IV, THE VIETNAM WAR
4.2.BODAI- SAIGON REGIME WAR)
4.2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
4.2.2 BODAI-SAIGON REGIME WAR
4.2 BO DAI-SAIGON REGIME WAR
4.2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
a.V ietnam (Constantino,Renato “The Making of Filipino” A Story of Phillipine Colonial politics” page 205& 231, first printing 1969,… panay avenue,Quezon City,Phillipine)
(1) The United States has asked her Allies to join her in warning communists “Against further aggresion in ear-torn Indochina”
(2) The next subject on which Senator Recto opposed the US position,and President Magsasay’s as well, was vietnam.
(3)Describing Vice-prosident Carcia’s prompt expression of support for United States intervention as ill-advised, he cautioned the Foreign Affairs Department against making ,without prior consultation with Congress, statements which might involve the country in war.
He pinted out that the Phillipines is in No Position to issued such “threats” because it is just a “small power” He expressed the fera that “ we may just be like hunring dogs sent out to bark at wild boars. Not physically able to fight the boar, we back out at first sign of conflict”
Besides, he reminded the govern-ment that sould ourt threatening words involved us in war , our mu-tual defense agreement did not con-tain the categorial assurance that united States would come to our defense.
(4)President Magsasay said “ the last vestiges ( of the old-style colonialism) are now disappearing from Asia”, but the oppositioned Senator Recto said :
(a)“ Westren colonialism is far from dead, and it is not correct to say that it has reached the last vestigial stage.Of course it is doubtful if it can conquer again or re-establish itself upon the vast areas of the globe that it controlled in the 18th and 19th centuries, but this certainly is not due to lack of willingness or ebthuasiasm to do so, but rather to impressive evolution of the nationalism of many subject peoples since the closing years of the last century, starting in Asia with our own successful revolution against the Spanish colonial government.”
(b)“ Freedom-loving Asians correctly believe that it is not for any Westren people now to decide for any Asian nation what principles of foreign policy it may adopt or repudiate”
(c)”I am definitely against the commitment of Filipino troops in the war in Indochina. There is no cause, no reason for sending our fighting men to assist a colonial power to perpetuate itsef against the Liberation ambition of the native population”
(d)Recto advised the United states to drop her”supercillious and patronizing attitude toward “Asia for the Asians”if she wants Asian cooperation”
(5) Magsaysay Reacts.
This veiled criticism of magsaysay and the more open attack on Americans and pro-Americans like Romulo had an immediate repcussion.
(6) The Brownell doctrine,
Foreign policy, Indochina, and Japanese reparations each provided a new battle ground in the worsening relation between Recto and Magsaysay.
The United states through her defense secretary that Filipino soldiers would not be sent to fight abroad, Recto felt that the Filipino people should be made to understand that “unless full gaurantees are secured from America” .
(7) The clash between Recto and the President Magsaysay
The clash was the paramount feature of party politics at that time. Everyone’s attention was focused on this duel between formidalbe adversaries.
(8)Liberal Representative Diosdado Macapagal, implementing his party’s pledge of support to Magsaysay and perhaps trying to drive a deeper wedge between Magsaysay and Nacionalista Party leaders,
enumerated in radio address the following ten “fundamental” conflicts between Magsaysay and Recto
( the complete history will list in UC’s next book “Phillipnes Unique collections” –auth)
(9)The fundamental’s conflict about Indochina-war :
(a) While the president Magsaysay is for joining the U.S. in warning Red China from intervening in Indochina, Senator Recto has opposed such step as like a dog rousing the wild boars from its lair only to run away.
(b) While the president Magsaysay has dropped Asia for the Asians as a policy, Senator Recto has vowed to make it a basis of our foreign palicy.
(the historic informations about the Phillipines and Vietnam Independen-ce war will put at the chronologic collections information. I hope after read the historicbacground we know that in phillipine, were senator recto opposides the President Magsaysay policy about Filipinos joined the Indochina war, detailed read the Renato Constantino books-auth)
b. ibid Stanley Karnow,1994
(1)After the defeat of the French by Ho Chi Minh and General Giap in summer of 1954 , there appeared the chance of negotiated solution .
(2)The Geneva conference of that year had resulted is a number of agree-ments and compromise.
(3)The lighting was ended, and Vietnam was divided slose in the 17th paralel, with the North Vietnamese controlling what became the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, recognised by the communist state; in the South arose the anti communist Republic of Vietnam.
(4)Vietnam , it was proposed, would be unified again following elections in July 1956.
(5)Two crusial features of the Geneva Accords were thus Vietnam were remain unitary states whose future would decided by elections, and that no foreign troops were permitted to assist North or South Vietnam. But from the start prohibition against the inroduction of foreign’s arm and amunition’s was a dead letter.
(6)Eisenhower and Dulles regarded the Geneva Accords as appesement of communism and a defeat for the free world.
They dissociated themselves from the agreements but promised not to overturn them by force provided there was no aggreasion from the North. They also expressed doubts about the all-Vietnamese elections and inssted that they be held under the auspices of the United Nation.
(7) on the 3rd June 1945
(a)the Cochin-china as an Autonom Republic under the Federation of Indochina and the Franch Union(D)
(b) The Republic Democratic Vietnam still under the union under French,and Economy-politically united too with other Indochina area in the South.(Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia ?-auth)
(c)Republic Vietnam willn’t be developed if not united with other area because in the nothren more Industrial and in the South very rich agriculture especially rice.
(d)All of the South area were under the French powers, and there were made the Goverment like the Dutch have made in East indonesia area out of Java and Sumatra .
(e)In this Situation The Independent Of Republic Vietnam not full in Politically and economically.
(f)When the Independent of Republic Vietnam , French have promised wilnot gunfigting in the southern area Cochin-China, and there will made “People ‘s referendum” to choose to join the (j)Republic Democratic Vietnam or Not as the Humanright to self determination and this referendum will profillacted the war .
But The french army were came to that area and accepted the Indepen-dent Republic Of Cochin-china under French Union in June 1946.
(g)The new Republic of Cochin-china have the Annamese native president dr Nguyen van Tinh, before they made as secret referendum to choose accept or not to join the Republic Democratic Vietnam under Ho Chi-minh .
(h) The Republic Democratis Vietnam had protested that situation, and became small war during Ho chi Minh meetings in Paris.
(i)During Paris conference, French have made Dalat Conference with delegation from every French’s and they have accepted to made The federation Of Indochina, the same Dutch made In Malino Indonesia.
When Ho Chi Minh heard that situation, The Paris conference was banded, and the small war have begun again but Republic Democratic of Vietnam didn,t have power because the French have the power in Indochina, the same situation in Indonesia some Java area under Dutch.
(j)The Killing, fired, kidnapped, terrorisme from the two side as the same what we saw in Java and Sumatra Indonesia.
(k)The Frech army used 6000 Duitsch army who signed the contract to joined the french arme forces after Franch occupied Rhine area in Germany (Duitschland).
(l)After the French have enough armed forces, the Allied army from British departed from Indochina.
(m)Although the Situation in Indochina were same in Indonesia , but difference situation that when the Dai Nippon have surrendered the French official and Armed forces still in Indochina put as prisoner of war and the French authority more strong than in Indonesia.(OD)
(n)Since the Vietminh had prevailed at Diienbienphu and still menaced the French elsewhere in Indochina, Pham Van Dong predictably came on strong. He insisted on a political settlement first, under which the French would withdraw and leave the Vietnamese to resolve their own differences- a formula calculated to panic Bao dai Regime and virtually guarantee a Communist triumph. He also arguedd for recognation ofthe Pathet Lao and the Free Khmer, the Vietminh-supported Communist movements in Laos and Cambodia, contending that they deserved legal status and control of territory in their countries.(I have the original photo of Pham van Dong from the photo collections given the Indonesian official during Afro asia Bandung conference 1955-auth)
The French rejected these demands , Pham van Dong refused to yield- and the conference slid to a stand still.
(o) Zhou Enlai showed at geneva for the first vtime, he’s primaray ain was to carve an agreement that would deny the United States a pretext to intervene in Indochina and again threaten China. Thus he sought a settlement that would give the French at least a foothold in their former possesion, to the exclusion the Americans.
Such an accomodation inevitably required a sacrifice of the Vietminh’s objectives. But Zhou put China’s priorities first. Besides, Chinese foreign policy throughout the centuries had been to fragment South East Asia in order to influence its states, and Zhou subscribed to that tradition. A divided Vietnam suited the Chinese better thatn a unified neighbor- particulary one that had quarreled with China for two thousand years. Similarly, China’s security would be served by restraining Vietnamese ambition in Laos and Cambodia. By curbing the Vietminh, moreover, Zhou hoped to display his noderation to India, Indonesia and the other nonaligned countries of Asia. Indeed, his appearance at Geneva was a prelude to his performance soon afterward at the Bandung Conference, where he and the Indian Prime Minister Jawalharlal Nehru embranced as they launched their campaignnto preach the “Pancasila” , the “principles of peaceful coexistence”( I have the original photo of Nehru, Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh during Nonaligned Country Afro Asia Conference Bandung 1955, auth)
(p) The Vietminh showed no signs of elasticity, and Bao dai had just appointed the intractable Ngo Dinh Diem to his prime minister. But Zhou Enlai intervened. He arranged to meet Mendes-France covertly on June 23 1954, at the French embassy in Bern, the Swiss Capital.
Zhou had discarded his usual severe tunic for a gray Westren business unit, and he meant business. He told Mendes-France that, in contrast to the demands of the Vietminh, he favored a cease-fire first and a political accord afterward. He would urge the Vietminh to stop meddling in Laos and Camboda, and to respect the sovereignity of these “two Vietnams”- a direct blow to the Vietminh’s dream of unifications. The possibility of American military bases in Indochina worried him. Beyond that, he said, China’s only aim was peace in the region, adding that his government had “no other ambitions(and) poses no conditions”.
Worse awaited the Vietminh leader two evening later, at a farewell dinner organizes by Zhou. The guests included a member of Bao dai’sdelegation, Ngo Dinh Luyen, theyounger brother of Ngo dinh Diem. Pham Van Dong was astonished and dismayed that Zhou, a Communist comerade, should have invited a “puppet” of the French. But Zhou went even further, obliquely indicatingvin his silky manner that China favored a permanent partition of Vietnam. Turning to ernment to be established in Saigon open a diplomatic mission in Beijing:” Of course, Pham Van Dong is closer to us ideologically, but doesn’t rule out representation from South. After all, aren’t you both Vietnamese,and sren’t we all Asians?”
(q) The conclussion at Geneva was to be misinterpreted, if not misunderstood, for years to come. The only documents signed were cease-fire accords ending the hostilities in Vietnam, Cambodia and laos.
The Agreement between France and The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, as the Vietminh officially called itself, wasnot a political settle-ment .It provided for temporary division of Vietnam pending a nationwide election to be held in the summer of 1956. The French forces would meanwhile withdraw from the north, and the vietminh from south. Except for the United States and the Saigon regime, the other participants merely gave their oral endorsement to afinal declaration noting the understandings.
(r) The Eisenhower administration , crusading against its foggy notion of an international Communist conspi-racy, reluctantly pledged to abide by the Geneva agreement. In a separate statement, however, Bedell Smith warned that the United States would view “with grave concern…any renewal of aggression”- a caveat President Kennedy used seven years later to justify his comminment to the Ngo Dinh Diem government. Diem also rejected the Geneva accords, which put half Vietnam under Communist control, and he predicted that “another more deadly war” lay ahead for Vietnam. His forecast was prescient, after eight years of conflict and four hundred thousand soldiers and cibilians dead, the agony was far from finished(D)
(1)The South Vietnamese government, headed by the Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem , refused to sign any of the treaties but carried out the military truce conditions.
(2)Eisenhower’s conduct in 1954 marked another turning point in the tragic history of Vietnam and of the United States’s involvement in that tragedy, which lwd to extensive sacrifices in men, material and, a decade later social cohesion.
What Eisenhower and dulles refused to accept was that no firm line had been drawn against further communist expansion, further erosion of the westren position in South east asia, though they had no wish for the US to replace colonial France or to exploit South Vietnam.
4. 2.2 The Chronology of BO DAI-REGIME WAR COLLECTIONS .
(THE Federation Of Indochine ,SAIGON REGIME)
a.After The Japanese surrendered-1945
(1)June ,3rd 1945
The Cochin-china became an autonom Rep. under Federation Of Indochina and French union with General Nguyen van Xuan as the president (D)
2) July, 1945
(1)The Postdam agreement, British Allied forces were to occupy the southren half of Vietnam up to 16th parralel.
The commander of the British occupation forces, Major-General Douglas Gracey, exceeded both the postdan mandate and the orders of his superiorAdmiraln L. Mountbatten.
Short of troops of his own, Gracey relied heavily upon Japanese forces to keep Saigon and the surrounding area under his control and out of the hands of Vietminh. (ibid Kahin)
3) August 1945
(1) August.5th 1945
Japanese Surrender and Saigon in Chaos .
The French had crumbled, devas-tated by the defeat of Japanese whose troops in Vietnamwere waiting for repatriation.
4) September 1945
(1) September,22th 1945
(a)A day after their release, Franch soldiers went on a rampage, shooting entries, they poured into the Saigon city hall and ousted the Vietminh’s so –a called Provisional Executive building, raising the French flag from the rooftops .
(b) Then, their ranks swelled by angry French civilians, they coursed through the city, broke into Vietnamese homes and shops, and indicriminately clubbed men, women and even children.
(c)Gracery and Cedile, appaeled by the spectacle that they them-selves had inspired, pleaded for calm but bit was too late.(D)
(2) September,23th 1945
General Gracey rearmed the bulk of the 5.000 French troops interned in the Saigon area and permitted the French to launch a coup d’etat on this day.
(3) September,24th 1945
(a)Responding to the French frenzy, therefore, the Vietminh launched a general strike on this day. If any one date marks the start of the first Indochina war, it might be that day.
(b)For the strike and its aftermath initiated a momentum of conflict that, despite periodic negotiating attemps, could not be stopped.
(c)By morning, Saigon was paralyzed. Electricity and water supplies had halted. Shop were shut and offices closed , trams stood still and even rickshaws had disappeared from the deserted streets.
(d)Anticipating the worst, the city’s twenty thousand French civilians barricaded their houses or fled in panic to the security of the rambling old Continental Palace Hotel
( I have the Book’s illustrated picture of this hotel in 1964-auth), the billet for French and British officers.
(e)The crackle of gunfire and the thud of mortars soon resonated tthrough the city, as armed Vietminh squad attacked the airport,, burned the central market and stormed the local prison to liberate hundreds of vietnamese inamets.
(f)But the most brutal episode occured at the Cite Herault, a residential suburb.
(g)At dawn, Binh Xuyen terrorist led by the Vietminh agents slipped past japanese soldiers supposely guarding the district.
Smashing doors and windows, they broke into bed rooms and masacres one hundred and fifty French and Eurasian civilians, sparing neither women nor children.
They dragged more than a hundred others away as hostages, mutilating many before freeing them later.
(h) Predicrably , communist historian omit any mention of this atrocity in their accounts of the period(D-ibid Stanley Karnow)
(4)As his country descended into Violence , the Vietnamese faction’s clash with each other and with Frenc , Bo Dai left the country to Hongkong.
(5)Not Yet collections in this month
(Very difficult to find the collections after Japanese surrender in Cochin-china, different in Indonesia we fine the Japanese occupations coll, after japanese surrender, because they still have the power and will tranversed the power to the British Allied forces , but British came too late in the end of September and early of October 1945.
The Collectors must be carefull, because too many fake revenue and postal histories in Vietnam on this time and sold very high dollars-auth)
b.French vs Vietnamese in 1946
1) January 1946
The Government has signed a decree on the issued of Vietnamese notes.
During that period, and even for some previous years, the Banknotes issued by the French have been circulating all over the three parts of Vietnam,cambodia and Laos. For some time when petty notes became rare, the people had even to the art notes into two halves to used as change among them.
Afterwards , when the French colonialists returned, French currency continued to e spent again in the French-occupied regions. Together with their conspiracy to re-occupy Indochina, the French colonialist have created various goverments in the South, controlling a number of regions and setting up L’Institue d’Emission des Etats du Cambodia,Laos and vietnam .The figure on the back of Banknotes issued by the issuing Institue have shown us whom the national s
S overeignty belong to.
2) February 1946
No yet information
A clash had been prevented French would recognize Vietnam as a free state within the French Union – the new name for the old French empire and Ho would permit the presence of twenty-five thousand Franch troops in Vietnam for the next five years. But the final confirmation of this accrd never came.
4) April 1946
(1) When the French colonialist returned, French currency continued spent again in the French-occupied area. Together with their conspiracy to re-occupy Indochina.
The French colonialists have created various government in the South, controlling a number of regions and setting up “ L’Institue d’Emission des Etats du Cambodge, du laos et du vietnam. The front page same, but the backpage different with Elephant (Vietnam), Angkor statue(cambodge) and Kiln (Laos) also the picture of the state’s king .
The banknote One piastres yellow-red with the king picture and The house monument, five piastres -green
With Bodai picture(vietnam), and monument of Laos and cambodge, 10 piatres yellow brown-along bay Haiphong picture(vietnam), Laos dancers, Cambodege lady; 100 piatsres blue-pink , Bodai picture (vietnam), Laos ‘s three lady and cambodge lady with flower, the highest nominal 200 pisatres, Bo Dai picture & Elephant(Vietnam) and Ankor statue (Cambodia).
( I found the 200 piastres Bo Dai & elephant picture in very find condition at Russian market Phom Phen Cambodia, the 200 piastres Angkor statue pictures very rare I never saw the very fine conditions many in bad condition-auth)
5) May 1946
D’Argenlieu went through motion of further talks with the Vietminh at Dalat, a lovely hill town in the South. But he parried the big issues, like Cochinchina’s status and Vietnam’s sovereignity, contending that they could only be discussed at a higher level meeting, scheduled to take place in France,
(2)May 31th 1946
on this day ,Ho depated for Paris.
(3)No sooner had Ho left Hanoi
(a)D’Argenlieu resorted the old fait accompli ploy, in violation of the March agreement and without informing Paris, he proclaimed a republic of Cochinchina in the name of Franch.
(if someone have the collections of this puppet Republic of Cochinchina please comment and send the illustrations because I have never seen, in Indonesia there were the same puppet republic and I have fount the postal and document histories of that puppet state, read Indonesia Independent War-auth)
(b)The Cochinchina isuue also aroused the French in Saigon, who inundated the government in Paris with telegrams and petition, some even protesting against the presence in Franch and his”agitation and troublemakers”
(c)At the same time , d’Argenlieu tried to subven the negotiation by convening his own counter con-ference in Dalat, to which he invited selected Vietnamese, cambodians, Laotians and a delegate from the “ Republic of Cochinchina” to discuss Indochina’s future. The french did nothing to diswavow him-and may have even secretly approved his machinations.(ibid,stenley Karnow).
6) June 1946
(1) June .22th 1946.
The green paper land-house tax paid 9$50,without revenue, with black colour catho village francaise Indo-chine type.
(rare document at this time, why not republic of Cochinchina because at the document still used The old village and province of Francaise Indochina stamped , this proof that Republic of Cochinchina only the puppet republic without power-auth)
(2) Under an agreement to remove the Chinese forces, Ho Chi Minh agre-ed to the return of the French army to Hanoi in 1946. Troops are seen here entering the city. The welcoming cro-wd was composed mostly of French residents (P-ibid Stanley karnow)
(2)In 1946, as they moved to install their new government in Notrhern Vietnam,Ho Chi Minh and his followers organized verious associations- including this youth group, whose members were trained to sing political songs extolling Vietnam’s indepen-dent (P-ibid stanley karnow)
7) July 1946
After eight weeks of haggling, the Fointaibleau conference yields only a draft accord that reinforced France’s economic prerogatives in northern Vietnam without resolving the Cochinchina problem.
Ho sent his delegation home and stayed on in Paris alone in a last angguished effort to settle what he publicly glossed over as a”family dispute”(D)
8)-11) August to November 1946
Not yet information
(1)D’argenlieu , back in Saigon , went further conversation with Ho were “ henceforth imposible”. He asserted ,proposing instead that Vietnam return to its”Traditional monarchy”- in short , Enthrone Bo Dai again, who had by then left Hanoi for Hong Kong.
c. Frence vs Vietnamese -1947
(1) the Photo of Ho Chi Minh ,seated, incasual attire, flanked by his senior comrades (left to right) Pham van Dong, Truong Chinh, and Vo Nguyen Giap.
(Truong Chinh borrowed his pseudonym, which mean Long March, from the famous exploit of the famous Chinese Communist in 1934-ibid Karnow)
(2) The Cao Dai , Hoa Hao, Trot skyites band other , all striving to outbid the Vietminh, had taken as extrimist tack and tension spiraled with the emergence of Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns for hire.(D)
(a)Bo Dai might have been a week , unprededictable, corruptable play-boy, but he was no fool.
When the French sent represen-tatives to Hong Kong in early 1947 to lure him back to the throne , he insisted , as Ho did, that Franch must first accede to Vietnam’s Indepen-dence and unity,
(b) His stand heartened anti-communist like Ngo Dinh Diem, who urged him to stick to his position.
(c)He also worried Ho, who ordered the murder of two Vietnam-ese nationalist engaged in promoting a Bao Dai alternative.
(d)Ho engaged in a more mode-rate maneuver:
as well reiterating his eagerness to remain within French Union if only French would recognize a free ande Unified Vietnam.
He spoke sweetly about Bo Dai , saying that “ he may be far from us in distance , but not in our thought” and lastly , he reshuffled his cabinet, confining its Communist to a handful of keypost and demoting Giap, whom the French considered too aggresive .(D)
(4) Not yet collections
Not yet information.
The very rare Haipong Chinese consulate’s ID for Chinese overseas at that city during the Vichy-Vietminh war without Chinese revenue.
(This the 1947’s only one and very rare card and interesting document collections of Vichy-vietminh war that found at saigon ,best for showed.
My oppinion about this collection:
, (a1)without chinese revenue because that time no revenue issued due to the Chinese civil war between the Kuomintang nationalist (Chiang) and the Chinese Communist (Mao ) ,
(a2)The Collections was found at ex Saigon (HCM city) may be this ID was belonged by the immigrant refugee from North, after the Vichy-Vietminh war at Haiphong and the the landreform and communist action in the north (D)
(3) – (8) no info
(9) September 1947
(a)A possible transaction between Ho and Bao Dai alaramed the French. In September 1947, Emile Bollaert , the French high commisioner, offered to dissolve the saparatist “ Republic of Cochin-China “ invented by Admiral D’Argenlieu and foster a “self –governing” Vietnam, with France responsible for its defense and diplomacy.
This was essentially a revival of the nineteenth-century protectorate, and Ho called the proposal “too narrow” yet signaled a willingness to bargain.
(10)-(11) no info
A group of anti-Communist Nationalist, some on the French payroll, rushed to Hongkong and persuaded Bao dai to talk with Boliert.
They met on December.7.1947, abroad a French cruiser anchored in the Bay of Along, north of Haiphong, with a spectacular coastline of limestone needless rising from the sea.
Bo Dai wanted a firm French pledge of Independence, but Bolieret persuaded him to sign a Protocol” that so hedged the magic word with qualification as the render it mea-ningless, Bao Dai had been trapped.
A comic sequence followed. Trying to escape his commitment to resume his imperial duties, Bao Dai fled to Europe, where he shifted from one city to another, hiding in cinemas by day and cabaret by night as Boliert chased him like a process server.(D)
d.Prologue Bo Dai regime in 1948
Not yet information
The “Quittance De Loyer” receipt ,recu de M Nguy Thuy, 220$ , with Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal revenue 2 x 30 cents (rate 0$60), sign at Cholon le 7e Moes M.Ty. 1948. the receipt with the hand written recu d’M,Nguy Thuy no.161 38$05 ,another receipt without revenue.
(Best quality revenue history collec-tions for showed in France -auth)
6) June 1948
(1) June,8th 1948
(a)Bollaert eventually won, and they return to the Bay of Along on June.8,1948.
There , in Bo Dai’s presence , Bollaert signed an accord with General Nguyen Van Xuan , former head of the “Republic of Cochin-china” and now chief of a new Vietnamese national government.
France “solemly” recognized Vietnam ‘s Independence but would keep control its army, finaces and foreig affairs .
Bao Dai was dissatisfied with this small “ step in the negotiations between Vietnam and France” and wentr back to Europe, asserting that he would not wear the crown until “ true unity and real independence” had been attained.
French-spomsored Vietnam’s independence regime lacked credibility from the start.
Nguyen Van Xuan , its prime minister, was a ludicrous choice for the job. Educated at the prestigious Ecole Polytecgnique in paris, he was an exaggrerated product of the mission civilisatrice. A naturalized French citizen who had spent most of his life in France, he barely spoke Vietnamese.
The French had promoted him to General, the first Vietnamese ever elevated to that grade. And as head of admiral d’Argenlieu’s pet project, the “Republic of Cochinchina” he had been an active foe of Vietnamese unity.
The Communist branded Xuan a “puppet” he was also anathema to the colonial French.
7) July 1948
The leaflet of Chinese memoriable death’s announcement of Mr Lin Pao Lin sent to family or friend in Chinese character language:
“he was passed with peace situa-tion in June.24th 19.40 pm and all the family and friend have gave the symphatic’s homoured etc,
The announcement letter were sent to all family and friend abroad.
the rare chinese overseas ‘s tradition with ephemera
(This unique collection willn’t found anymore in modern times, best historic document for showed in Chinese area and will discused completely in another book : “Unique Chinese overseas in Asia’s collections “ copyright reserved-auth)
Not yet information
9) September 1948
not yet information
The Reciept of buying bycycle with the ephemera ‘s Propaganda pictures of Bycicle from Cycles Miror Paris,from Nhut Tang Hung Cholon Furniture Generales Pour Cycles & Pousses, Cholon 18 October 1948. buyed by Mr Nguyen van Hai , Patent No 8336, price 1189.64 , tax 1 % 1189, and timbre (revenue) 250. total 1204,03 with Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal 2x 1Piastres and 60 cent revenue
.(Unique Revenue and bicycle’s thematic ephemera history collection-auth)
11) November 1948
(1)The postal used cover from Paris rolling prestamped 10.00 franc with area code =PARIS 24= without the sender adress, to Monsieur Nguyen Nang Bu. 32-rue Phan Tanh-Gion Saigon (Indochine).
The letter inside typewritten in France from Ecole sentrale de T.S. F section electricite & Applications engineer, the Chief of Services Correspondance send salute to acept his letter November 19th 1948.
Il set heureux de constater que les cours vous donnent entiere satisfaction et il souhaite qur vous en tiriez un bon resultat.
For the regular corespondent adress ‘a le Librairie technique et Commerecials -28 , rue d’Assas Paris.
(The earlies postal services between Saigon- Paris after the War and during Vichy-Vietminh war to the Cochinchina- please comment –auth)
12) December 1948
(1) Late 1948
In Paris, successive christian democratic and Radical Socialist coalitions stalled on granting autonomy to Vietnam. General de Gaulle, pontificating on the sidelines, predicted that “the French solution will accepted sooner or later (D)
e.The State of Vietnam(1949-1955)
Bo Dai Regime in 1949
The receipt of Xuong –Thang Horlogerie , No ,43,Rue Georges Guynemer ,Saigon ,as Facture non B 26 ,Saigon 7 Janvier 1949, Contant paid 232$90, with Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue 60 cents.
(best Antique watch tematic ‘s collection for show-auth)
The State Department Officials felt that while the US sought to favor Bao Dai, it could not “ irretievably” support a local administration that “might become virtually a puppet government separated from the people and existing only by the presence of French Military forces”(D)
(3) January ,22th 1949
The rare inland Francaise cochin-chine postally used cover from CDS VINHLONG COHINCHINE 22.1.1949 TO Monsieur Tran v. Thanh Inspection du Travail 459 boulevard gallieri Saigon, at the back of cover the distination CDS SAIGO R.P-COCHINECHINE 23.1.1949 WITH 3X10 Indochine stamp and two other stamps off .
Inside the cover the green paper ‘s letter in vietnamese :
Vlong ngay 22 janvier 1949
Kinh anh than men
Hai tho dta goi dti ma chua
Vay ham moi dtuoc kinh chue
Anh Lang nam moi dtuoc van su
Eru gai anh
Mai njo cen
( If someone will help me to translate the letter please comment, I will put the letter at Undindentified collection, please comment-auth)
2) February 1949
(1)After Bo Dai living in Hongkong and China, in 1949 the French persuaded him to returned home in Vietnam.
3) March 1949
Vietnam’s figurehead Bao Dai and Franch’s figurehead president Vincent Auriol signed the Elysee Agreement , so called for the lavish presidential palace in Paris at which the ceremony took place.
The Franch reconfirmed Vietnam’s independent (etat du Vietnam ?-auth) and going beyond mere promises, outlined measures to incorporate Cochinchina in a unified Vietnamese state(Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia?-auth), but France still retained control of Vietnam’s defense, diplomay and fnances.
Helpless and frustrated, Bao dai remarked soon afterward :” What they call a Bao dai solution turns out to be just a French solution”(D)
4) not yet information
5) April 1949
(1) May.16th 1949
Postally used covers inland vietnam from CDS Saigon R.P-Cochine Chine
19.5.49, the adress was broke off , because someone off the stamps to Monsieur Tran van Thanh Inspection du Travial 459 boulevard gallieru a Saigon.
Hand written letter inside with vietnamese character, saigon 16.5.49
Anh rat yen Kinh cua em
Anh che rang muon naim gui hanh ………………………………………….
Chua and manh ra via
( if some one will help me to translate , the whole letters will put in the blog as unidentified collection, please com-ment -auth)
6) June 1949
The Land house tax paid without revenue , of Cantho Village de Tan with Cantho Francaise Indochine symbol stamped.
(The latest Francaise Indochine cantho village stamped-auth)
7) July 1949
(1)July 1st 1949
Another state Department report acknowledge that the Vietnam Communist were making progress mainly because the french had been so” niggardly” in their concession that they “have thus far failed to created an effective puppet regime capable of drawing nationalist element away from vietnam”
The french military effort had “ dwindled to footling punitive campaign” and not only was this sapping France’s strenght, but US equipment sent to French troops in Europe was ‘ being squandered in Indochina on a mission that can only justified in term of Gallic mystique”(D)
8) August 1949
Not yet information
9) September 1949
(1) September.13th 1949
The receipt of Maison nBan Thanh&Cie,Ameublement, 13-rue Chansseloup-Laubat saigon for paid 2020$00, added Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue 4 x 1 piastres(rate 4$00). For buoght two kind meubeler 1 tu boc mat boing go gia tien 2000$00 and 1 toon qo 20$00, coniem (revenue) 4$00
(The very high rate revenue , best collection for show-auth)
(2) September, 15 th 1959
The Postally used cover of Ecole Centale de TSF Paris send to Monsieu Nguyen Nang Lu Saigon, with rolling prestamped 5.00 franc with propaganda =PARIS 24= areal code.
The latter inside typewriter , Section electricite & application Modernes Esigment Techinue “Ecole Central De T.S.F” informed about him to be AGENT TECHNIQUE RADIO-ELECTRI-CIENT ( 2 parties), Livres-Quetioners-Divers ( the second latter from Ecole Central TSF Paris to Saigon and the postal rate down from 10.00 Franc to 5.00 Franc , may be the situation more favourable and the Factory name on the cover-please comment why ? auth)
10) October 1949
The Receipt f Maison Dong Nhan,Ameublemet, proprietarare Tran-Duy-Ta, 346 Rue Chasseloup-Laubat Saigon, paid 3050$00, added dtong thi 1 phan tuan 30$5 (?) , but revenue only 2x 50 cent Indochine Francaise timbre tax .
(interesting because in another receipt five days later the revenue 4$00 for paid 2020$00, but this day 1$00 but with added Dtng Thi 1 phan tuan 30$5, what kind of tax this, please comment-aut)
11) November 1949 no infor
(1)The original black and white private photo at The Tomb of Emepror Kai Dinh in Hue :
- The Native Vietnamese family seated in the front of dragon at stairs of tomb, man and wife, sister in law and three kids. At back “Dec/1949”
- The Nativese Vietnamese seated on the dragon at the stairs, wiar short traosers with French hat , at the back of photo written in vietnamese :
Chup tai So’ Thu
Hoi hoc jau annie
- Two kids , one with hat riding the Horse statue and his younger brother stayed in the front of the horase statue pull the Horse’s mouth string. Beside the Horse statue, there was the Vietnamese civilian with native hat statue.
(all the photo I have found at Ho Chi Minh city ‘s antique shop during my visit 2007 (a) and (b), (c) during my last visit 200-auth)
f.Bo Dai Saigon Regime in 1950
1) January 1950
(a)United States and Britain recognized Bao dai’s government (D).
(b) The US only recognized by only several American Official.
(c) Charlton Oghurn,another State Department ‘s Bureau of Far east Eastren Affairs, excoriated the emperor as “ a figure deserving of the redicule and contempr with which he generally regarded by the Vietnamese, and any suppsition that he could succeed or that a french army in Indochina could possibly be an asset to us could be entertained only by one totally ignorant of Asian realities,
Another State Department expert, Raymond B.Fosdick, selivered an even more passionate diatribe in a memorandum that Potrayed the Bao Dai regime as “doomed” and went on to foretell the future with remarkable prescience :”This shabby business probably represent as improvement over the brutal colonialism of early years, but it is now too late in the history of the world to settle of this cheap substitute” (D)
(d) With the recognition of Bo Dai’s regime, The US establised a full-fledge embassy in Saigon headed by Donald Heath , a veteran diplomat entranced by the French cause. They forbade US military advisers to supervise the use of American equipment, and they barred them from planning sessins. They either refused them intelligence or fed them misleading information , and they reacted fiercely to sugges-tions that they accord more latitude to Vietnamese nationalist. Top French official even suspected that American’s real aim was not to help them but to supplant French politically and economically.
Nor did the French , despite their’ solemn pledges’ yield more thatn a thin veneer of Independence to Bo Dai’s government.
Though they trained a few Vietnamese officers, they hept control of the army, breweries, and factories as well as imports and exports. They also devised a financial agreement under which piastres, the Vietnamese currency, could be exchanged for French Francs at a radiculously favorable rate, and those with licenses made fortune.
(e)One well-placed figure implicated in the traffic was the son of Vincent Auriol, the president of France.
Not that granting power t Bao dai at this stage mattered. He spent most his time at his lodge in Dalat, having delegated his nominal power to a new prime minister, Tran Van Huu, a rich landowner and Naturalized French Citizen. But the authority in his entourage belong to Nguyen van Tam, his security director, a gnarled creature known as the Tiger of Cailay, his native village in the Mekong Delta, where he had served the French by crushing Communist-led peasant uprising. The Vietminh had killed two of his sons in retallion, and his speciality in Saigon was tracking down real and inncuos enemies of the French, whom he liquidated brutally.(D)
2) February 1950
The stamp, a 3-piater value of dullblue color bore the westren attired Chief of State, ex-emperor Bao-Dai (scott#9) along with the stamp on First Day of Issues are the official govern-ment seal and Bao Dai’signature .
The South Vietnam stamps collection began with the Ex emperor Bao-Dai ‘s return to his country as Chief of State, ranging in value from several hundred dollars to thousands od dollars each. (Nguyen Bao Tung’s collection)
( I have the mint stamps of dullblue emperor Bo dai 3 piastres faund in HCM city-auth )
3) March 1950
(1) March,9th .1950
Acheson advised Truman to allocate $15 million to France for Indochina.(D)
4)-5) Not yet information
6) June 1950
Three days after the Korean war broke out, Achenson persuaded Truman to order an “ acceleration” of assistance to the French.(D)
Eight C-47 cargo aircraft flew across the Pacific to Indochina- not only time that The US to act illegaly in Vietnam.(D)
Washington’s recognation of Bo dai sparked economic and Military-assistance program (MACP-auth) , began in mid-1950.(IMNAHA report the postal used cover of MACP-auth)
7)-11) not yet info
12) December 1950
(1)December , 4 th 1950
The LAISSEZ-PASSER ID with native Vietnamese photo,
Valable Jusqu’a nouvei ordo
(Giay thon-ba’nh tam du’ng de’m khi noi linh moi )
(Circulaire No.28 Cir/Mi/Ag du 24-5-46 du Ministre de L’Inte’riem)
Nome et prenom : Huynh Ngoc Hoa
________________. ..ssance: Phu Lun 19 a’Long Chau Vinlong
. . ngay ,than,na’m dao
. native . cua mie : Thai Ti Bich
. vietnamese . Ngieu : Buon Ban
. lady’s . Village hang : Long cha’u
. photo . hai neau : 1” quartier
. . Maison no(na s6) : 46 B Dong Khan.
Vinlong,le 4 December 1950
Lang : Lang-Cheung 4.12..50
Huong Than Xuong Truong Huong-hau
Handsigned handsigned handsigned &
& red squared round violet stamped
Stamped DELEGATION DU CHEF -LIEU
“ SUD VIETNAM-
PROVINCE DE VINLONG
(RARE Document,revenue and postal history collections delegation du Chef-Lieu Of Sud-Vietnam province Vinlong, the only one ID found from the year 1950, why?,please comment-auth)
g.The last year of Francaise Indochine and the First year Bodai regime in 1951
Not yet info
6) June 1951
(1) June,6th 1951
The first Vietnamese postage stamp issued in this day, less than two year after the country recovered nominal independence. That date marked the anniversary of the national reuni-fication (Hung-Quoc Khanh-niem) decree by Emperor Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty .
(The design two types, the low nominal value the emperor building and the high nominal the picture of emperor Bo Dai, this stamps rare mint without hing very find condition , 15 pi red brown and 30 pi blue green, -auth)
7) -12) not yet information.
h.1952-FEDERATION OF INDOCHINE OR ETAT DU VIETNAM, AS INDEPENEDENT COUNTRY UNDER FRANCH BEGUN.
1) January 1952
(1)The federation of Indochine consist Republic Vietnam (Annam ,Tonkin ,Cochin China), the Kingdom of Cambodge and Laos.
The Independence country under the Union of France since 1950.
(2) In 1952 ,
Some of the people want the full free country and they fight against French and their area called “Viet Minh” or Indochine Ho Chi Minh.
(3) South Vietnam Flag (OP)
(4) National anthem of Viet Nam (Quoc Ca Vietnam (OP)
(5) Vintage Saigon Map & District(Do-Thanh Saigon & Bang Chi Cac Congso) (OP)
(5)In 1952, when Nguyen Van Tam took over as Bao Dai’s prime minister, he formed a cabinet described by the US consul in Hanoi as composed of “opportunist, nonentities, extreme reactionaries, assassins, hirelings and , finally , men of faded mental powers,”
(6)The minister of youth and sports, Vo Hong Khanh, had been responsible for the murder by garrting of no fewer than ten frenchmen some year earlier. Not only would the cabinet serve the vietminh as anindirect “propaganda tool”, the consul concluded , but it was :
“ a poor return for French blood and American money (ibis stenly Karnow ,p-195)
(1) February,11th 1952
(a)The latest used of Indochine Francaise Timbre Taxes revenue.
Indochine farncaise timbre fiscal revenue, 5 piastres + 4 Piastres used one Hand written “Zuoc gia Vietnam Cho Chia Dat land transaction , the handdrawed map roeu Hin Tri road , R.100.00 Mai v nhan, R 130.00 Phan Mai ran Louis, R 180.00 Phan Mai lung Chau, 226.00 Phan thai nan Nham, 180.00 Phan Hai thi Kiet.
Signed Thai van Nham, Thai San Kie, Mai thi Kiet , Ruong quae Phu, Phan v.Kiem and Chau v,Ruo’ng, fingerprint signed by Dau lang Say ngoui dung Chia dat vu nau ho cac cu con nho moi and Tran thi khuyen Kiu Gu La’ng Nay.
This certificate on double folio writting paper, in the last page
Chung toi La Ban quan tri Lang Than Choi Chung
Mai oan Nhan, Mai thi Kiet. Quang quoc Phu Mai ton Luc va Tran thi Khuyuh Ken la Tu dten co Ky te’n va Lang tay truoc
Mat chung toi May nguoi nay dtung lap giao Keo co Khai
Voi chung toi rang hien ro to tren dtay va ung nhan Y theo
Loi giao Ket trong to Va chung them co 2 nguoi toc nhon la
Phan van Kiem, Chau van Ruong co Ky ten truoc mat chung
Toi va Khai rang su chia dtat dtay vo va con cua Mai
Van Thoi ung thuan nhan.
Thanh thoi ngay 11.2.1952
Thuong than Xa truong Thuong hao
Hand signed Handsigned Handsigned
Violet squered stamped
: NAM-VIET :
: TINH BENTRE :
: TONG-MINH HUE :
: LANG THANH-THOI :
Hand written 0,6 % = 162 ‘
Pho beud Naud 11% = 495 > 837 $
Thue de chung ui dau 4% = 180 ‘
Red squaered stamped.
Dong Bang Phan Tai Myto
Ngay Thoi ba Shanghai 1952
Thue : Thau tran ba moi bay dtong bac ,180$
Signed &Red circle stamped :Binh Nam Tha Xuong Mytho. …….not clear…..
(Four same document with same revenue , interseting collection-auth)
(b)The earliest Etat du Vietnam Timbre Fiscal revenue
The same document with (a) but red-green 2×3 Piastres, Etat du Vietnam Timbrefiscal revenue, but signed only by three Dau Ky len cua Ky Lao , Lam thai Lang Banh Thoi ngay 8.2.1952. and the authetication :
Chung toi Ban quan tri lang thanh thoi chung
Ong Phan van Kiem-Chau van ruong ho dau
Sach dteu co thy ten truoc mat chung toi ba
Ong Ky Lao Nay la ban than cua gia toc cua
Ngai van Thoi dtung lap to tong chi tren dtay
Hanh thoi ngay 11.2.1952
Houng than Xa truong Huong hao
Signed Signed Signen
Squered black stamped
( This collections very rare and best to showed, because four same document with Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue 5 + 4 piastres and one Document with Etat du vietnam Timbre fiscal 2 x 3 piastres. The latest and the earliest revenue at the same date february,11th 1952 and with same authentication, will be the historic fact abbout the transition between Indochine Francaises and the unoin France state Vietnam(etat du vietnam), please comment – auth)
3)-7) not yet information
The common Empress Nam Phuong multicolour stamps were issued in this day.(I found this stamps in Indonesia-auth)
The Receipt of Police D’Abonne-ment A L’eau Portable, Service technique at Saigon, with Indochine Franchaise Timbre Fiscal revenue 5 Piastres. Stamped Prefecture De Saigon Cholon ,Etat Du Vietnam –Suid Vietnam ,signe 19 Aout 1952.
not yet info
10) October 1952
Indochine 40 cent revenue sheet used added Indochine Francaise 10 cent timbre fiscal and Saigon Cholon taxes Regionales 10$00 –brown –old chinese style building(the cholon market?) , the revenue sheet used as“To ban nha” (contract?) between Nguyen van Thoai ,carte de service (Car services) n so 4121 ngay 1-8-1950 with Pham Thi Dieuw “Laisser-passer” so 2108 ngay 8.3.1949 tai ho 4 Saigon. (The very rare revenue history collection because in one sheet were found three types revenue, Indochina lettter sheet revenue, & revunue timbrefiscal and Taxes Regional Saigon Cholon revenue. Auth)
11) November 1952
(1) November ,9th 1952
Original vintage private photo, three native vietnamese lady at the bulding near the beach, back handwritten Nha’ Beach , 9-11-52.
(maybe Nha Thrang ?-auth)
12) December 1952
(1) December.12th 1952
Vintage Photo” A man rode a Mobilete“ in the Saigon road, always seen an antique car. Behind the photo “ Sur Mobylete de Luxe te sou du 5/12/52 a’la rue Cabina
( Unique vintage picture of vintage mobylete with written motorbike type information ,date and location, biside that The same antique car now put in the left front near entrace of the Ho Chi Min city Museum, during my last visit in July, 2009 I made my own photo in the front of that antique card help the museum guard, look at that photo -auth )
(2) By 1952,
according to a secret US report, Bao Dai was recieving an official stipend of more that $4 million a year.
He was not a big spender- his four private airplanes were his majr expense, and his wife and children lived in relative modesty on the Cote d’Azur,
while his own residence in Dalat was no more Lavish than a house in an affluent New York suburb
( I had seen in internet auction the photo of Bao Dai House when he get out of the car and went in the house-auth).
But he was transferring enormous sums to French and Swiss banks and investing extravagantly in real estate in French and Marocco ( I have a letter send from Marocco to Saigon, may be many Rich Vietna-mese stayed at Marocco-auth)
The annual payment consumed 5 % of the Regime’s total revenue- four times more than the appropriation for land reform program.
Even so, Bao dai was chronically strapped for funds, and he relied heavily on Bay Vien, the boss of the Binh Xuyen gang, to supplement his finaces handsomely.
He put Bay Vien in charge of Saigon’s casino, bordellos, opium dens, gold smuggling and other rackets, and even promoted him to rank of General.
Soon the French sanctioned Bay Vien’s respectability by emplying him hoodlums against the Vietminh and other nationalist.
The corruption became institutionalizes , making a farce of earnest American hopes for a credible Vietnamese administration that would check the Communist, indeed , the French and Bao dai seemed at that stage to have His reached a tacit understanding : he played the puppet and they indulged his pleasures.
His inner circle at one point included a spectacular blond French courtesan billed as a : member of the Imperial film unit” Once hearing her disparaged, he remarked “ She is only plying her trade. I’m the real whore”(D)
i. Bo Dai regime in 1953
1)-3) no info
5) April 1953
(1) 1st April 1953
Binh Chung Phao Cao Xa, don vi anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng, Vu Trang Nhan Dan
(please tranlate the document-auth)(D)
6) May 1953
(2) May.2nd 1953
The Receipt of electricity “Campagne des Eaux et D’electricite de L’Indochine 52$00, revenue Etat du Viet-nam 30 cent.
(The French electricity compagny still have powered-auth)
5) April no info
6) May 1953
(1)May 12th 1953
The latest used Etat du Vietnam 30 cent revenue on The Franch “Compagne des Eaux et D’ellectricity De L’Indochine “ electric recieved 600 $ for instalation (puissance du compteur a instalaller)
Because the same electric recieve in November 1953 the revenue change with Etat du Vietnam Quoc gia –auth)
The Receipt of Maison WINH-LOI No 6 rue Minh Mang Dalat, frm Tran Thi Dao for paid 570&00 , used 2 x 20 cent Etat du Vietnam quoc-Gia revenue . (Rare earliest used new second type revenue at Dalat-auth)
The Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina had prepared the map, described graphically the actualposition of the French in this month, a position that was to worsen rapidly during the course of the next twelve monts (look at the map , ibid Kahin)
(1) Mid 1953
By mid 1953, Most of Annam was solidly under Vietminh, as were the nothern district of Cochin China almost as far as South as Saigon Itself, with the Camau pennisula as well as much of the Mekong delta administered by the Vietminh.
The map prepared by teh Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina, General Henri Navarre, described graphically the actual position of the French in May of 1953
7) -8) no info
9) September 1953
(1) Navarre Plan
France,with strong American encouragement , essayed one final and disastrous effort to recoup her military defeats and achieve a position of strength from which to negotiate with the Vietminh.
This Last major military bid, termed the “Navarre Plan”was undertaken at atime when Franch were able to draw on a total of 517.000 men of these ,369.000 were Indochinese , for the most part Vietnamese ; 48.000 were soldiers from the French’s North African colonies; 20.000 were members of French Foreign Legion , and Total of 80,000 were French.
(from the Kahin’s information, we could found the postal history from every kind of Soldiers who send the letters to their family , Vietnamese in saigon, French North Colonies, and to French at this time, I hope someone comment and report that Postal history that I have never found until this day, only one from Marocco but at the Vietnam Liberation war-auth)
10) no info
11) November 1953
(1) November 6th 1953
The Indochine electricity receipt form still , but in Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia 20 cent revenue.(RH)
( the French electricity compagny changed to Vietnam electricity compagny – the French stated to loss the power, two revenue collection of the reciept of elevtricity paid fro Mai and November will be best for showed because this transition period from Etat du vietnam france Union , to Etat du Vietanm quoc gia, please comment the exact date the transition between the two date – auth)
1) January 1954
2)-3) no info
4) April 1950
(1) April,6th 1954
The U.S. announced that its aids to Indochina for the subsequent fiscal year would run to $ 1.33 billion .This equalled one-third of the entire American foreignaid program and was far its largeres single component.
Of this amount $800 million was “ allocated through France” for “ direct support” of French Union forces fighting in the Indochina theater, $ 300 million was for economic and tech-nical assistance” (IMNAHA report postal history postal cover from the Technical assistance-auth)
In comparison , this totaled more than eleven time the entire United States economic –aid program budgeted that year for India (ibid Kahin)
(1)Bao Dai select Ngo Dinh Diem as prime minister
5) May 1954
(1) May, 10.1954.
The rare postally cover from V0.v.Luat Elive TC BE 724 Fao (M) , with Marocco stamps 15 F “ Barrage de Bine of OUDANE CDS Le Noi ELLE Du 8 FES, 10Mai 1954. to Nguyen Thi Ham Ecole Vo Thanh Phu Nhuon, Sud Vietnam, int the bach destination postal stamped SAIGON R.P.-VIETNAM 13-5-1954 . Handwritten “Geleco communication”
(many vietnamese have the villa in the French colony like algeria , and also near that country Marocco-auth)
6) June 1954
Diem returned to Vietnam as prime minister, he was met at Saigon airport by only a handful of enthusiasts, mosy of them Catholics like himself. Though a veteran nationalist, he was a virtually unknown figure (P)
(2) June,15th 1954
The crown prince Bao Long with native vietnamese ware’s stamps were issued, the rare stamps the high nominal value 50 &100 piastres in mint condition or used condition.
(I have found the mint without hings at Hoat Kiem Hanoi during visit 2007, and the used low nominal value found in used condition in Indonesia.-auth)
(3) June,30th 1954
The Etat Du Vietnam “Sursis Exeptionnel” card of Air-Vietnam used during Vietnam Cong Hoa this day with the change of Exceptionel to Professionel
ETAT DU VIET-NAM
__________ SURSIS PROFESSIONNEL
Valable du 1er/7/1954 au 1er/Ier/1955 ______________
REFERENCE : Arrete No.600-VP/QP du 15 Mai 1954 et Decision
de la Commission Centrale des Sursis du 19 juin 1954
Nom et Prenoms du beneficiance : NGUYEN HUU TAM
Date et lieu de naissance : 21-2-1925 a’Cantho
Emploi occupe : Comptable
Designation du service employeur : AIR_VIETNAM
Saigon, le 30 Juin 1954
Le Directeur general des servive de Police
.et de Surete National du Vietnam
Le Chef du Tu Hoan
Red double circle Stamped Violet circle stamped
“QUOC PUONG *NHA NHAN-VIEN “ MYRE VILLERS SAIGON.
HAM BAC VIETNAM HANG-KHONG
( The rare “Air Vietnam “ cursus/training ID card , best for thematic of air-pilot-auth)
(1) Diem returns to Saigon
(2)General J.Lawton Collins, Eisen-hower’s special envoy . arrives in Saigon to affirm American Support for Diem, including USD 100 millions in aid. Hundred of thousand Refugees flee from the North to the South with help of US Navy.(Some collections from the refugees have found in South Vietnam like pasport,ID Card , Diploma etc-auth)(D)
(3) In a house in Indochine where the enemies skull were collected for up the famnily power (P)
(4) The Indochine’s student study in Al Azhar University with the albain and Syrian ‘s student(P)
8)-9) no info
10) October 1954
THE “QUITANCE DE LOYER” paying ’s Receipt 12834$ for August 1954,with 1 piastre and 40 cents revenue Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia
(the rare 1 piastres Quoc-Gia of Etat du Vietnam revenue on Medicine transaction’s receipt ?-auth)
(2) Nearly a million a large preportion of them Catholic, fleeing from Nothern Vietnam in late 1954 as the Vietminh prepared their take over. In many instances,as here, the evacuation was handled by the US Navy
(I have found Chinese consulat’s Haiphong north Vietnam passport in HCM city, belong to the Chinese ‘s North Vietnam refugee to Cholon-Saigon, from Chinese overseas(Hoa Kiao) harbor Haiphong in the north flea to Hoa Kiao harbor Cholon Saigon in the South, I will write special book about them in the next times-auth (P)
(3) Not long after his return to Vietnam as prime minister, Ngo Dinh Diem organized a referendum to oust Bao Dai. Diem recieved almost all the votes, and the Bo Dai picture put down in court’s meeting room (P)
(4) Diem consolidated his power by defeating the Binh Xuyen, a private gang supporeted by the French’s forces clashed with the Binh Xuyen in the street of Saigon, devasting the city(P)
(5) October ,19th 1954
Original vintage photo, chinese women with vietnamese gown , seated at the rock near beach, in the back handwritten
“nKy ara’n o’ ca’p gnya 19-10-54
(Li van vi).
11) November 1954
(1) November,11th 1954
Original small clear Vintage photo of two vietnamese soldier in the ront of statue, in the back handwritten :
“Than Tang Chi em anh, nay dte ky niem dtoi song cui bap cua em, Thang ben.Kia La Nec Toi. Nimy Le 20/11/54.
12) December 1954
4.2.3.Republic Of Vietnam(Vietnam Cong Hoa )1955-1975
a. the transition Bo Dai-Diem regime in 1955
(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army
(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan, in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)
(2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945, were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.
Not yet info
3) March 1955
After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.
(2) Ngo Dinh diem stamps were issue in this year but the date not known, the rare stamps were the hign nominal in mint condition 35 pi and 100 pi ( I have found the common used stamps in Indonesia-auth)
(4) April 1955
(a) April 1955
Diem crush Binh Xuan sect. The period end of French forces and their auxillaries to deployed South and for Vietminh troops to regroup the north,
(5) May & (6) June 1955
(7) July 1955
The man of action formally extend-ed Phillipine recognation in a diplo-matic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col .Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969)
The late used Etat du Vietnam thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60.
Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States
(d) July,20th 1955
The mythology turtle (read at the Ancient Vietnam war-auth) stamped issued ( uncommen in mint condition., I have only the used one found in Indonesia-auth)
(e) July 22th 1955
Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem
He proceeded to prove the following contentions :
(*)”That South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”
(**) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese nto support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriedly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”
(***)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and com-munism is to indulge in fiction.
True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more profitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dan-gerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnam-ese people.
In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.
Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnamese people”
Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’
(8)August & (9) September 1955
(10) October 1955,
(a) October 11th 1955
The refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day, the rare mint high nominal value stamps 55 pi and 100 pi.
The last day of Bo Dai regime
7) Republic Vietnam Cong Hoa (South Vietnam) 1955-1975.
b.The first year Diem Regime-1955
(A) Ngo Dinh Regime (1955-1963)
( October 23th 1955- 1963)
(1) October 1955
(a)23th October 1955
Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum and Bo dai official was through down to the floor. (P)
(b) October,26th 1955
(1.1)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.
(1.2) Magsasay (Phillipine president ‘s recognation of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime the opposition Recto attack on his recognations which according to him had been done in obedience to American dictates.
(c) October,29th 1955
Three days after his attack on Magsaysay for the recognition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime,
Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.
(2) November 1955
(a) Novermber,23th 1955
The information about Magsasay recieved Campaind fund from America had appeared in the today issue of Time Magazine.
Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.
(The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information
The Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also another type ship like High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505. auth)
(b)Ca Ve Cu Booklet
The small Booklet ’s Covers with red Photo illustration
“Ca Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955” and in the back propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)
In This cover, handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac”
Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.
Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.
La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.
Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.
Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.
Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.
Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.
Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu chung toi cho khoi chet chim, thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.
Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.
Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD)
Diem’s South Vietnam in1956
1) January 1956
(1)in 1955 and 1956, thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North. The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.
(2)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)
2)-4) no info
5) May 1956
The very rare Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956. (the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where location ? please comment-auth)
(2)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.
6) -7) no info
(1) August 6th 1956
The common overprint “Chaou Tu Bu Dien” or Gouverment Post Office building” stamps were issued ( I found this stamps in Indonesia).
9) September no info
10) October 1956
(1) Children stamps were issued , the rare was the violet 35 pi in mint condition ( I found the used one in Indonesia , and the mint 75 cent in Ho Chi Minh city-auth)
(5) 5th October 1956
Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN (OD)
(6) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.