1.1. THE VALUE OF ANTIQUARIAN BOOKS
The complex innovation of Chinese and European printings are unique accomplisments in the cultural and other scientist books.
Antiquarian travel books are universally the object most sought by collectors especially engraved illustrated books before 1850*1)
As a result of many books were broken and the engravings sold off separately*2)
*1) Miller, “Miller’s Collectables Price Guides,William Clowes ltd,London,199, page 26
Travel and guide books continue to be popullar collector items. Those books printed bfore 1850 are particulary sought for their engravings .
* 2) ibid *1 page 26
This sad practise unfortunately increases the rarity of untampered wit books and hence their value.
The type and themes of that unique books most intersesting for collector s and investors because they have always made mistake value estimation and the plaque of reproductions that has recently flooded the international market
The problems above, were one of the porpuse to write this books , if the collectors knows the authentics one , the copies can-not grown.
No many English-language study of Indonesia Ethic and travelling found in Indonesia , especially the unique books before 1850 as mirror of Indonesia *3) and rare illustrated the pictures will vizualized Indonesia.*4)
*3) Nieuwenhuys;Miror of The Indies., Translated by Frans van Rosevelt ,Edited by E.M.Beekman ,Periplus Edition(HK)Ltd ,Singapore,1999.
*4) Hack&Marris ;Foreigns Painters who Visualize Indonesia,Singapore,1999.
Copies of engraved illustrations from the unique books before 1850 provoked international lawsuits.
Near the early XXth centuries many unique books repro including engraved or lithographic printings and manuscript , but the quality of papers and printing much lower than the original ones.
2.1 ANTIQURIAN BOOKS BEFORE 16th CENTURY.
2.1.1 BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME
The history of Eastren Asia, its geography and its people, before the time of European intercourse are subject on which so little is known, that the very defective narrative of the Arabian travellers of 9th century, of Marcopolo and Ibnu Batuta must be considered as works of the first import.Antiquarian Books from.Chinese ,Arabic,Indonesia and Europe Source. *5)
The history of Eastren and Southren Asia, commercial,Industrial and scientific; products of the Mineral,Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms ,useful arts and manifactre , especially about Paortugeus travelling asia by Italian (Polo),Arabic (Ibnu Batuta) and Portugeous (Vasco de Gamma,Magelhaens).*6
c.Indonesia Native Source
The history of he Mankind in Indonesia, not only the history of artwork about dancing, cloth, sclupture, ethnic and other artwork , but also all kind of humankind’s value like the artifactand image of spiritual and traditional object that have been protected as a local ,national or global heritage*7).
(Many Antique “Lontar”Leaf and Old paper’s manuscript found in Indonesia, but many still in the hand of colectors and the unknown family , that is way please contact IUC to added our informations for all local or global collectors.-ed.)
2,1.2. AFTER EUROPEAN COME BEFORE 17th CENTURY
a.Chines Sources* ibid *5)
(No Informations about this topics,please contact IUC if the Collectors had “it”.ed)
*5)Groenevelt; Historical Notes on Indonesia & Malaya compiled from Chinese Souces,1876, reprint in English by Bharata,Djakarta,1960.
*6)Balfour,Edward; “The Cyclopaedia Of India and of Eastren And Southern Asia”,In Threen Volume,English,3rd Edition ,1885.
2.2. CLASSIC BOOKS (XVIth-XXth century
The History of Dutch Colonial literatures ,a series of literary works written by the Dutch about their live in the former colony of the Dutch East Indie,*9)
*9) ibid *3)Nieuwenhuys,Rob;Mirror Of The Indiesistory o Dutch Colonial Literature,Periplus editions(HK)Ltd,1999.
2.2.1 The Classical Books before 1850 *ibid *9)
1)The 16th century
The United Netherlands was a nation of merchants, a brokerage house for nothernern Europe, and it wanted to get to the source of tropical wealth itself. Dutch navigators and traders knew the location of the fabled Indies, they were well acquainted with Portuguese achievement at sea, and counted among its member individuals who had worked for Portuguese .Philip II simply accelerated a process that was inevitable.
At first, various individual enterprises outfitted ships and sent them to the Far East in a far from luctative isplay of free enterprise. Nor was the fist arrival of the Dutch in the archipelago auspicious ,though it may have been symbolic of subsequent development .In june 1596 a Dutch fleet of four ships anchred off the coast of Java . Senseless violence and a total disregard for local customs mae the Dutch unwelcome o those shores.
2)The 17th century
During the seventeenth century the Dutch extended their influence n the archiphelago by means of superior naval strength, use armed intervention which often ruthless, by shrewd politicking and exploration of local differences.
3) The 18th century ibid *9)
Return to De Houtman’s and Van Necks voyages , their”sailings” had scouted the terrain and se the course. With incresing regularity ever larger fleets sailed for the Indies with, as Busken Huet said, the reliability of a fery services. The fact that this “ferry service” didnot always operate too smoothly is evident from the great many popular books that preferably deal in storms, hurricanes, skirmishes withnatives and the Portuguese, hunger, thirst, and sicknes.
No matter how regularly the ships went to and fro , by our standards certenly each voyage must been an ordeal. Just think of the cramped pace on board, thetension among thecrew,fight, the tereible food and drink, and especially the notorious scurvy. We do not require shipwreck on top of all that to dispel the notion that those votags were anything like a schedule ferry service .
However, apopular book without shipwreck or a detailed account of its horrors would not have been worthy of the nam, and needless to say, the number of accounts dealing with”disatrous voyage” is excedingly great. No doubt they had an attraction all their own.
Compared to the total merchant flet, the number of ships sailing annually from Dutch ports in order to trade thousands of miles away was relatively small in the seventeenth and eighteenth century . Even so, some thirty East Indiamen sailed every years.
The Batavian Society for Arts and Sciences founded in 1778, as the touchstone “by which every branch of arts and sciences can be judged”,”then the arts and sciences were in dismal straits in the beginning of the nineteenth century”
The liquidations of Dutch East Indie Company in 1795 had been subject to all kinds of political changes and under the constand threat of foreign and domestic war. For a years the Indies had been practically isolated from the mother country and left to its own devices.
4)The 19th century Before 1850*ibid 9)
For an age when poetry was considered the highest, if not the sole expression of literature, it is curious to discover how much better its prose is.Like poetry, prose was also subject to set rules, such as in the epistolary and several other genres, but it was still a great deal freer and more vital than a poetry that had generally degenerated all to o much to a level of versifying. The writing of prose had taken on a dual purpose because it could also be made to function as the speeches, writing history, and describing people, places, plants, animal, and many other things.
It was simply that the regents of the East India Company would allow themselves to be potrayed on stage as a bunch of unctous and unconscionable that incompetents and coward.In 1805 ,
When the Batavian Republic came to be headed by Rutger Jan Schimmelpennick, a propnent of political innovation in the colonies.
Napoleon required a strongman more than he needed new policies, and he directed General Daendels to go to Indies. During Deandels’s gouverment , general political uncertainty and relative impoverishmentaa had casta a pall over the European community.
People lived increasingly , as they put it, a “plantation” life, and some did in fact little more than vegetate, indeed, the European was generally lampooned as a gross, indolent character strecth out in a chair and surrounded by a number of female slaves dressing or undressing, puting him to bed or fanning him.
The English interregnum(1811-1816) introduced some cultural revival but this was largely lmited to the top layer of society. Everyone else was left out and continued to enjoy the “plantation” life.
During the reign of Raffles , extensive tracts of land had been sold, and many promises and concessions had been made. When the high Commission assumed power, it was inudated with applicants.
This should in no way detract from Lieutenant-Gouvenour Raffles’s important accomplishments. The Englishman personally took it upon himself to further social devlopment through the revival of the arts and sciences , assisted by his celebrated wife, Olivia Fancourt.
The languishing Batavian Society provided a suitable contact with the Dutch community. He renewed the society’s directorship under newrules and regulations and he saw to it that it was properly housed.He partcipated in its activities by reading a number of his own papers, by getting the Dutch involved , and by attracting lectures from England and elsewhere. For a number of Dutchmen, English rule under Raffles promised a much more tolerable existence.Raffles had stimulated and tried to upgrade life in the Capital.
However, under English rule, a revival of Dutch literary activity was hardly to be expected.It renaissance , albeit modest , only occured after Van der Capellen had replaced Raffles. Van der Capellen continued on a similar but carefully guarded course, and his punctually, restraint , and moderation set an examples , and in one of his speeches , a cntemporary informs us , he declared himself to be “ an enemy of anything even remotely licentious” Of course Van der Capellen was more than just a pious killjoy. He sought to find the causes for what dissoluteness he encountered, and as a typical product of of the Enlightment , he naturally thought they lay in te lack of proper education and training. As it happens , educations had been one of he weak pointsof English rule.
Upon the restoration of Dutch rule in 1815 ,the Commision General sent to Java was accompanied by a lage and competent staff, including one Dr C.G.C.Reinwardt, in charge of education , sciences and agriculture,
Reinwardt was a German by birth and had studied medicine in Amsterdam.He was especially interest in flora and fauna, and it was he who founded the botanical gardens in Bogor, which have long since become world renowned, and for which he is most famous.But he directed his attention first and foremost to the area of education and healt.
He was a many-sided man, and Van der Capellen supported him wholeheartedly ,Contrary to every expectation,however , and with only a few exception,these applications led nowhere .
The Commission General,which according to its liberal principles was supposedly prepared to sell gouverment land to private individuals, now found itself advisors as Muntinghe,who had also been aide to Raffles,The Commision General was dissoloved in 1819.
Dr C.L.Blume assumed Reinwardt’s duties in Medicine and the natural sciences in 1822 , and he too made frequent trips to study flora and fauna , and to became acquainted with many country and people , The fight against endemic disease as cholera and smallpox also dates back to Van der Capellen ‘s early days.Between 1800 and 1813, hardly anything wothy of the name of either literary of scientivic activity can be said to hace taken place , neither within or without the Batavian Society.
The Colonial treaty signed in London on August 13,1814, signaled the end of English interregnum ovel all colonies captured from Dutch since 1803 and Van der Capellen alone in charge as Governor-General of The Indies.He is, in fact , tthe only one to stand comparison with his English predecessor, Sit Thomas Stamford Raffles.
Van de Capellen arrived in the Indies in May 1816, he found a small Euroean community there which since the liquidation of the company(VOC) in 1795.In 1826 King William I recalled Van der Capellen .
Shortly after Van der Capellen was replaced by Commissioner-General Du Bus de Gisignies , a Belgian by birth, had a much different personality from that of Van der Capellen , and he was much more the kind of official tcarry out the directives of his king and minister. He had ordered to economize, and the king had given hi carte blanche for the time of three years in which to do so.
Du Bus saved expenses with vengeance and dratically slahed the budgets for edu-cation, the arts, and the sciencs. In 1826, Muntinghe stepped down as councilor of the Indies.
Van de Graaf, Van der Capellen’s closest assistant, left o November 2 , only suffer sipwreck on the voyage back. Dr Blume left in the same Year.
In 1830,Du Bus de Gisignies was in turn replaced by Van de Bosch.This was not just another official bu a man who,in colaboration with J.C.Baud , intorduced an entirely new agricultural policy, the so-called culture system.
On May 22,1848nVan Hoevell was elected to became the president of the club”Dr Harmonie”, he was travelling on business in Banten, Westren Java, the rumor reached him incited Batavia’s inhabitants to riot (May Movement of ’48). Van Hoevell was supposed to be one of them.
*9)ibid *3 page 21,22,31,34.35,46,47,62,64.
*10)Hacks,Leon& Maris; Lexicon of Foreign Artist who Visualized Indonesia,Singapore,1995.page273
5)The Classic Books After 1850.*11)
Franz wilhelm junghun (1809-1864) writing a social concience, he was a facintng character, aman with the power to entice and , in the ager sense, an impotant writer during gouvenur general j.j. Rochusen.
Edward Douwes Dekker(1820-1887) was an assisten resident of Lebak, part of the residency of Banten. The Capital of Lebak district was Rangkasbitung. The countryside was sparsely populated, ill suited for large platations, and for that reason it was not a part of “Culture System(Stetsel)” Toward the south it was wild, mountains, and isolated. It was generally considered to be out in the sticks.
The Resident Brest van Kempen refuses the Douwes Dekker’s proposal, and write a memorandum explaining the situation to goevenor general Duymaer van Twist and he too censures Dekker,s handling of th affair. He was asked to be dismissed, and leave s Rangkasbitung , he write a peitions and who finally write his book “Max Havelaar’. In 1859.The first edition 1300 copies had been sold out.
(Many International Sciences and Ethnic ’s Books sold in Indonesia,that time Dutch Est Indie, due to the growth of Educations ,The”Harmonie” Club.and the Kon. Batavia Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, Indonesian Prince joined the Konijkle Nederlandsche Militaire Academie, Private librarian like De Jonge Libris etc some still exist between 1970-1985 during many Indonesia library bulidings renovation , the dirty old book sold as old papers because they din’t understand the value of the antiquarian books ,read introduction–ed)
*11)ibid 3* page 24-25,69
2.3. Modern Books
2.3.1. Before WWII (1900-1941) ibid *3)
The ethical movement continued as aviable force at least through the administration of Gouvernor general Van Limburg Stirum.himself a proponent of the movement. Shortly thereafter ,the gouvernment clearly changed it policy by appointing D.Fock to the gouvernor generalship in 1921.
To be sure ,De Graaf took over from Fock in 1926, and he again was a man of strong ethical persuasion. Still, he wa unable to make much headway against the strong curent od patriotism. His improvised policies geneally foundered and he has since became a shadowy figure.
After 1931,however ,folowing the appoinment of De Jonge to the governor-generalship, goverment permanentlynabandoned ethical directives.
As early 1918 , a number of Dutch and Indonesian student got toether form an alliance that listes political Independence for Indonesia among it aims.
The contact between Netherlanders and Indonesians was at best limited to voluntary meetings and dinners of Dutch and Indonesian colleagues.Spontaneous and unprejudiced exchanges hardly ever took lace between them , centaily not if the subject werepolitics,and that was precisely what had become the prime Indonesian concern and on which everything depended-their dignity,their independece, their self-respect, and the future of their children.
They wee disappointed in the Netherlands goverment and felt cheated,The erstwhile noiypropaganda of the nationalists had fallen silent i 1936. Their leaders had been banished, Tjipto Mangunkusumo, the father of the Nationalist movement,as early as 1927; Sukarno was banished in 1934, following his arrest on August .31,1933 one week after Sukarno was transported to the island of Flores inFebruary 1934, Hatta and Sjahrira was arrested.A year later, they were banished to Upper Digul, deep in the interior of New Guinea. Hundreds of nationalists, arrested under the infamous article 153 bis were incarcerated in the concentration camp of Upper Digul, and a similar fate awaited hundreds more. It was a form of repression that sought to decaoitate the movement, break the oganization, creat uncertainty, and instill disunity and doubt.
2.3.2 During WWII(1940-1945) ibid 3*
The war in the Pacific began on December 8,1941 and was also start of the great process od decolonization in Asia.Still,literature had been curiously silent on the the subject.
With The Landing of Japanese troops , major and minor armed clashed followed, with the Duth East Indies amy ever retreating. The Armed Forces , with the exception of the Navy, surrendered in March 1942. In some place s, the resulting powervacuum made things unsafe for many Europeans, there was some looting, and people were in dangr of their lives. TheJapanese were now expectted to keep order. According to their prearranged plan, allallied military personnel was interned, and at a later stage the greater part of European civilian population as well.
Throughtout the entire Netherlands Indie,th Japanese set up camps : military camps, civilian camps, and separate camp forwomen and children.
2.3.3 After WW II (1945-1950)) ibid *3)
The Japanes surrendered on august 15,1945, and the Independence proclamation of the Indonesian Republic was announced on August 17 1945.
At that time ,hundreds of thousands of Dutch people found themselves without adequate rotection.The Allies,in this case the English, who were assigned to occupy the Netherland Indies, didnot arrive until weeks later. It was to take several months,in fact,before they could fully take over from the Japanese. The resulting power vacuum led to a wage of agression, seemingly throwing the entire country into chaos. The revolutioners exploited this situation, it stated with the so –calle “Bersiap” period,attended by numerous killings of Europeans,chinese, and Japanese, as wel as collaborating Indonesians. To many Europeanss,the “Liberations” often meant either new imprisonment or death,giving the word a bittes teste.
During the first half year,British troops were almost in sole charge of the militay situation but proved too few in number.Gradually,Dutch forces arrived on the scene.THE dutch attempt toregain power wasoppose by an army of the young Republic with its own improvise style. AS a weeker army,it chose the guerrilla method.
The situationas not the same everywhere and therewas also difference between conditions on Java iself and on other island.
To The Indonesians,the Dutch belligerents were the enemies of a newly gained political freedom, whereas o the Dutch the Indonesians represented rebels who hardly cares for the interest of the population at all.