CHAPTER I HISTORIC BACKGROUND
2.1.THE YUAN DYNASTY
2.1.1 .The effect of Racialism to The Han and Southern people *1)
a. They Became the lowest classes.
b. Many Hans moving to countryside
and they work as a slave
2.1.2 The Glory of the Empire
a.The Mongol war and dissolve Sung Empire
and The Birth of the Yuan Dynasty*2 ibid *1)
b.The conquer of the World *3 ibid *1) ,*4) &*5)
c. The Mongol-Java affairs *6)
d. The Decline of the Empire *7 ibid *1)
e.The Rebellion and dissolve of Empire in 1346 *8 ibid *1)
2.1.3 The Ceramic Product Development and Official Controls *9 ibid *1)
a.The Visitors Introduced the new methode
b.The Gouverment control the ceramic product and trade.
2.1.4 The new Ceramic Product and color decoration *10 ibid *1)
a. The Used of Kaolin have made the body texture more harder.
b.The inscription”shufu” and “Taixi” to indicate of Gouvermen’s product
c.The new interest in Arab Art
d. The Jingdezhen kiln position as a center ceramic manufacture retained.
e. The Longcuan green brown mottle dan decorative method.
f. The new color glaze and decorations
1)Qingbai’s pale glaze and forbidden decorations among commoners.
According to Antonny Lin(1995)*11), the elegance of a particulary fine qingbai (lightblue monchrome) censer complement s te strenght of conceptionn of the well known pear shape vase Yuan.
By the Yuan dynasty ,the glaze has lightened somewhat and become slighttly hicker and more opaque in tecxture.
The Yuhuchunping ,pear shape vase (in Indonesia Onion Kendi), form previously more elongated,has now become rationalised with carved decorations around the side enhancing the widest part of the shape.(in the iuc Ceramic Galery, we will made a comperative study from repro photo with the original photo of artifact and restored ones, and the Dragon and phoenix carved & Molden qingpai ever only found in Mongol Istana and around The Acheh Samudra-Pasai and West Borneo Tanjung Pura Kingdomsite, Antony Linn did’t have this qngbai ‘s imperal type ceramics-see tabel 1,ills c 01-05)
2) Qinghua &Yolihong underglaze color decoration*12 ibid *11
The history of early blue-white still somewhat of a mystery, although the Yuhuchunping may be compare with the former example in the similary form. The differences is with the bright cobalt tones of the fourteenth century enliving the decorations, here employing the favourite theme of the lotusb pond.
A very rare pouring vessel , used probably for libation puposes, may be compared to an underglazed red examples painted with the another motif peculiar in the this period.
Another intriguing mysteri that has yet to be solved lies in the in the successful firing of Copper red in the Yuan , a technique which haswas to became much more fugitive and erratic in the letter Hongwu(1368-13 98) .Usually a bright stawbery pink or red , the copper-red was often produced to very brilliant effect , which enabled the Yuan potter to produce abstract, modernistic splash effect such as the one seen in another yuhunchunping. The red is here varied , darkening to deep liver colour at the center of splash.( The comperative study between C,P, Lin Collections with Indonesian collections see illustration tabel II. No.c 06-c.010
3) The black glaze
*1) He Li ; ” Chinese Ceramics The New standard guidde fro the Asian Art Museum of San Franscisco” , Thames &Hudson London ,Singapore,no years print,2005 .
The Mongols were the instigator of strict racial discrimination.They divided he people into four broad classes; at the top were the racially miced Mongols, second were other minorities Turks, Tibetan, Persian , and tke llike, and the lowest categories were the HAN Chinese and southern people. Intermeriariage between the clases was not allowed, and all key post were given to Mongols.
Many of Han removed from the cities to countryside, to work on the land under slave conditions-they could be bought and sold and exploited with impunity. A Mongol charged with having a an flogged to death faced only risk of a moderate fine similar to that imposed for killing a horse.
*2 ibid *1)
The Mongol war and dissolve The Sung Empire
*3) ibid *1) The Mongols in Southern country
*4) The Sukhothai during The Yuan Dynasty
*5) The Samurai during The Yuan Dynasty
*6) Groenevelt; Historical Notes on Indonesia and Malaya com pile from china source,WP,1880, (reprint in English) by
.The Mongol-Java affairs
*7) ibid *1)The decline of the Mongol empire
*8) ibid *1 The dissolve of the Mongol empire
Peasant revolt against the Mongols occured throughout the country from late thirteenth century , finally the rebellion led by Zhu Yuangzhang let to the dissolution of the Yuan Empire i 1346.
*9) ibid *1
Because of their racially mixed backgroud and the vast extent of their empire , the Mongols encouraged foreign contact and foreign trade. As a result many merchant visited China and foreign craftmen working in Chinese Port cities introduced new method In 1277
*11) Lin,Anthony; The C.P.Lin Collection Chinese Ceramics from Song to Qing; Vol 25 no 3 Arts Of Asia,Tuyet Nguyet,Hongkong, 1995.page 64-68.
*10. IBID *1)
The Mongols court set up Trade Affairs Bureaux at four southern coastal port to manage overseas trade, and in 1288 private overseas trade was baned, and all cargo ships and their crew made subject to goverment control . Some 70% of the profit went to the goverment and the remainder to the employees, but despite goverment control private cargo ship still managed to engage in trade.
Although the status of craftmen- mostly Chinese or Han – declined , craft work was encouraged. Official workshops were set up ad the craftmen exempted from taxaton; their position could also be inherited by thei descendants.
In 1284 there were some 10.000. of these goueverment-sponsored workshops, in addition to many other privately run businesses
*10) ibid *1
a.The Jingdezhen kiln developed a new precription for mixing clay with kaolin to produce a ceramic body with a harder texture, and united an improved body and glaze in new refined wares which captivated the court.The State Secretariat placed orders directly with Jingdezhen craftmen.
b.The resulting monumental wares were decorate in enderglaze blue and red, either on a white body or a body coated wirh white slip, before a tranparent colorless wasplied; some bore the inscriptions Shufu and Taixi ( Indicating the goverment departmen) . Many of the designs used at Jingdezhen derived from textile patterns, and were exuberant in style and motif.
c.The Jingdezhen craftmen developed a new interest in Arab art, stylized and eloborate, which gave preater scope in the decorative designs employed later ceramic , in marked contrast with the classical taste of Song
d.The promint position established by the Jingdezhen kiln during the Yuan dynasty as a center of ceramic manifacture has been retained : its wares proved very popular both in china and abroad , and remained so ever since
e.During the Yuan dynasty, then Longquan potters revived a decoratived method, originally uses by the yue and Ou kils in their early period, of embellishing green glaze with brown mottling.
The innovation technique of using mold-impressed applied motifs was a key feature of the Yuan longquan production : dragons, cloud , fishes , frits and figures were applied to th body before the ware were glazed.
Another distinguishinbg features of Yuan Longquan were was the combination of calligraphy with other motif . Auspicious phrases composed of four, six or eight characters expressing wishes for hapiness, longevity or wealth were rendered on certain wares.
f. 1)Pale blue glazed Qingbai wares were produced in Jiangxi province. During the Yuan Dynasty , the output of Jingdezhen kiln at Hutian declined.
In the early Yuan, the quantity of whitish-glazed wares , some with unglazed rim or carved decoration.,still outnumbered other productions. Examples of white glazed wares (shufu) excavated in Korea, Japan and phillipine (also Indonesia-auth.)provide thet the Jindezhen kiln began to export Yuan oficial ware in the aerly fourtent century.
The use of the imperial five-clawed dragon motif was forbidden to commoners during the Yuan;hence,not many qingbai wares bear dragon designs but the specimen decorated with four-clawed dagons were probably made at the Yuan oficial workshop.(Two examples wares in the Indonesian Unique Collection 2010, are Qingpai ewers, and celadon small bottle.-auth)
2)Middle to late Yuan wares feauturing underglazed –cobalt (“blue-and-white or qinghua ) and underglaze –copper (Youlihong) decoration made at Jingdezhen, despite advances in the study of Underglaze decoration since the 1970s,the origin of these work remain a puzzle. In 1983 , proof that the technique of underglaze painting was a third century innovation came with the discovery in Zhejiang of celadon ware with undeglaze brown decoration.Previously , it had been thought to originate the Tang dynasty at Changsha kiln .Scientific test conducted on Tang sherds from Yangzhou in the 1980s confirmed the used of cobalt blue. In 1990, the earlier used of cobalt for plychrome glazes on a jar found in Nothern Qi tomb in Taiyuan of Shanxi provice.
The low temperature firing of underglazed cobalt, first achieved successfully at Chansa in Hunan and Gongxian in Henam during Tang dynasty,developed into the high fired blue and white porcelein of the Nothern Song.
The blacked glaze Yuan wares with light brown decorations also found; ths glaze was used on vases and jar intended for interio display.
Only a few porcelein vases with underglazed red floral decoration. Are known. One such piece in the Beijing Municipal museum combines incised and painted floral decoration. Another in the shanghai museum has a motif a phoenix. Such pieces , all of them decorated in dark colors and with roughly executed painting, serve to demonstrate the inexperience of the potters who were using the underglaze –copper technique at Jingtezhe kiln in Jiangsi
b)Java’s King Affairs with Yuan Dynasty
Read in the The limited IUC book “Indonesia Unique Books Collections.*19)Groenevelt,Historical notes on Indonesia and Malaya complied from Chinese source. WP ; ,1880.
(During this time Diplomatic relation between Chinese Emperor and Majapahit Java kingdom was banned, including the ceramic trade move to Sawankhalok Siam, and Anam-Champa Kingdom, my Sukhothai and anammese ceramic found at Shipwreck area in Java Sea near Bantam and Karawang-The Diplomatic open after Cheng He expedit5ion during HungWu and Yuogle Reign, but after that Chinese emperor stop the Ceramic trade until Wan-Li reign, that is way difficult to found latest Yuan and middle Mind Ceramic in Inonesia, we called Ming Gap-ed.)
2.2 THE MING DYNASTY ( )
2.2.1 TRANSITION PERIOD * 10 Ibid *1)
a. Revolt Broke out.
b. The first Ming emperor and Capital City.
c.The Capital move to Beiping
2.2.1 EARLY MING PERIOD *11 IBID *1)
a. The important Change That Shape the whole Dynasty.
b. Prohibited Sailling and forbade foreign travel.
c.Seven Overseas Chenghe exploration*12 ibid *6)
d. The Development Ceramic Production and Trade Control.*
13 ibid *1)
a. Red Color underglaze decorations
1)The type of decorations
2)Misconception of red underglaze color
3)The examples wares.(see tabel II ill c 06-010
b. Blue Color underglaze decoration
1)The complexity of blue underglaze ceramics
2) The source of Raw material used for colors underglaze
3)Three explaination of the color material
a)South East Asia
4) Cobalt blue not only came from Persia.
5)Hung-Wu blue-and – white (low iron) different from the dynasty before(high iron)___
6)Persian cobalt blue has been atributed to Chenghe.
7) The imported blue produced deep blue with dark speck during Xuande period.
c. Interregnum or Suspension of imperial kiln.
d.Characteristic different between Xuande lack blue and Cheng Hua lightness blue color.
e. Examples Blue Underglazed Ceramic
According to C.P.Lin(1995 )*ibid 11*, Although C.P. Lin didnot regard early blue –white as highly as Ming Polychrome he neverless managed to acquired some fine examples of wares from the paramounth reigns of the early Ming Emperor Yongle (1403-1424) and Xuande(1426-1435). A very unusual metal prototype hs rich heaped and piled effect to the typical of the Yongle era.(see the comperative betwween Lin (Hongkong/China collecions), Avery Brundage (Westren/USA collections) and Indonesian collections original and repro-artifact ceramic in the next chapter-ed)
In the reighn of Emperor Chen Hua (1465-1487) , imperial ceramic reached a peak that was not to be surpassed except possibly in the eighteeth century. In particular the rich,waxy glaze served as an admirable canvas under which blue and white design were executed to sutle effect with a soft , silvery sheen and the striding is painted with greet freedom.
Cheng Hua blue-white was much copied in the eighteenth century from the Yongzheng period , is a faithful cophy of the Chenghua Original, down to the comparable soft tonesof the cobalt although the painting is not as spontaneous.(see the comparative study at Table IV ill c 016-c 020)
Generally , blue and white deteriorated in the later Ming period . But Occasionally there were examples of good quality and vibrant design which were an innovation .( the comparative study see tabel V ill c 021- c025
• 10 ibid *1)
a.In the fourteenth century, as a result of floods, famine , and the general corruption and exactious of the oppressive Mongol regime peasant revolt broke out all over rural China.
b.One of these was led by Zhu Yuanzhang, from Anhui , and by 1368 he had almost completed his conquest of China and had declared himself the first Ming emperor, establishing his capital in Nanjing.
c.In 1421, the capital was moved to Beiping(Beijing) , a location better suited to repelling military threats from the north. Three hundred thaousend me worked on the cnsttruction od an enormous new compound for imperial palace of forbidden city, now known as the Palace Museum.
( The artwork of the palace very unique and interesting , as what I seen in August 2008 , just after the succesful Olympic Games in Beijing, read the story n my next Book” Unique Collectiona found during travelling around Asia”–Auth.)
*11 ibid 1*)
a.Important changes shapes the history of the whole dynasty, during which the goverment became more centralized , retrictive, and secretive than ever before.
Three office –th Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Army and the M inistry of Public Works- was established o control the lives of the people who constituted three social groups respectively the peasants, soldiers, and craftmen.
To facilitate tax collection and control , every family was recorded in registers. The law were reformed and codified in a single assemblage of 460 simplified individual enactments. Cruel Yuan-era laws relating to slavery were abolished, the number of slaves permitted being limited to twenty per family.
b.Time after time the emperors issues decrees prohibiting merchant ship from sailing beyond coastal waters and forbade foreign travel.
c.Overseas exploration was first sanctioned by the adventurous Emperor Yongle, who sent Zheng He (Cheng Ho or Sampo-auth) , a naval commander , on seven missions between 1405 and 1431 departing from Suzhou.
This extensive overseas missions extended the power and prestige of china far beyond her bounderier.
*12 ibid 6
The Cheng he exploration to Indonesia in the first expedition
(The complete story Zheng He exploration in my next book”Travel’s Unique Collections” .Unique collections found during travelling around Indonesia- especially about the fraendly mission to the Indonesian King after more than 100 years prohibited related to Raden Wijaya the Mojopahit Kingdom’s founder affairs .ed).
*13 ibid 1*)
a. Early MING Ceramic
1)The first Ming emperor, Zhu Yuangzhang , admired the color red. The Chinese character of which-hong- was a homonym for the first character of his reign name, as wel as as a synonim of his family name. He favored red-colored artifacts as the presence of ceramic wares decorated with five-clawed dragon in overglazed copper found at his palace ( see the illustration of the cup’s fragment found in Banten Java with same decoration ill no… ) and underglaze-red material discovered at the official kiln confirm.
2)A widespread misconception in the west suggest that the emergence of underglaze –red decoration was due to the difficulty of obtaining cobalt , and that this forced the potters of Jingdezhen to use copper as aa substitute but this theory disregards the known history of the development of the use of copper,already confidently controlled by potters in the eleventh century, and that of underglaze decoration , which can be traced back as far as the third century AD.
3)Four underglaze-red wares including three dating in the reign of Hongwu reveal through their artistic style and crafmanship the indirect inheritance of Yuan prototype such as the cup-stand and vases shape.
In the first three examples the color is still grayish red due to the difficulty of controlling copper oxides, and the decoration still consist of floral scrolls of the Yuan styles(See the illustration of a restored vase sherd with the same color & decoration found in east Java.ill no…), however ,the fourth piece , made during the Xuande period , is proof that after sixty years experimentation craftmen finally attained a brilliant shade of underglaze red
(See the illusration of a restored vase sherd with same type of decoration found in West Kalimantan , may be Chenghe bring in his last trip during Xuande dynasty ill no…., I made wrong theory about the Yuan ‘s Copper-red underglaze in the chapter before , may be some one will give me the clear inpretation Yuan or Xuande wares may be Mr He Li ? because Mr Lam from Hongkong didn’t answers Archeolog Mr MacKinnons’s letters about this findings and another findings Five clawns Xuande blue-and-white decoration found at Indragiri Rivers Riau during the Bridge building across that river , because Xuande Wares more difficult to found in Indonesia except as a Emperor given to Indonesia Sultanes bring by Chenghe-ed)
b.Ming Underglazed blue-white Ceramic
1)The complexity of Ming underglaze blue-white wares , with regard to their shape and motifs, their blue color , and their kiln sites (will be illustrated by a variety of pieces’s fragments in this book-ed)
2)Two contravesial topics are the source of the raw material used for Ming underglaze cobalt decoration and the derivation od the term Sunima were used in reference to cobalt in a Cinese text of 1582.
3)In the second half of the twenteeth century three explanations have been proposed :
a) That the term referred to a mixed material that came from Southeast Asia, to cobalt glass ( a translation of the English word “smalt”)
b) To material mine near Kashan in Iran(Persia that times-auth). c)The last of these, based on the documentary work of Liu Xinyuan, traces the word t term “Sulaimani”another name for cobalt used among craftmen in the village of Kuamusa in Kashan.
4)Although the use of cobalt from Persia in Ming undergalze-blue wares has so far been overhelmingly accepted in the West, the fact is that cobalt ingridients used during Ming did not come from Persian mines alone.
5)Result of scientific test have proved that during the reign of Hongwu , the majority of Jingdezhen blue-and-white wares was decorated with cobalt having a high –manganese , low iron content (see the illustration of Hongwu plates), different in
composition from the high-manganese.high –iron Persian Cobalt previously used ( See illustration of Persian –blue plates’s fragment found at Banten)
6)The renewe importation of Persian cobalt has been attributed to Zhenghe, who not only brought a vast quantity of ceramic wares out of China but returned with precious commodities such as spices, medicines , and Persian cobalt ( Reed the next books “Travel’s Unique Collections about Cenghe missions-auth)
7)The imported cobalt produced a deep blue with dark specks caused by excess cobalt, as seen in the group of wares from Yongle-Xuande period. (See the illustrated of Persian-blue color decorations small bowl,plate and fragment were found in Sumatra,East Java and West Kalimantan -ed).
During this period the use of imported cobalt was confined to official kilns; private manufactures and sometimes official kiln ,too, used native cobalt.
Chinese cobalt-blue , with less depth and brilliance, was light in tone and comparatively grayish( See the illustrated of Native-cobalt blue wares found in Sumatra , Banten and West Java, will arranged due the type of decorations- ed ).
c.The term”interregnum” has ben traditionally used to described the “suspension of imperial kilns” at Jingdezhen during three reigns following that Xuande(1436-64) (same the name of author in Indonesian language-ed).
When the ten-year-old son of Xuande was crowned, the regency was crowned, the regency enacted a rather prudent policy. The economy remained fragile as local revolt broke out across the country. Although historical tects record that in 1435, 1438 , and 1447 the court probibited the production of cermics , specially banning the private manufacture of blue-and-white and polychrome decorated wares, orders for ceremonial or award object were placed at Jingdezhen in 1436, 141 , 1444, 1459 , and 1464(Geng 1993;69-70).
Fortunetly the imperial kilns were not completely destroyed , but this perod of probition certenly led the demise of imperial marks (That is why the wares with imperial marked at this reign very difficult to find –ed)
Under these repessive conditionss private kiln somehw managed to continue operating. Surviving specimen, a few datable to the Zhengtong period and some from tombs of member of the royal family inhubei and Guangxi have provideed the important standards for satudy of ceramics produced during this “interregnum” period.
d. Four Pieces acquired by Avery Brundage and only later identified as Interregnum porcelein demostrate characteristics of the transitional period between the reigns of Xuande and Chenghua.
The blue lacks the thickness of Xuande works or the lightness of Chenghua wares (Compare the two illustration of Xuande and Chenghua wares ,see at the comperative study of Imperial china blue-white of Westren coll,china coll and indonesia coll in the next chepter-ed).
The drawing was not heavily applied as was done on pieces of Xuande era., nor do we see the delicate line work of the Chenghua period. Figurative scenes from buildings , and landscapes were typical decorative motif af the period.
2.2.2 MIDDLE MING() *14 Ibid 1*)
a.The imported cobalt still used.
*14 IBID 1*)
a.The cobalt that had been imported during the Yongle-Xuande period continued to be used in the foloowing reigns when the port wer closed to further imports.
During the reign of Chenghua(1465-87), impoted cobalt was still used to decorate most imperial wares, but not the best pieces , or “Doucai” wares, possibly because the soft elegant effect resulting from the use of chinese cobalt was created deliberately to meet the emperor’s taste. The bright imported blue was not suited to the “Doucai” style. (See The restored plate fragment of Chenghua small plate “doucai” style blue and red underglazed found in Indragiri Sumatra .ill no…..)
Chemical analysis has revealed that Chinese Chinese cobalt was created and imported Persian material were used side by side during the late fifteenth century.
Raw materials employed for the “Pitang Blue” or “Pindeng” blue of the Cenghua –Hongzhi periods were mined in Leping country near Jingdezhen, finding favor on account of the consistency of their quality and the delicate shade of blue which resulted.
(The difference in color will be seen by comparing wares decorated with import cobalt and those on which chinese material was used very important to give the ceramic value, more better not only by photographic illustration, but more better to see straight by your eyes, please contact me during your traveling around Jakarta or read the next chapter “The comperative study of imperial Ming Ceramic between Western collexctions,Hongkong collections and Indonesia collections -ed)
According to fragmentary historical record, for about one hundred years beginning in the late Fifteen century , cobalt blue material were supplied from different sources. The “Shizi blue” came from Shanggao country inJIangxi, and “Hui” blue(“Mohammadan” blue) from Yunnan , according to one un official document. or from the central asia area of Khawarism and known as “Huihui” in the official history Yuanshi(History of The Yuan Dynasty). , compiled during Ming.
Although later theory has been more widely accepted by modern researchers in the this field, it must be note that the Yuanshi.
Kashan and Kwarism were two different locations and any association they may have had with cobaolt awaits archeological confirmations.
d)The Late Ming Ceramic
The “Hui” blue which has a more purplelish tone, than that seen on work decorated with cobalt imported during the YonglepXuande era , was used from the Jiajing to the early Wan-Li period to decorated tributes wares. More often , however , hui cobalt was blended with chinese ingridient resulting in a lighter and less purple shade.
“Hui”cobalt continued to be applied in the early years of the forty eight year reign Wanli (1573-1620), From the late sixteenth century , material mined at Yongfeng and Yushan in Zhejiang began to be used at official kiln. The imported colors then ceased to feature among the late Blu-and –white wares.
The plate with divided alternate panels and flakes edge is an example of “Kraak” porcelein (In Indonesia named “Ming Card”-ed.).
Formerly it was generally agreed in the West that “Kraak” porcelain was produced at Jingdezhen almost exclusively for export, but since 1982 a vast amount of “Kraak” –type has been found at Guangchang in Jiangxi in tombs dated to period 1573 to 1645.
Chnese export are now convinced that “Kraak” ware, if not u to the standards required for export, was diverted to the domestic market, where it foun a ready sale for use as grave goods.
The question of wheter those Guangchang “Kraak” wares were made at Jingdezhen . Guangchang or elsewhere remains unanswered pending the discvery of conclusive archeological evidence.
A “Kendi” in the form of an Elephant is unusual shape. “Kendi” wares mostly exported to Southeast Asia, while three other pieces were made to order for the Japanese markets , where such wares were knwn as “Ko-sometsuke” their irregular shapes were admired in Japan.
Cmbined of undeglazed blue with overglaze enamel decration were also sometimes used in the form from three to eight or even more colors”Wucai” and joine color “doucai”.
The most startling revelation concerning doucai wares in 1985, when a bowl bearing teh Xuande reign mark came to light at a temple in Lhasa.Tibet. This find initially created a sens e of shock among archeologist. Until 1988 sherds of an imperial plate found at Jindezhen kiln site were reassembled, revealing a beautiful “Duocai” decorative moyif of a mandarin duck in a lotus pond. In the light of evidence for the existance of Xuande period recorded in Ming Text could not b associated with any known polychrome-decotrated objects of Xuande period for a long time, but it has now been established that during the Dynasty Ming “Doucai” ware was known as “Wucai”. The term “Doucai” appears to have been used in the anonymous eightteenth century “Nanyao Biji” to emphasize the polychrome apect of wares and this term is still used today to distinguish these wares from the general wucai type. With is elegant design of blue outlines filled with green , an important Ming period “Doucai pieces (see the same type doucai ‘s bowl found at Banten-ill no….)
Another important issues concerns the so-called “Swatow” ware , a misleading term coined at the time when early Ming export wares reached theWest. However, the port Swatow or Shantou in Douthern Guangdng , close to Fujian province , was not opened for overseas trade until 1858., and i not known to have produced export ceramics during the Ming.
Swatow wares is loosely defined as porcelain wares with underglaze-blue and anamel decoration and characterized by sand addhering to the bottom (see the illustraton no…) and the flacking edge of the rims.
Archeological discoveries conducted in conducted areas have confirm thatMIng export ceramic were produced in substantial quatities at more than one place in each province.
Recently recorded production sites include Ganxian in southern Jianxi,Leping in nothern Jiangxi, Raoping in eastren Guangdong, Baogo and Lufeng in Yunnan where, thanks to an ample local supply of cobalt underglaze blue was introduced in the nYuang period.
The most outstanding finds of wares with sand addhering to the bottom were made at a site in Anxi county in southern Fujian, where sand supports contributed to the maximum used of kiln space and fuel economy, but had the disadventage of leaving the bottom rough.
Hunan province in the south central region also produced underglaze-blue –and-white wares during the Ming , it is likely that Sichuan did so asa well.
Export blue-and-white ware popular throughout the world and the style was more or less directly copied in Japan, Spain, Germany, the Netherland, England and Iran ( See the copied illustration in the next chapters-ed)
Art between two period Yongle Dynasty and in 1551 during the Portuguese allowed entry to Macao , one dominated by the official imperial workshop s, the other by amateurs exeucisizing a freedom of expression which spread strongly from the Jiangsu-Zhejiang region. Their electic style and perfection of brush and ink tewchnique made an important on all art, especially painting on blue-and-white wares.
Ming craftsmen experienced a period of renewed creative inspirations, especially in the use of precious material. Exceptionally high quality materials were use at imperial workshops, where the rich and elegant imperial style was applied in all media from architecture to painting, and aven extended to the design of everyday utensils. The ceramic artist also explored new territory.
The best artisans were appointed, by force if necessery, to serve in official capacities. Born into their own group, they rwmained in it , and their position then passes to the next generations. Those residing in the capital were required to work for ten days each month in the emeror’s official workshops, those living elsewhere had to serve for three months every three years.
c) Last Ming Ceramics
In 1584 , the rule by which craftmen alternated between imperial service and private work was modified with introduction of the wage-labor system,allowing the greater flexbilty in managing their own activities.
According to Kate Hunt *16), acclaimed in 1590 to be the “best earthen matter in the world” for its “cleanesesse…beauty and stregth”, Chinese blue and white porcelains were wexported in vast quantities from the early seventeenth century.
In 1604 the Dutch capture the Santa Catarina, a Portugeuse ship, and auctioned her contents in Amsterdam. A hundred thousand pieces of chinese porcelain were offered for sale and buyers included King James I of England and the King of France. The Auction immediately created a market for blue and wite porcelain in Holland and northen Europe.
One of the earliest types of blue and white porcelein made for export market was “Kraak” ware, so named after the Portiugeuse Carracks( Armed merchant-ships). The original exported these wares to Europe in the late Ming(1368-1644) Dynasty.
The illustrates characteristic of “Kraak” ware; the decoration is divided into panels; the foot ring is gritty; the style of painting sketchy; the cobalt a greyish-blue .Shape of dishes were adapted to suit European requirement and at times their decorative schemes incorporated westren design or motif such as tulip.european landscaped or interiors.
A Dutch East India Company (VOC) record of 1635 includes first written reference to painted wooden models beeing sent from the Dutch base in Taiwan to the Jingdezhen kilns the potters to copy in porcelein.(The comperative study see Tabel VI ill c 26- c 036)
The transitional period in Chinese porcelain dates from he death of the Emperor Wanli in 1619 until the appointment on Zhang Yingxuan (from 1683-1688) as superintendent of newly reorganized Jingdezhen Imperial factories in 1683.
A particular feauture of transitional porcelein was the proliferations of narrative themes as decorative subject an a freer,more painterly,style of decorations. (Competarive study see Tabel VII ill c 031-c040)
( The Ming Dynasty ‘s history above will ansewred “The Ming Gap” the gap or rarest Chenese ceramic during period between 1431-Chenghe to The permission of 1854-Portuges come to Macau ,between Middle Ming, Xuante,ChengHua and Ceng Te emperor to late Ming-Wanli emperor to transition period
The high quality material and art of paintings during that pariod have made the ceramic sought for Global investations , not only the best condition ceramic , but also the its repros or fragments. Very lucky if the collectors and investors know the facts before He Li ‘s books appear.-ed)
The previously prosperous kilns in the north such as Jun, the Ding , and the cizhou in the Hebei-Henan area cntinued to fulfill their obligation to supply the court. In the south,m the Longquan kiln of Zhejiang, the Dehua kiln of Fujian, and the Yixing kln of Jiangsu continued to produce wares to satisfy both domestic and overseas market
(Indonesia as the transfered Port of Chinese Ceramic for local and europe Market especially after the Ducth-East India Company- VOC took over the powers in South Asia –Malacca port, Bantam-Karang Antu Port,Macassar port and Batavia-sundaklapa port.
That is way many sherd/ceramic fragments was found there, but many broken to make “Bata” Stones or loss to the sea after Krakatau eartquick 1n 1898 , The modern Road and buildings deveoplment between the years 1960 to 1990. ed)
Prducing wares in the greatest quantities and the widest variety, and serving the largest markets, the Jindezhen kiln manufactured , is equal propotions, good as tribute to the court for everyday use, and for export.
By the Ming ceramic objects were used by the court as diplomatic gift or as official rewards
( The Indonesian Kings and High society very proud to have this wares becauae it proved their status and the freand of the emperor and everybody gave them honored.-auth)
By the Ming, ceramic object were in common use among all clases of society .Most were manufactured by private workshopes,which also suplied export wares.Some wares originally intended for domestic market were eventually shiped overseas, while many with exotic decorations and forms suited to Westren taste were made specifically in response commissions from foreign merchants.
*16) Hunt,Kate; From East to West : A Taste for China, Arts Of Asia vol 28 no 6,nguyen Tuyet,Hongkong,no Year.
*17)Beek&Tettoni; “The Arts Of Thailand, revised and update edition,Periplus,Singapore,2007.page 103&119.
Sukhothai .*18 ibid *17)
Since ancient times Thailand has been a meeting for diverse culural tradition from the west, south and east.
Traditional history holds that in 13 th century the Thai were driven southh before the onslaught of the Mongols led by Kublai Khan who was bent on building an empire, judging by the number of Kingdoms and principalities which held away in the myriad valley of he Nothern hills, it is more likely tha the Mongol h merely acellerated rather thn precipated the flow.
There were two groups of kingdoms, thse in the proximity of the Mekong River and those clustered at the headwaters of the Chao Phaya River. Those in the northwest sector- Chiengsien, Chiang Rai , Chiang Mai , Phayao and to a lesser extend , Haripunchai (Lamphon) and Lampang.
History has given far more attention to the exploits of Intradit,s Second son Ramkamheang. The young king begand the grand building scheme completed by his successor which carpeted the Sukhotai plain with a wealth of beautiful architecture ad created a style of Budha image unique in the anal of history.
An inscription left by Ramkamheang says that in his reign , the borders of Sukhothai encompassed Luang Prabang on the Mekong River inpresent day Laos , lower Burma(Myanmar) ,and Malacca in Malaysia.
It is record that in 1294 and 1299 Ramkamheang sent mission yo China,.Despite these close contacts with Chinese, Sukhothai art bears no trace of China styles , nor do its Budhist images carry any of the Mahayana Budhist iconography of the Middle Kingdom, Instead it drew on the same wellsprings as its predecessor to the south Sri Lanka, India had influenced.
Sukhothai ceramics are sometimes referred to as”Sankalok” an abbreviated from Sawankhalok , whch is the old name of Sisatchanalai where most of the kilns were located . Major excavations at Ban Ko Noi on the bank of the Yom River outside the Walled city 1980-1987 , the discoveries have completely changed the perspective of the studies of Thai Ceramic and of Thai History as well.
More over in the years 1984-1985 the looting of a large number of burial sies in Tak province has flooded the antique market with a large quantitiy of pottery of superior quality In the words of an expert J.C.Shaw ,”The Tak finds established beyond doubt that Thai ceramics rak among the finest in tre world, (The Sukothai ceraimic were found many bay nelayan in west Java shore, same will be in Indonesian Unique Collections 2010-auth)
The excavations at Ban Ko Noi has uncovered over 200 kiln and enough evidence to suggest the existenxt of 800 more. According to Paleo-magnetic test , some of the kiln date back to the tenth century, na discovery which confounded the old theory that ceramics were introduced into Sukhiothai by Chinese potters in the 13t century.
It is now clear that local craftmen were reposible for a number of continuous improvement that allowes the Sukhotkai Kingdom t become the second larget exporter of ceramics in the world.(Sukhothai and Anamese ceramic took over the South East Asia ceramics market after Mongols and Middle Mings Dynasty control and stop the trade, especially Indonesia after Ming-Se and Raden Wijaya affairs as told in Groenevelt,s Antiquarian Books-aut.)
Several type of wares were produced at Ban Ko Noi the most popular are those with an underglaze panited decoration, which range from very elaborate architectural wares to simple bowls and dishes with a stylized fish.
Interesting decoration as achieved also by combining monochrome glaze with incised pattern or by forming pattern with different colourzed glazes.
The kiln outlivedtheSukhothai Kingdom as an independent entity , and were stll active well into the 16th century , when the finnaly stopped production, probably because of frequent Burmese invasion ( Sukhuthai ceramics productions stopped may be because Chinese ceramic opened trade during last Ming and early Qing and The cheapest Europe ceramic with tansfered disain get the market althouh the chese start to Massal Product disaing painted bay many artist with very low quality , was called the declining of chinese ceramic market in from XVIIcth to XXcth-Auth)