 2 cent on cixi birthday 2 c stamp
(j) Postally used cover from Wuhu Dollar date postmark 13 nov 98 n JPC stamp 4 cent and R postmark on JPC 2 c
(k) Guard against theft private postmark on JPC stamp 1c with Pa Kua postmark
(l) Japan Post office in China postmark CDS Shanghai 18 Apr 98 on JCP 5 c (2 x)
(a)The Wei Hai Wei Lease area issue the firs stamp of provisional courier Post LKT and their own postmark.
(b)The Russian imperial Post at China issued the surcharge KHTAH on russia stamsp with their own postmark.
(c) Tientsin Pa Kua post mark on LCP 1/2 cent. with Tientsen Custom CDS May 25 99.
(d) Wuchow Pstmark 22 Oct 99 and Postage 1 cent port on bisect JPC 2 cent. stamp.
(e) handwritten Foochow postmark 11-6/99
(a)postally used cover send from Tumbstone postmark changsitien post office on LCP stamp to destination shanghai bilingual date postmark jan.6.1900.
(b)In 1900, Cheng shih-liang led another uprising at Huichow. Dr Sun instructed Shih Chien-ju and Teng Yin-nan to provide supportive revolutionary activity in Canton. The uprising at Huichow failed. Shih Chien-ju then decided to assasinate Governur Te Shou. He dug a tunnel t the governr’s ffice from a house nearby and planted explosives. But Te Shou was not killed and Shih Chien-ju was arrest and put to death.
(c)Joint Force of the eight great powers entering Beijing in August.1900 during the Boxer incident.
The Boxer uprising broke out in the nothern china ,perhaps fearing futher foreign intervention,Cixi threw in her supprt to then anti foteihn bands.The chinese military was unable to preventing the Allied army from marching on Beijing and seizing the forbidden city.
The Chinese military was under equipped and under funded partly because Cixi had earlier consumed precious funds to build a stone Boat of Purity in the old Summer palace.
The British Expeditionary Force Postal in Beijing issued their stamps surcharge C.E.F on india stamps with their own postmark.
(d) The Japan Imperial Post Office in china issued the surcharge China in kanji char on Japan stamps with their own postmark.
(e) London coil dragon stamp 2 cent(2x) used Peking Postmark jul.1-1900 , RH Rober Hart postal used Cover.thirteen Hart covers reprt by Sam Chiu (2001), 11 cover recorded by Li Zha-ning, So few Hert cover this day.Hart had ordered hislatter papers and papers printed with initial R.H. (lok at illustration)
(f) Postally used cover with Wuchow Bilingual date postmark July14,1900.
(g) German post office in china postmark Tsingtau Kiaurshow cds Mar.24.1900 on bloch four china surcharga on german stamp 10 Pf.
(a) Peking oval Bilingual Postmark Feb 21 1901 on JCP stamp 2 c and 10 c.
(b)Chefoo bilingual date post mark 16 jul 01 on LCP stamp.
(c) British Post Office Shanghai CDS feb. 21,1901
Postally use cover with Franch Indochina Lang Son Tonkin CDS 10 SEp 02 on LCP 2 cent to arrival Hanoi Tonkin CDS on French Indochina stamps
(a)Dr Sun with London Supporters in 1904 (photo). After organizing the Tung meng Hui in Tokyo, dr Sun toured England,belgium,France and germany in the revolutionary cause.
In this year The Qing Imperial Post issued London print coilling dragon surcharge with Postage due and also issue london print 1st blue Postage Due stamp
(b) Chungking Lunar Date postmark on besect JPC stamp b 2 c with Chngking local stamp destination au.6.1904.
(a) Returning to Japan in July of 1905, Dr sun was welcomed by Chinese student. He brought revolutinary organizations together in the Tung meng Hui.
(b)On July.20th.1905, student from 17 Chinese province studying in Japan organized the Tung Meng Hui (Society of Revolutionary Alliance).
Dr Sun addressed the Tokyo meeting on the importance of democratic revolution in China.
In the manifesto issued by the Tung meng hui revolutionaries occured the first mention of the Republic of China as the name for entity to succed the Qing Dynasty. These ideas were precursors of Dr Sun’s three principles of the People (Nationalism,Democracy and Social Welfare) , which provided the guidelines for estabilsment and development of the Republic of China(ROC).
(c)The Qing Imperial Post issued the 1st Express stamps.
In April 1906, the Changsa Post Office have permission for bisect LCP 2 cent cancelled Changsa Bilingual postmark 10 april 06(1906)
(a)Chiang Kai-shek went to Japan in 1907 to continue his military studies.
(b) Shanglai Local postmark nov 19 o7 on green Shanghai postal stationar card 3rd issue ic.
(a) Transit Shnaghai Chine cds postmark 5.11-08
(b)In November,14th .1908 the emperor Guangxu was died, and the forensic reported the caused by Acute Arsenic pisoning.
In November ,15th,1908 Cixi having installed Puyi as the new empeoro of he qing Dynasty.
In November , 16th 1908 Empress dowager Cixi died in the hallof graceful Bird at the middle sea of Zhong nan hoi , her death came only one day after the death of the Guangzu emperor.
(c)The Belgian Post Office in China issued surcharge Chine of belgia stamp with their wn postmark
.(d) Shanghai postal stationer postcard 1 c , not clear post mark arrival Canton Bilingual date postmark21.5. 08
Temple of Heaven stamp issued by Hsuan Tung used with Chungking biligual date(BLD) postmsark 25 Nov 1909. and Chungking transit postmark 24 nov 9 and Hankow destination postmark 1 dec 09.
(a)Peking Bilingual Date(BLD) postmark 11 Apr 10 on Temple of Heaven stamp 1 c and 4 cent.
(b) In June of 1910 Chiang was initatited into the Tung meng hui and met Dr sun Yat-sen.
(a)Postal Postage Paid statistical department inspectorate general stationer cover send with shanghai lunar dater postmark feb 4 1911
(b)On March 29,1911, some of 170 revolutionaries attacked the Kwangtung-Kwangsi Governor’s office in Canton under command of Huang Hsing. they were determined to prevail or die. Although it failed because of lack of reinfrcemetns, the uprising roused the people against the Qing manchu.
(c)The March 29 uprising at canton was the 10th under Dr Sun yat-sen’s direct leadership.Although traumatic, it sent out shock waves that rocked qing manchu rule. the do-or-die spirit of these revolutionaries is enshrined in Chinese history. The remains of 72 martyrs were entobed at Yellow Flower mound in Canton, this site became a shrine of the national Revolution. Eight-six revolutionaries are known to have been killed in the incident and they may have been more,this day later became the martyr Day and the next year as Youth day.
(d) Shanghai Postal Commissioner postmark Apr 18 1911.
(e)In September,1911. the Wuchang revolutinaries rise up and overthrew the Qing dynasty.
The Tung Meng Hui provided leadership for eight uprisings against Qing Dynasty at Huangkang Chaochow ,Huichow,Chinlien,Chennankuan,Shangsu in Chienlien, Hokow in Yunnan,Yellow Flower Mound in Canton and Wuchang. The last of these on ctber 10.1911 led the dwnfall of the Qing Dymasty and the birth of the ROC. The shot fired at Wuchnag brought an immediate response from Tung meng Hui members in Shanghai under the leadership of Chen Chi-mei. The successive victories of the revolutionaries quickly convinced the Qing Mancus that they could not loner prevail. and the downfall of the Qing dynasty came quickly.
(g)In October 13 , 1911. Chiang leading more than a hundred do-or-die commandos who attacked government office at hangchow and capture the Manchu Governor. Chiang had returned to Shanghai and joined Chen Chi-mai for nanking-Shnaghai-hanchow area. He then hurried to Hangcxhow to head the successful revolutionary attack of October 13.
(h)Chinese General Post office were opened, with special postmark another administration pstmarklike registered, revenue etc.
(i)Postally used cover from Kucheng lunar postmark to Tiebet lunar postmark transit Tihua (urumtsi), Transit Peking lunar postmark and peking belingual postmark March 27 1911
The founding Father Dr Sun Yat-sen leaves Shanghai station the morning of the Newyear’s day ,1912 for his Nanking swearing-in as the Republic of China’s provisional President.
Please collectors be patien, this informations still in prcess, the illustration will install one by one
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010
The illustrations willinstall tomorow.