One of the rare and best uniquecollection blog is the VOC -Vereneging Oost Indie Company, Indonesian called “Kumpeni” in english Dutch East Indie Company(DIC).
Not many Kumpeni collection exist this day although that company exist almost 250 years in Indonesia,
but not all area only at the Port and the other area still in the authorities of Native Kingdom. Beside
during British occupied Indonesia in the early 19th
century, Sir Stampford Raffles as the Guvenour General take all the collection to England and the
biggest collection were burned with the ship during
moving from Bengkulu to Tumasek(Singapore).
In order to understand the meanings of the rare VOC
collection I think better to arranged collections sample catagory with the historical basic because
VOC only made a little product with VOC coat of armed like coins, token, ceramic or document but many collection were the related product bring by VOC carg ship like Beardman Bottle from germany, Glass bottle from French, Arita ceramic from Japan, Chinese Wanli, Caract and Swatow ceramic from their basic port at China Teipeh(Formosa island), also from Vietnam port Haipong or Saigon.
Please collector be patien because I need time to write and install the information, I put this informations collections due to our Lounching in Feb.9th 2010, and may be be choose as the best ten of the year uniquecollection 2010.
I still have many types collections ,some will showed
during the lounching day.
Five days marathon writting and illustration install only for all collector in the world in order to be the
best uniquecollection blog in the world and will click
by 20% of the game players to add their information
related to their games.
Viva unique collection blog.
The founder @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010
II. CHRONOLOGIC KUMPENI-VOC COLLECTION
2.1. VOC COLLECTIONS IN 16th CENTURY
Malacca occupied by Portugeus, and at the end of this year d’Alburquerque send three ship under command of d’Abreu to Molucca, he arrived at Banda and back to Malacca.
Francesco Serrao arrived at Ambon beach , his ship were broken. This time there was the war between the King of Ternate vs the King of Tidore. Serrao were helpin by the people and bring him to Hitu, this area under Ternate protectorate.
When the Sultan of Ternate heard about Serrao ,his majesty invited him to Ternate.
Many Portugeus trader came to Ternate, and there were the Trade communication between Malacca and Ternate.
Portugeus ship command by Antonio de Britto arrived at Ambon, and the people of Hitu accepted them .
Hitu Ambon were attacked by the kingdom of Ceram, the Portugeus soldier help Hitu people and as the compensation Portugeuse had the permission to build a Lodji(Trader camps) at Hitu
When the Portugeus were quarrel with Sultan Ternate , they arrest Sultan Tabaridji and bring him to Goa India. The people of Hitu angry and they help Ternate to defend from Portugeus , and Hitu were helped from the Kingdom of Java when the Islamic trader ship of Banten,Demak and east Java have came there. Portugeus Governeur at Ternate Galvao order to attack that Islamic traders, due this situation all the allied ship of Hitu ,Banda ,Macassar and Java fighting together against Portugeus but all the ship have fired and dwan to the sea by portugeus ship.
Hitu help by Javanese attack Portugeus soldier at Ternate again and they succeed to drived out the Portugeus from Hitu(ambon).The Portugeus run away to Lei Timor the anemies of Hitu, and there the Catholic relirion were developed.
When Sultan Tabaridji bring back to Ternate, there was the problem with his ancetor Sultan Hairun, Portugeus arrest Hairun and bring him to Malacca, but when Not long after Sultan Tabaridji arrived he was passed away, and Sultan Haroen bring back to ternate and he didn’t forgotten the Portugeus have made to him, that is why the Portugeus soldier and Catholic religion became difficult to developed at Ternate.
(8)1555. The end of Portugeus authority at Ternate, because Gouvernor Duarto d’eca aksed Sultan Harun the tax of Cloves and Haroen not accepted and all the people of Ternate attacked Portugeus soldier , Gouvernur d’eca were arrest by his own soldiers and bring him to Malacca.
Portugeus ship command by Leliato arrive at Buru and Ambon island to punished the Portugeus and the Christian Peple there. Buru didn’t fighted, Oma, Kilang and Hatiwe christian people were fighting against Portugeus.
The war during this years have made the Prtugeuas tradings,in1562 the Portugeus Goa command asked Antoni Paez to be the first Command of Portugeaus army to attack molluca. in 1563 when Sultan haroen sent Baab Ullah with their ships to help Ambon, help by Hitu and 13 ship from Java with 4000 soldier to attacked Nusaniwe, the Java ship droken only three ship arrive at Ambon gulf, Paez ship attacked Ternate ships and their allied, when heared that Sultan Batjan who was christian came to help the Islamic ships back to Hitu.
After that Paez builded the strong Fort at Ambon, but the planning knowed by Sultan Haroen , he protest to Gouvernoer Sa and he send the envy t Ambn , Paez surrender because Sultan haroen send the ship to Ambon.
In 1564 Paez was passed away, Islamic ship attacked again, Hatiwe village were burned , the Portugueus soldier only 30 mans . Three Portugeus trader ship didn’t help.The peple of Hitu and the javanese attack the three Prtugeus ship , Nusaniwe and hatiwe village occupied by the Hitu peoples. The new Portugeus command Pareira Maramaque were sent to Molucca with strong army, the people of Hitu and Java with 2000 soldiers defended at Ambon gulf, but the Portugeus were win, and he made builted Fort at South Hitu archiphelago in 1569 and sultan Ternate made the friendly communication with Portugeus, the new Gouvernur Lopez de Mesquita at Ternate.
The War between Dutch vs Spain was begun. ( long war until 1648-80 years). Spain occupied South Netherland ,the trader moved to the north, all port were closed. The North Holland port became developmed because the south port closed,.
The unity between Spain and Dutch.
Sultan Baab Ullah attack Portugeus Fort , Pareira run to the north for asked helped , but he was passed away when cameback . The next command of Portugeus soldier Jao de Sylva dicided to lift Ambon but Sancho de Vasconcellos dicided to stay, de Sylva lift his duties and went back to Malacca Mei 1571.
Vasconcellos was the next command and he force the Portugeus soldier to stayed but their Fort were burned , the Portugeus moved to Lei Timor and near Nusaniwe Vasconcellos order to built a Stone-Fort. Portugeus have found helped from Tawiri ,Seri, Kilang, Naku and Timure(?) State, the people of Hatiwe and Tawiri help the Fort’s building.
Prtugeus built fort Kota Laha at Ambon, but the King Soya didn’t accepeted, he attacked Portugeus but didn’t succeed because portugeus were helpe by Hatiwe and Tawiri state. Ruy de Sousa Patih -raegent of Leitimor didn’t accepted the Fort builded, when Vasconcellos invited him to came to his fort at Ambon and he will arrest him there, but de Sousa asked helped from The Java ship at Hoamoal , they attack Baguala but not succeed, Halong attacked and burned , due to that situation all the people f Nusaniwe change their religion to Islam and they across the Ambon gulf and stayed at South Hitu.
Portugeuos united with Spain, with the unity cann’t done at Molucca although Governour Phillipine had sent the secret mission to Tidore and Ternate to told the King Baab Ullah the Plitical situation. King baab Ullah sent envoy Naik to Spain to askes the King of Spain to punished the murderer of Sultan Haroen but they heard that Mesquita had passed away.
The spain emperor Phillips II closed Spain and Portugeuos port from Dutch trader , Lisabon port where the Duch trader bought Spice from Molluca, that is why the Dutch looking the way ownself to seek the spice straight to Molucca.
King Baab Ullah Passed away and the next reagent was King Said(1583-1606)
Jan Huyges vam Lindschotten the first Dutchman sail to Indonesia with Portuegeus Ship
and he write the antiquarian book “Itinerario”
Dutch with British ships win vs Spain ships.
The allied soldier of Islamic people from Hitu,Banda and Hoamoal attacked Ambon Fort. The soldier from Buru 3000, Hoamoal and south Ceram 5000, Boano and Manipa 3000, but Portugeus Soldier only 1400, Portugeus cann’t found helping from Buru,Tidore or Spain because the King Phillip II to old and cann’t send help. The war between spain vs Italia, Portugeous , Dutch in Europe made the Spain soldier cann’t moved from Europe that is why Phillipine cann’t sent helped. But the Islamic soldier didn’t succeed because of bad coordination.
The first Dutch voyage of four ship under the command of Cornelis de Houtman but not succeed (Picture illustration)
The second Dutch voyage to Indonesia command of Van Neck were succeed. the first and second voyage under the Dutch company called ‘compagnie van Verre”
In this year , friendly relations between VOC and Bantam Kingdom, and there was cooperation between the two. Bantam was the most important port in South East Asia for the peppertrade
The Portugeus situation became worst because the VOC companion with the islamic people at Hitu.
March , Admiral Van Warwijk arrived at Hitu and vice admiral Heemskerk went to Banda.
Warwijk help Hitu during the Battle vs Portugeuos.
II. VOC COLLECTION 16th CENTURY
Admiral Steven der Haghen arrived at Hitu and he help Hitu attacked portugeous , but not succeed.
In this year British gouvernment and the london traders built EIC =East India Company. and james Lancaster was the command the trader expedition to Indonesia.
Portugeous Goa goverment sent 27 ship with 2000 marines and 1300 army under command Andreas Furtado de Mendoza to Molucca, at Sunda straits the Prtugeous ship had the battle with VOC ship and they lost 2 ship.
feb.10th , The Portugeous ships arrived at Leitimor and Hitu attacked from sea and land, almst one month the beach were blockadged .
March.10th, ten VOC ship arrived landed at Asihulu, and sailed to Buru and banda without help Hitu after know the Portugeous powers.Mendoza attacked Asihulu, the country was burned , the people run away to the mountain. The King Melchior of Asihulu arrested . The war at Lima,Seith and Hitulama and this countries occupied by Portugeuos and the next attacked at Luhu(Hoamoal) where Portugoeus losser , many soldier died, Mendoza went to Saparua.
the helping from Malacca didn’t came because Malaca attacked by Acheh and Johor, this time
March,20th johan van Oldenbarnevelt ,staten General had made the effort to unity the companies , helped by Price Maurits the unity coat of armed “Republiek der Zeven verenigde Nederlanden” Republic of seven united Netherlands ” was unity and VOC (verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie- Dutch EIC) wer born in this day.
British trader ,command by james Lancaster arrived at Acheh.
March.27th , after seven month at North Molluca, Mendoza back to Ambon.
JUne.20th. Phillipine sent 15 ships to Molucca , but didn’t have the teamwork ,this helper didn’t succeed .
July, Mendoza went to Malacca , and became the command there.
(a)EIC became the competitor of VOC.
(b) Ancient EIC bullet coins collection
(c) In this year Bantam allowed the VOC navy under Steve van der Haghen to shelter in her port before proceeding on a mission aganinst the Portuguese.
VOC soldier with The Islamic Soldier from Hitu attacked Prtugeous and the Portugeous authority at Molucca end.
Feb.21th: The VOC ships landed at Ambon gulf at the front of Laha city, Portugeous Guvernur Gaspar de Mello with only 50 soldier cann’t defended.
Feb.25th de Mello surrender without battle, the laha city occupied by van der Haghen, four days later (March 1st) he landed and occupied the Portugeus fort and the name changed t “Victoria” and Frederik de Houtman became the gouvernor of Ambon.
March 16th , 600 Portugeus soldier went out from the Molucca island forever.
(a)VOC built Banda Stone Fort .
(b) Banda Fort Picture Lithography collections
(a)the first VOC Gouvenour general van Neck, he builted the Fort at Bantam.Hostility began to develop when Bantam insisted on trading with other European powers such as the British who were allowed to set up a factory at Bantam. This angered the VOC who planned to monoplized the spice trade in the Malay archiphelago.
Relation between Bantam and the VOC became tense in this year when Jan Pieterzoon Coen became the VOC Govenor-General in Batavia. Coen ,who had high hopes of establing a VOC monopoly of the spice trade,quarelled with Bantam’s chief Menister, Ranamanggala.
(b) White -Blue tiles ceramic of Bantam Fort collections(illustration)
(c) VOC ceramic tokes found near the VOC Bantam fort and also found at WestBorneo .
(d) Gouvernor General Pipes collections
(e) The Beardman Westward germany bottle,french and American bottle collection that found around VOC fort and shipwreck cargo.
(f) Gouvernor General Jan Pieterzoon Coon and his first lady profile with his coat of arm collection (illustrated)
Krapyak’s successor ,Mas Rangsang who subsequently came to be known as Sultan Agung, was a man of hihg ambitions and considered himself an empire builder.His rule was one of vast territorial expansion and enmity with the VOC in Java.
At the end of Sultan Agung rule, the whole of the island of Java, with the exception of Bantam and VOC Batavia, came under the control of Mataram.
(a)Ranamanggala, Bantam ‘s chief menister attacked the VOC fort at Batavia in this year. The VOC replied by blockading Bantam for a period 10 years , effectively destroying her trade.
(b) In this year Jan Pieterzoon Coon became VOC Governor General . He played an impotant role in the VOC expansion of power in Indonesia. He realized that their prosperity depended on the spice trade.
The British had been active in Sumatra and Java, they destroyed VOC factories at Japara in Java and were determined t gain control of Bantam. subsequently, the VOC and the EIC-British were at awr in this year. At the end of this year, a VOC ship retaliated by setting fire t British EIC factories in Batavia. War subsequently broke out between the two sides.
(a)The war between VOC and EIC still progress, and resulting in Coen’s capture of Batavia in this year. Coen then went on to besiege and capture bantam.
(b)Meanwhile in Europe, the british King, James I, concluded a trety with the Dutch which led t Anglo-Dutch cooperation against Pottuheuse and the spaniards in the east. the Dutch had to allow British participation in the spice trade.
(c) Coen was against the treaty and attempted to make the costs of trade expeditions very high. As a result, the British found themselves unable to pay fortheir share f these trade expeditions and decided to close down their factories in the East
(a)VOC Govenor General Jan Pieterzon Coen made Batavia as the VOC trading center in the east.
(b) VOC Batavia Fort picture lithography collection(illustrated)
Coen captured the island of Lonthar and Run.
(a)The British were expelled from Ambon by Coen soldier following the Amboyna Massacre in this yearin which two-thirds of the British residents were murdered by the voc n charges that they had attempted to capture the fort of Ambon.This ended British rivalry with the voc.
The Island of Ceram was also forced to concluded a treaty with the VOC.
In this year the VOC had obtained control of the Spice trade in Moluccas. They had driven out the Portuguese and the British and had forced the local rulers into treaties with them.
(17) Gouvenor General Rijklof van Goens(1619-1682) , before He became the ambassador at Mataram Kingdom and later , governor-general of the Indies.(Indonesia)
(a)Feb 24th Gouvernur general Jan Pieter Coen sent 16 VOC ships and 36 java ships with 1000 soldiers arrived at Ambon. Coen also sail t Banda, and he aske the permission to built new stone Fort at Banda (illustration), the native people didn’t accepted, Coen attacked and the people run away to Ceram.
June .7th. Coen made the meeting between gouvernor general with all reagent of ambon, uliase and ceram.
After defeating Surabaya and before from 1615-1624 defeating Lasem,Pasuaruan,pajang,tuban and gresi in Java, sukadana and Banjarmasin in Borneo, Sultan Agung took the tittle os Susuhunan(Supreme ruler or emperor) and his empire strected from Cheribon in the west t the Blambangan border in east Java.
Jan Pieterzon coen reappointed as Governor general for the second time in this year. He sucessfuly drove off an attack by Sultan Agung king of mataram
During his rule, Sultan Agung opposed the VOC attempt to monopolize the trade of the much-deamnded spices. He foresaw that VOC supremacy in trade would mean political control of the trading areas.Therefore, he attempted to capture VOC Batavia for the first time but failed.
(a)Sultan Agung attempted to capture VOC Batavia for the second time,which was anxious for territorial expansion under its ruler. The VOC retailed by cutting off food supplies to Mataram which eventually brought about its surrender. but also failed. but his stratagy to blockade Batavia and put the faeces into Ciliwung river around the Batavia Fort was succeed and Guvernor Generan J.P.Coen died of diarrhea (Cholera eltr) . He was similarly unable to take Banten which was near Batavia, as the two combined their forces against Mataram.
Consequently, Sultan Agung came to hate the VOC.Before passed away he oder his successor to carry on the fight against VOC but this ordered was ingnored.
The Bantam blockade by VOC was ended this year when Mataram’s Sultan Agung launched an attack on Batavia in this year. Bantam and the VOC were forced to make peace and join forces against Sultan Agung.
Gouvernor general VOC van Diemen arrived at Ambon with 17 ships with 2000 soldiers.
after the war , van diemen cameback to Batavia (Jakarta).
As Ternate under VOC protection, the VOC intervened, Macassar had captured tw allies of the VOC, Bima and Buton. This turned the VOC against Macassar. The hostility between the two came to an end in this year, but it soon resumed when Macassar provided assistance to the Molluccas rebels in their fight against the VOC.
VOC attacked Malacca.
(a)Jan.14th Malacca occupied by VOC.
(b) In this year the Sultan of Palembang agreed to give the VOC a monopoly of the spice trade.
Sultan Agung was passed away and His successor was Amangkurat I , maintained friendly relations with the VOC and ended the long-standing enmity between the two powers.
Sultan Amangkurat I , better know as suman Tegalwangi ascended the trne in this year. The rule of his father conversely by his own rule marked the beginning of Mataram ‘s decline.
Sultan Amangkurat I signed a trade treaty with the VOC. When he assumed his rule, he felt insecure because there were power struggles and attemps to overthrow him. To streghten his position, he cultivated friendship with the VOC.By this treaty, Amangkurat I allowed the VOC to trade freely in his empire.In return,the VOC allowed Javanese traders to trade wherever they wished with the exception of the Molucass. Amangkurat also agreed to accept VOC mission every year and to sell them rice.
In actual fact, the treaty gave the VOC an opportunity to expand their trade to the Malay archiphelago and to consolidate their influence in Mataram.
(26) 1647 de Vlamingh van Oudshorn became gouvernur of Ambon.
The cooperation between VOC and Bantam lasted when Abdulfatah ,who was known as Sultan Agung Tirtajasa ascended the thrown.
Sultan Agung Tirtajasa was very ambitious and attampted to make Bantam an imprtant center of trade.In this year he began to invite Eurpean traders to his port and made Bantam a strong competitor to the VOC trade.
(a)The Sultan of Palembang attacked the Dutch factory there. In retaliation, the VOC forced him to allw a VOC fort to be built on his territory and to grant them a monopoly of the papper trade.
(b)The VOC marked of the Canon in the front of Badaruddin Museum Palembang (Digital Photo illustration, but the same cannon have Raffles mark 1810)
(c) The Sultan of Djambi also gave the VOC a monpoly of the papper trade in return for protection .
(d) Banka and Billiton also came under VOC cntrol about this time.
(a) Sultan agung tirtajasa Of Bantam have claimed that Cheribon belonged to Bantam.
This worried the VOC who thus blockaded Bantam and forced Sultan Agung Tirtajasa (Abdulfattah) to make peace with them
(b)VOC asked Sultan Hassanudin of Makassar to forbid his sailors sailed to the islands under VOC authorities. but the sultan didn’t accepted , the conflict became the war.
In this year begun the war. between the two rivals VOC and Macassar.
(a)in this year the Minangkabau (west sumatra) also granted a monoply to the VOC in return for prtection.
(b) Siak under VOC control as a result of a conflict between Johor and Djambi.
The Spaniards remained the only rival of the VOC until this year when the former withdrew from the Moluccas.
The VOC installed Sultan Amangkurat II and signed teaty in this year.
All the coast states of Sumatra with exception of Acheh had fallen into VOC control in this year.
The War between Sultan Macassar vs VOC ended with the treaty of Bongaja , Sultan Macassar was forced to accept VOC overlordship.
In this year VOC had gained control the whole of the Indonesian islands, and was able to monopolized the spice trade in the region.
Competition from other European powers was eliminated.
Sultan Amangkuat I confronted the Trunojoya Rebellion . Amangkurat I was a week but cruel leader. His tyranny led to rebellion against him. a major rebellion broke out in this year led by Trunojoya, a royalprince of Madura. He was aided by the son of Amangkurat I , Adipati Anom, Kajoran and other refugees from Macassar. Amangkurat was forced to seek assistance from the VOC in Batavia .
(36 ) 1677
The Dutch Governor-General, Johan Maetsukyer, sent Speelman to break up the Trunojoyo rebellion. Before Speelman arrived, Trunojoyo attacked Amangkurat’s palace and the susuhunan was forced to flee t the protection of the VOC. Amangkurat I died in exile in Tegalwangi in this year and his successor Sultan Amangkurat II.
In return for VOC support, Sultan Amangkurat II
signed a teaty with the VOC in this year.The latter were granted trading and territrial rights, which included the Port of Semarang. Amangkurat II als agreed to indemnity the VOC for the cost of the war against Trunojoyo and to allow them to station troops in Mataram for his protection.In this way, the VOC gained a strong foothold in Mataram. Amangkurat II’s realtions with his VOC protectors deterirated twards the end of his rules.
Two events broughtabout this strained relationship. the first was Amangkurat II’s secret pact with Surapati, a Balinese warrior, to expel the VOC from Mataram. The Second event was the murder of Major Tack and the staff of his mission in Kartasura Palace. Not long afterwards, relations between Amangkurat II and Surapati became to sour. The latter fled to Pasuruan and started to attack,s Mataram territories. Amangkurat II sought VOC help against Surapati but this was refused.
The power struggle tookplace between Sultan agung Tirtajasa and his eldest son, Haji Abdul Kahar. This was because Sultan Agung Tirtajasa chose his youngest son to be his successor while Abdul Kahar was in Mecca. The Latter invited the VOC to support his case. The power struggle provided the VOC with an oppotunity to intervene in the affairs of Bantam and to assert their influence there. With VOC help , Abdul Kahar (later Sultan Haji) succeeded in forcing the abdication of Sultan agung tirajasa in this year. In return for VOC help, Abdul Kahar wanted to sign a treaty with the VOC , but this move opposed by the nobles of Bantam who refused to support him. This situation permitted sultan Agung Tirtajasa to regained his throne.
A civil war between Father (sultan agung Tirtajasa) and son (Abdul Fatah or Sultan Haji) brke out in this year. Once more with VOC help, Sultan Haji managed to verthrown his father.
Sultan Haji of Bantam , was forced in return of VOC helped, to concluded a treaty with VOC in this year whereby he lost all his power. The term of the treaty were :
(a) Bantam dropped her Claim to Cheribon
(b) Bantam was forced to pay $ 600.000. to VOC as war reparation. Alternatively, the VOC would be given a monopoly of Bantam trade.
(c) Bantam was frced to deny admittance to all other European traders.
(a)Gouvernor general VOC Camphuys
(b) VOC Batavia Fort picture lithography
2.3. VOC COLLECTIONS IN 18th CENTURY
Sultan Amangkurat II was passed away(died),his succeeded by his son Sunam Mas who took on the title of Sultan Amangkurat III. He was a tyrant who was continually at war with his uncle, Pangeran Puger. In the first power struggle, the VOC support Pangeran Puger against Amangkurat III who made a pact with Surapati. Amangkurat III was defeated and his throne was taken ver by Pageran Puger.
Pangeran Puger was installed by the VOC as Pakebewono I and he signed a treaty with the VOC in return for their support by this treaty the dutch obetained Cheribon and Preager as well as the eastren part of Madura, also VOC control of Mataram,s trade, stationed their troops at Kartasura Palace Mataram’scapital, in this way Mataram lost her independence to Dutch.
Pakubuwono I was died, Amangkurat IV succeeded to the trown, his realtives renelled and sparked off the second power struggle in Java. The VOC again intervened and supported Amangkurat IV. this further weakened Mataram’s position while VOC strenghthened their hold on Java.
Amangkurat IV was died, Pakubuwono II succeeded to the trown . He was determined to drive the VOC out of Mataram.
Sultan Pakubowono II formed a pact with some dissatified Chineseoverseas and rabelled against the VOC. He was defeated and forced to make peace with VOC. The chinese rabelled alone and VOC send Madura soldier to kill all the chinese overseas soldier ( read the vintage boo collection Babat Pecinan).
Pakubuwono II signed the treaty with VOC in this year. In this treaty, Madura Island and the whole nothern coast of Java was ceded to VOC with the King of Madura adminstrated under VOC protectorated. Subsequently, Pakubuwono II moved his capital from Kartosuro to Surakarta .
A second power struggle broke out at Bantam in this year. The Queen Fatimah persuaded her husband (i.e the old Sultan who ruled Bantam from 1633 to 1652) to set aside the legitimate heir Pangeran Gusti and install her son-in low as the heir persumptive. The VOC supported this move by exiling Pangeran Gusti to Ceylon(Srilangka). Queen Fatimah also called Sultan Ratoe, there were Bantam coin with her name, I have read the story of her loving latter with the VOC Gouvenor General (please comment from Historian, true or not?)
(a)In this year Pakubuwono II were died, handing over the administration of Mataram by VOC with puppet ruler Pakubuwono III.
Pangeran Mangkoeboemi, a relative of Pakubuwono III , who continued with his attempts to free Mataram from VOC rules.and the war begun between Mangkebemin and VOC.
(b)in this year Zeelandia issued VOC half Doeit copper coin. The memorable coins issued during the Mataram Kingdom administration under VOC.
This is the first report that is why @Copyright Dr iwan S.2010 and the coin is called” Dr Iwan S’s VOC victory Mataram copper coin”
(c) In this year VOC influence began to decline. The VOC faced financial problems .
In this year , the Queen Fatimah of bantam conflict with Pangeran Gusti had caused a rebellion led by Kuai Tapa and Queen bagus when Pangeran gesti exilling to Ceylon.
At this time, there was a change of policy n the part of the VOC under their new Governor-General and they were keen on ending all hostilities. The new Governor-General was Jacob Mossel. He recognized a relative of old Sultan as the ruler with Pangeran Gusti (who brought back from exile) as the heir persumptive.
the Bantam rebellion persisted as Ratu Bagus wanted the throne fro herself and finally broken the war in this year and Pangeran Gusti was crowned the new ruler. In return , the new ruler reaffirmed the treaty of 1752 (signed by the old sultan) which accepted VC suzerainty over Batam and VOC control of Lampung.
The war between Mangkoenemi and VOC ended in this year when the VOC finally decided to make peace with Mangkoeboemi. This led to threaty of 1755, whereby Mataram was divided into two parts :
(a) the westren part was placed under Mangkoeboemi, who became known as Sultan Hemangkubuwono I with his capital Jogjakarta.
(b) The eastren part was ruled by Pakubuwono III with his capital at Surakarta.
In this year Zeelandia issued anothe half Doeit VOC copper coin.
Gouvernur General Camphius
Gouvernour General Alting
Hollandia issued VOC one and two doeit, but put in circulation after VOC dismished (common, fund many, all the illustration in Internet were this common coins, also the other years issue were common not illustrated,many trader didn’t know about thsi informations they still asked the same prized with the rare VOC copper coins that illustrated in this blog, happy hunting collector!!)
Zeelandia issued VOC one doeit copper coin (rare)
Zeelandia issued new design VOC one doeit copper coin ( 1792 more rare)
(a)The Bataav Republic was set up by the Dutch in Java.
(b)In this year Java was free from direct Dutch control in this year until 1806.
The VOC faced financial problems which resulted in Bankrupty in this year , why the VOC bankrupt :
(a) Bad Dutch profit strategy
(b) Inefficient and corrupt administration
(c) Inadequate systems of payment of devidends to shareholders.
(d) Rising cost of war operations against lcal states
(e) Trade competition from the British
(f) The Anglo-Dutch and the French war(1740-4)
2.4.VOC COLLECTION AFTER DIMISHED IN 19TH
CENTURY (FRANCH-BRITISH-DUTCH OCCUPATION)
(Some of VOC coin coat of arm still used)
The Bataav Republic Gouverment prepared issues 1 St. copper coin (rare coins , circulated during Dandeals Batavian Republique)
The Bataav Republic prepared emergency issued 2 St bar (Bonk) copper coin , this coin circulated during Dandeals
The Bataav Republique government issued copper coin with VOC coat of armed
(a)Java was placed under the direct rule of Napoleon Bonaparte, William dandaels was sent to strengten Java’s fortifications against British.
(b)The Bataav Republic was placed under the direct rule f Napolen Bonaparte.
(c) Dandaels was assigned to strenghten Java’s defences against the british with builded est west highway acrross Java ” the Postal road from Anyer to Panarukan”, when the road acrross Bantam the people and the King there didn’t gave permission, Dandeales attacked and burned the Palace Sorosowan. He apponited Sultan Muhammad to be the puppet Bantam King ,who lived in another Palace builded by Queen Fatimah .
(d) Daendels reorganized the system of administration, burned the VOC fort because dirty and mny disease endemic there and built the new palace at Bogor and new office at Weltevreden (now the office of Finance menistry)
(e) Dandeals reform Administrative , apart from the army, the administration was also geared towards the task of defending Java from the British. Dandeaks centralized the administrative machinery by dividing Java into five regions and 38 districts. Lcal chieftains were appointed as salaried official.
(f) Dandeals also reforms Economic, Judicial and intervention in local politics.
(a) In this year when France occupied Holland and the Napoleon Bonaparte brother, Lodewijk Napoleon appointed as the King of Holland.
(b) French Goverment in Indonesia issued LN -Lodewijk Napoleon one doeit copper coin in two type normal char and antique char , 1/2 ST Lodewijk Napoleon antique char ( rare if the nominal value up than LN char), 1 st LN and 5 1/16 copper coin(rare)
(a) in this year Dandeals was replaced by Governor General Jansen.
(b)The war between British India armed forces vs French and Local soldiers at Fort Master Cornelis (Jatinegara)
(b)British conguered Java in this year, Lord Minto -the British Governor-General of India, appointed Raffles as the Lieutenant-General T.S.Raffles as the Gouvenour of Java and its protectorate territories such as Madura,Palembang,Banjarmasin and Macassar.
The capture and rule of Java was intended to eliminate the influence of the French and to provide the Indonesian population with a just and humanitarian government.
(a)The Napoleon War between British India Forces vs France Soldier and Local soldier ended this year. (b)The intervention in Bantam was occasioned by a power struggle between Pageran Ahmad and sultan Muhammad. Raffles exile Pangeran Ahmad to Banda.
in this year Sultan Muhammad was persuaded to surrender his territory to the British in return for a pension.
(c) In Jogjakarta, Raffles sent a force of 1.200 soldiers when Sultan Sepuh began to fortify his capital . The Sultan was forced to abdicate and go into exile. The young crown prince was installed as Hamengkubuwono III.
(d) In Surakarta, the ruler was forced to surrender a part of his territory and reduced the strenghth of his army.
(e)Raffles issued the law prohibiting the entry of slaves into Java.
(f) In Palembang , the sultan attempted to declare his independence from the British, Raffles retailed by capturing the town, thus causing the Sultan to flee. Rafles then installed Ahmad Nijam as the ruler and forced him to cede Banka and billiton to the British. The VOC canon overprint by French Mark, re overprint by British with date 1811 , the canon now put at Badaruddin Museum near Musi riverthis is the first report (illustrated)
Raffles issued the another law was passed preventing the Police from forcing slaves to work for their masters and the rehabilitation of slaves was financed by the government.
The Dutch returned to Java in this year, they reverted to the old systemsof administration, judiciary, agriculture and taxation, and continued to oppress the Indonesian people.
(a)Gouvernor General DEI Van der Capellen, and Raffles became the gouvenor of Westcoast Sumatra enclaved at Bengkulu ( during this time issued Fort Mlborough silver and copper coin, EIC coins- the complete history read Singapore unique collection in thsi blog)
(b) DEI gouvernemen issued several rare coins 1/8 St, 1/4 St.
in this year Van der Capellen issued the act of 1821.
Banned all forms of Eurpean trade in the cffee district f preager.
In this year van der Capellen issued another act of 1823 :
(a) Prohibited Europeans from leasing land from Indonesians.
(b) Cancelled contracts for the lease of land
(c) Resulted in econmic chaos.
in this year van der capellen cnstrucyted roads and other public prjec, and quelled rebellions in the Mluccas, Borneo,celebes and palembang.
Van der capellen was recalled to Holland and replaced by Du Bus de Gisignies.
The javanese War was a major rebellion against Dutch rule in Java. It was led by Dipo Negoro, a royal prince of Jogjakarta. the rebellion broke out because several factors :
(a) Abolition of land lease contracts
(b) Imposition of high tolls
(c) Leadership of Diponegoro.
He was the eldest son of sultan Hamengkubuwono III who ruled Jogjakarta 1810-1814. Diponegoro rise against the Dutch because of his resentment of three issued :
(1.1) Concerned his father’s throne . when Sultan Hamengkubuwono III died, Dipo Negoro was bypassed. Instead a stepson, Djarot who was younger than dipo was made Sultan hamengkubuwono IV as he was of ryal blood.In odder to appaese Dipo Negoro, Raffles, who was then the british administratot in Java, promised to make him Sultan after Djarot’s death.However, when Djart Died in 1822, the ruling dutch gvernment in Java installed his two-year old son as the succesor. This infuriated Dipo Negoro as the Dutch ignored Raffles promise and rejected Dipo’s rightful claim.
(1.2) Dipo Negoro was further dissatisfied with the cancellation of the Land leases which caused him tolse a profitable source of income.
(1.3) the outbreak of the Javanese war was the decision of the dutch government to uilt a road acroass a cementary on Diponegoro ‘s land. He was a devout Muslim and had already been upset by the Dutch refusal to recognize him as the Islamic leader in Java. he rgarded himself as the liberating prince and his cause won him thousands of follwers. They then took to the jungle and declared a holy war against the dutch.
During this war , the Dutch army was occupied with the rebellions in Palembang and Boni. The Dutch position improved when Governor general de Koch was appointed to handle the Javanese War. He won over several leaders such as Madura and the susuhunan of Surakarta to the dutch side. Forts were built in captured territries to ensure control of them. These forts were accesable by means good rads.
Diponegoro began to suffer losses. thousand of his followers had been killed.
mangkubumi and Panglima sentot (Diponegoro nephew) surrendered to the Dutch. With this Diponegoro conceded defeat. Negotiations were held during which he insisted upon being allowed to used the title of “Sultan” and to be recognized as the protector and crusader of Islam. The Dutch rejected his demands and exiled him to Menado (later to Macassar. I saw his tomb between the shop in the market). This ended the Javanese war.
Following the javanese war , the Dutch tried to prevent the occurance of other rebellion. they seized territories such as Madium,Kediri, banjumas. Bagelen and Surakarta. Compensation was paid to the rulers of this territries for their loss.
Susuhunan of Surakarta was furious with the seizure of Surakarta as he had helped the Dutch against the rebels but before he could do anything against the dutch, they exile himto Ambon. they installed in his place Pakubuwono VII who promptly concluded a peace treaty with dutch.
The javanese war cost the Dutch 20-25million guilders which had to be borrowed. thus, the financial position of the Dutch became worse, by this year their debt incraesed to 30 million guilders. Governor general de gisignies attempted to overcaome the problem by setting up the bank of Java and issuing new currency, but his efforts had little success. subsequently, Hollands sent New Govenor General Johannes vanden Bosch to tackle the financial problem. He introduced a system of compulsary crops or Rodi Kopi or Cultur stetse(Tanam Paksa)l which became very effective in the javanese economy.,
a new constitution was introduced, whereby colonial affairs were tranferred from the monarch to Parliament in Holland.
In this year Holland came under the influence of Liberal iseas and develped a new constitution under which responbility for colonial affairs was transfererred from the monarch to parliament. thsi enabled liberals to criticize the Compulsary Crop system.
many Liberals opposed the Compulsary Crop system , they critized and wrote n issues connected with the situation in java. Douwes Dekker’s novel Mac Havelaar turned public feeling against government pressures on the presents in Java. similary, Van der Putte wrote on Sugar Contracts in Java which claimed that freedom in agriculture was suitable the indonesian people and thei economy.
all kind of token and coins were keep out of the circulation by Dutch East Indie Gouvernment, they issued the first copper coin Half cent -1855, and one cent-1855 ( very rare coin in best condition because limited edition 40.000 items, too long used usually found in the poor cndition ,but still okey )
DEI Gouvernment issued the first 21/2 cent(Bengol for Keroak!! native metal massage) , this coin uncommon because to much issued.
The Liberty Party won control of Hollands and Van der Putte became minister of land and colonies, he reforms policy :
(a) to eliminate restriction to trade and agriculture
(b) To promote free enterprise
(c) To protect Indonesians from opression.
(21) 1860 and 1866, the less profitable crops ceased to be planted: pepper(1862),clves and nutmegs(1863), indigo, tea and quinine(18650 and tobacco(1866). only coffee and sugarcane continued to be planted as they represented the main sources of revenue for guvernment.
In this year Goverment issued Sugar act, it provided the Liberals with a reason for opposing the compulsary corp system(tanam paksa).Under the act, the planting of sugar-can, which had caused be withdrwan in to the Indonesian farmers, would be withdrawn in twelve annual phase beginning in 1878. This meant that the sugar-cane harvest could be sold freely in Java.
The Cmpulsary planting of the corp(tanam paksa) finally came to an end in this year.
DEI Gouvernment issued limited edition 21/2 cent-1896 (rare in best condition)
Please all the collectors to choose the Kumpeni VOC collections as the best ten uniquecollections 2010 via comment. Before choose look the other detailed illustration ” Rare VOC copper Coins”, “Gouvernor general VOC pipe”, “VOC Ceramic Token”, “Ancient VOC pictures”,and “Ancient Bottle VOC cargo ” that will put in the blog this day.
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010